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(PP) Work life balance

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WORK$LIFE$BALANCE:!THE#IMPACT&OF&
FAMILY&FRIENDLY(POLICIES'ON'EMPLOYEES’!
JOB#SATISFACTION)AND)TURNOVER'
INTENTION&AMONG...
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Acknowledgements!
In completing this research, I would like to take this opportunity to firstly
thank my supervisor for ...
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Abstract!
Human Resource professionals play a fundamental role in organisations,
shouldering the responsibility of coord...
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(PP) Work life balance

  1. 1. ! WORK$LIFE$BALANCE:!THE#IMPACT&OF& FAMILY&FRIENDLY(POLICIES'ON'EMPLOYEES’! JOB#SATISFACTION)AND)TURNOVER' INTENTION&AMONG%MALAYSIAN' ORGANIZATIONS*CULTURE! MOHD%FAREEZ%EZMIR%B.%MOHD%ZEN% 107040126' Masters'of'Business'Administration'in'Human'Resource' Management' November'2015' '
  2. 2. ! Acknowledgements! In completing this research, I would like to take this opportunity to firstly thank my supervisor for all the support, patience and guidance offered throughout. I would also like to extend by thanks to all the research participants who kindly agreed to participate in the study and without whose contribution; the research would not have been possible. I would also like to thank my friends for the support offered throughout the course of my studies and making my time completing this researchfrom feel as easy as possible. Last but by no means least, I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to my family for their love support and words of encouragement to get me through my studies. For this I am eternally grateful.
  3. 3. ! Abstract! Human Resource professionals play a fundamental role in organisations, shouldering the responsibility of coordinating and managing the most valuable resources an organisation has, its people. The capability and quality of which organisations are dependent on the structure of the company tend to achieve its objectives. Human resources can be both temperamental and unpredictable and therefore it is the responsibility of human resource managers and professionals to ensure that an organisation can get the most out of its resources. One of the major factors that majority of the organizations fails to apply which can limit the productivity and capability of human resources is achieving work life balance. Addressing such issue is complicated further by both the culture within an organisation as well as the overriding national culture. To this extent, this study looks to analyse and evaluate organisational work life balance in my home country, Malaysia and in particular, the ways in which human resources currently look to address issues, which emerge between employees. The research is situated in the heart of the capital city, which Kuala Lumpur, where the prevailing local culture looks to ‘avoid’ any discussion towards work life balance. The context of this investigation is oil and gas firms, on the basis of which the author conducted a series of interviews with HR professionals as well as distributed questionnaires amongst employees in order to determine the factors which currently inhibit the resolution of applying work life balance as well as to identify current areas of best practice. Through an analysis of the data, the study develops a five-stage framework in which how work life balance can be managed in a systematic and open manner and more importantly, in a way that conforms to the social norms of the research context. In order to implement the framework, the dissertation recommends an appraisal of
  4. 4. ! organisational culture and an encouragement of openness and dialogue, which is seen as fundamental to the effective resolution of implementing work life balance by HR professionals in organisations in Malaysia.
  5. 5. ! ! 1! TABLE%OF%CONTENTS% CHAPTER%1:%INTRODUCTION% 2! 1.0!BACKGROUND% 2% 1.1%STATEMENT%OF%PROBLEM% 5% 1.2%PRESEARCH%OBJECTIVES% 6% 1.3%RESEARCH%QUESTIONS% 6% 1.4%RESEARCH%OBJECTIVES%AND%EXPECTED%OUTCOMES% 7% 1.5%RELEVANCE%AND%SIGNIFICANCE%OF%RESEARCH% 7% 1.6%DISSERTATION%STRUCTURE% 8! CHAPTER%2:%LITERATURE%REVIEW% 10! 2.0 CHAPTER%OVERVIEW% 10! 2.1%FAMILY%FRIENDLY%POLICIES% 10! 2.2%TURNOVER%INTENTION% 15! 2.3%JOB%SATISFACTION% 15! 2.4%JOB%SATISFACTION%AND%TURNOVER%INTENTION% 15! 2.5%MEDITATING%EFFECT%OF%JOB%SATISFACTION% 16! 2.6%CONCEPTUAL%MODEL%OF%HYPOTHESES% 16! 2.7%CHAPTER%SUMMARY% 17! CHAPTER%3:%METHODOLOGY% 18! 3.0%CHAPTER%OVERVIEW% 18! 3.1%RESEARCH%DESIGN% 18! 3.2%RESEARCH%PHILOSOPHY% 19! 3.3%RESEARCH%APPROACH% 20! 3.4%DATA%COLLECTION% 21! 3.5%DATA%ANALYSIS% 22! 3.6%CHAPTER%SUMMARY% 24! CHAPTER%4:%FINDINGS%AND%ANALYSIS% 25! 4.0%CHAPTER%OVERVIEW% 25! 4.1%BACKGROUND%TO%RESEARCH%PARTICIPANTS% 25! 4.2%ANALYSIS%OF%INTERVIEW% 27! 4.2.1%ATTITUDE%TOWARDS%A%BALANCE%WORKING%SYSTEM% 27! 4.2.2%COMMON%SOURCES%OF%TURNOVER%INTENTIONS% 29! 4.2.3%TURNOVER%INTENTION%RESOLUTION%STRATEGIES% 32! 4.3%QUESTIONNARE%ANALYSIS% 36! 4.4%IMPLICATION%OF%FINDINGS% 39! 4.5%CHAPTER%SUMMARY% 41! CHAPTER%FIVE:%CONCLUSION% 42! 5.0%CHAPTER%OVERVIEW% 42! 5.1%REVIEW%OF%OBJECTIVES% 42! 5.2%LIMITATIONS%OF%THE%RESEARCH% 46! 5.3%AREAS%OF%FURTHER%RESEARCH% 47! 5.4%OVERALL%CONCLUSION% 47! REFERENCES% 49! APPENDIX%I:%INTERVIEW%QUESTIONS% 53! APPENDIX%II:%QUESTIONNAIRE% 54!
  6. 6. ! 2! CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.0!BACKGROUND! The organization scenario with regard to work-life balance methods, as espoused simply through numerous organizations, sits about appealing to superior job seekers as well as minimizing work-life conflict between present employees in order to enhance organizational overall performance efficiency. This overview of the article offers some proof to the claim about recruitment, but there may be also some inadequate proof to guide the idea that whether the work-life methods can boost efficiency with diminished work-life conflict. Most of the researchers suggest that the business circumstance may be different for the reason that need to be changed for the company in order to mirror the number of added tracks simply by that work-life balance methods may effect organizational efficiency, which includes to enhance sociable exchange functions, increased cost savings, improved production, as well as diminished turnover. The actual impression that these functions can be implemented, nonetheless, be moderated simply by a number of aspects, which includes national context, task degree, as well as managerial service. The benefit connected with additionally research into the results of these methods will be discussed further in this project paper. Considerable research had been carried out on do the job life balance and also member of staff fulfillment inside developed countries. Developing countries likewise has started attending on this entry to raise employee career fulfillment. The changes in operational actions alter within the culture and also notion of the staff. Organizational changes due to downsizing, mergers or purchases and also significant changes inside engineering have changed the particular do the job setups. The staffs existing are more involved in their own work compared to the last ten years. The prolonged doing work hours, do the job stress, higher strenuous work, utilization of superior engineering proved to be difficult in regards for staff to keep the balance between their own career and also working obligations. Businesses are facing increasing
  7. 7. ! ! 3! demands to raise efficiency and becoming more responsive to customers and employees. No longer is it just a matter of remuneration and promotional prospects; job seekers are increasingly making employment decisions on how well their current or potential workplace can support a balance between personal lives and paid occupation (Tanvi and Fatama 2012). Work life balance seems to be an important part of corporate social responsibility nowadays. Good employers need to recognize their obligations so that they can ensure employees are not working so hard to damage their lives outside of work or lead to health problems. In fact, there are many western countries like Australia and USA, an increasing number of family friendly policies have been adopted in organization to achieve work-life balance (Saltzstein & Ting, 2001; Strachan & Burgess, 1998). Organizations, which adopted the policies, will most benefit from reducing absenteeism and improving productivity (Clifton & Shepard, 2004). Some researches also showed that employees with assess to the policies express less intention to leave the organization and a higher commitment (Grover & Crooker, 1995). Where there is legitimate harmony in the middle of work and life, representatives have a tendency to put in their earnest attempts at work, in light of the fact that their family is glad. Most research studies have demonstrated that when there are cheerful homes, work puts naturally get to be without clash and charming spots to be. Expanding weakening rates and expanding interest for work-life offset have constrained associations to look past ordinary Human Resources mediations. Subsequently, activities, for example, adaptable working hours, option work game plans, leave arrangements and advantages in lieu of family care obligations and representative help projects have turn into a noteworthy piece of the vast majority of the organization advantage projects and pay bundles. With regard to a lot of individual, in order to perform the job makes up the actual key lifestyle of interest. Nevertheless to perform the job however, is just the key among the several passions that individuals practice throughout lifestyle. If your
  8. 8. ! 4! needs associated with operate limit the actual pursuit of different lifestyle passions, it's likely to manufacture a dilemma and also the resulting challenges in addition to strains one of many employees. Work decreases family lifestyle in addition to vice versa. Managers participate in a crucial function in surrounding the type from the difficulty in WLB. Most commonly the problem is represented jointly regarding person situation along with decision. Alternatives revolve about establishing distinct human being source (HR) insurance policies that include those with choice, to figure versatile or perhaps a lesser number of hours, to online business, and so forth. This kind of approach ignores strong institutional aids that may perform to undermine the actual intention regarding even one of the most modern WLB insurance policies. These systemic aspects incorporate function overburden along with inadequate function design and style or perhaps hefty workloads, a culture regarding long hours, damaging profession implications along with gendered function stereotypes. Different factors possess advertised this implementation associated with WLB procedures inside organizations, including the incorporation associated with females into the market place and the lifestyle associated with double-career partners having young children, staff members buying a increased quality lifestyle, troubles connected with work–family discord, the need to deal with seniors or issues associated with sexual category equality. WLB procedures usually are most demand today for their prospective importance intended for each organizations and individuals. Organizations advantage simply because may improve their particular organizational effects as a result of enhanced staff benefits, for example motivation, motivation, skill storage and lessened turnover motives. In contrast, staff members improve their particular existence pleasure and general well being and decrease their particular work–family discord. The reactions to work and family demands differ among people across countries and continents at various levels of economic development. Global competition, together with growing consumerism, rapid advances in technology and changes in the family as an institution are impinging upon and impacting the ‘time–
  9. 9. ! ! 5! money squeeze’ between family caring responsibilities and the demands of work. In most societies, it is women who are more affected by this than men. This is especially so in societies where the family work spillover is high for women and in spite of the fact that women have joined paid work in large numbers. Work life Balance (WLB) has been an issue of concern for the last few decades. The current context of globalization and the changing nature of work have provided the impetus for this topic. The current work scenario is marked by intense pressure, constant deadlines, changing demographics, fast pace of change, increased use of technology and the virtual workplace. All in all, enhancing the nature of work life remains an intense sell. Intuitively, numerous supervisors see the critical connections between the nature of work life and hierarchical execution. Yet they confront boundaries to advance. So it is important to upgrade the case for making a move to enhance the nature of occupations and workplaces. While work-life lopsidedness and employment anxiety are not new issues, they have gotten more consideration this decade than any time in recent memory before. Together, these two issues posture dangers to workers’ well being and in addition to authoritative execution. % 1.1!STATEMENT!OF!PROBLEM!! The study will be set against the backdrop of the South East Asia, more specifically, will be focus on the country of Malaysia and the comparisons between companies approach towards work life balance and family friendly policies throughout their organization. Southeast region in general have experienced some unprecedented economic growth and turnover in the past thirty years, going back to the economy crisis that Malaysia had in 1999, and also how the economy has grew immensely towards the country economic growth and development. In the 14 years of the new millennium, Southeast Asia has had some of the fastest growing economies in the world.
  10. 10. ! 6! Despite this rapid development, the research arena is fraught with gaps relating to Malaysia and the region itself, particularly as far as Human Resources and organizational behavior are concerned. These research gaps only serve to contribute further to the lack of understanding of Asia culture as far as the general public, foreign governments and scholars are concerned. In light of this, there is considerable merit to investigate and ultimately propose a framework to better address organizational conflict. The findings will not only be of use to firms in the region, but also to HR professionals within industry sectors across the globe, given that this is an area highlighted as being the most lacking in terms of work life balance resolution (Woods 2012). 1.2!PRESEARCH!OBJECTIVES! The objective of this specific research can be examine to consider the effect associated with family friendly policy in employees’ satisfaction in addition to turnover purpose. Link between this kind of research will probably be helpful for firm to determine and make a decision on the policy to work with, therefore assisting the organization to boost the productivity and efficiency in addition to retain the talents. Besides, this kind of study can also seek to expand family friendly work environment in Malaysia, subsequently to help the employee to achieve work function while maintaining the right fair of lifestyle balance and stability. !1.3!RESEARCH!QUESTIONS! ! There are two research questions that will be analyze and discussed in detail in this research, which consists the questions of: a) Whether there is a positive relationship between family friendly policies and employees job satisfaction. b) Whether there is a positive relationship between family friendly policies and employees turnover intentions.
  11. 11. ! ! 7! !1.4!RESEARCH!OBJECTIVES!AND!EXPECTED!OUTCOMES! Objectives Expected outcomes • Identify and analyse the types of policies on the relationship between family friendly policies and employees job satisfaction • To examine what are the types of policies that can be connected between family friendly policies and job satisfaction. • Determine how the policies can contribute towards organisational goals • To identify which factors of family friendly policies have more influence on achieving the company’s plans. • Determine how employee turnover intention is currently managed in order to negate its impact upon organisations. • To identify employees’ turnover intention challenges on the circumstances towards the company. • Develop a work life balance resolution framework • To find the right framework that can applied within the organizations in Malaysia. !1.5!RELEVANCE!AND!SIGNIFICANCE!OF!RESEARCH!! The proposed is research will contribute to an already existing research gap, relevant to a rapidly developing region, namely the South East Asia and focusing on the developing nation such as Malaysia itself. At present, the a research will be made towards the organizations within the country of Malaysia, on which will have the comparisons of how the private sector companies operates whether it has any differences in terms of their approach on achieving work life balance in the workplace having compare with the government sector companies throughout. Practical contributions of the research therefore include the development of guidelines to assist HR managers to better manage conflict within organizations.
  12. 12. ! 8! Furthermore, the research will also contribute to management theory both within the context of human resources as well culture. !1.6!DISSERTATION!STRUCTURE!! The study will follow a structured and sequential approach in order to address the aim and objectives highlighted in the previous section, in order to facilitate better understanding, the following section provides an overview of the purpose and content of each chapter: Chapter Two- Literature Review: The chapter will open with a brief definition of conflict, before narrowing focus to the work life balance and the companies’ objectives in order to achieve full job satisfaction namely, Malaysia. The purpose of the chapter is to equip the reader with an understanding of issues within an organizational setting, its impact as well as highlight common of family friendly policies. Chapter Three- Methodology: The third chapter of the dissertation will lay out the way in which the research will be designed, providing justification for the choices made. The research will follow an inductive approach, whilst questionnaires and interviews will be used to gather the primary data. The research will also rely on a mixed method, as qualitative and quantitative techniques will be used to elicit and analyze the primary data gathered from employees work in private and government sectors to have the knowledge on what are the approaches used by the company that leads to work life balance.
  13. 13. ! ! 9! Chapter Four-findings and analysis: The primary research findings will be provide within this chapter as the results of the interviews and questionnaires will be both reported and analyzed. Chapter Five- Discussion and Conclusions The key findings that emerge within the previous chapter will be discussed further within the context of the literature review. The key aim of the chapter is to not only identify the implications of the findings but also determine the degree to which real world practice mirrors academic theory. Upon doing so, the objectives and aims of the research will be reviewed in order to determine the extent to which they have been successfully fulfilled, before a final conclusion will be provided.
  14. 14. ! 10! CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Chapter!overview Having introduced the reader to the purpose of the study and the context under investigation, this next chapter will look to examine current knowledge and theory in the area of conflict management. The chapter will therefore open with an overview of the organizational approaches and policies, before highlighting the nature and impact of the method in the sector under investigation, namely the workplace sector. Focus will be narrowed in subsequent sections of the chapter, as common sources of policies will be highlighted before further relating this to the sector in question. The latter part of the chapter will focus on work life balance and management in within the organization in Malaysia, with reference to specific studies and models. Upon completion of the literature review, the author will be able to identify current themes and approaches to work life balance management; this information will contribute towards the formulation of the primary research and ultimately the development of the final framework. 2.1!Family!friendly!policies! Family Friendly Policies is defined as any benefits and working conditions that an organization has in place to assist an employee balance their work and life (Bardoel, Moss, Smyrnios & Tharenou, 1999). Literatures revealed family friendly policies that are in place to help employee achieve a balanced work life. It can be effective tools in promoting job satisfaction, productivity and company loyalty among employees. Also, it seemed to generate continued support within the business community (Saltzstein & Ting, 2001). Some researches showed the impact of family friendly policies on employee’s turnover intention. Employees who had access to family-friendly policies showed significantly greater organizational commitment and expressed significantly lower intention to quit their jobs (Grover & Crooker, 2005)
  15. 15. ! ! 11! Moreover, social justices predict that employees will have more positive attitudes toward organizations that are perceived as treating employees fairly (Greenberg, 2000). For instance, employees will be more committed to the organizations when they were treated with an equitable management system. As a result, the following hypothesis is tested. Hypothesis 1: Family friendly policies will be positively related to employees’ job satisfaction Hypothesis 2: Family friendly policies will be negatively related to employee’s turnover intention. In order to get a better understanding of which component of family friendly policies has shown the greatest impact on job satisfaction and turnover intention. The four main components below are tested individually. They are: a) Five day workweek, b) Flextime, c) Family leave policies and d) Employee assistance programs. a) Compressed Workweeks (Five-day work week) A new compacted work function for 1 week or 7 days can be an arrangement where by an employee performs the standard amount of hours within a couple of weeks period of time interval, but compresses individuals time in to fewer perform times and thus operating lengthier time at work. This article proposed that compress workweeks are suitable for representatives who don't have to manage approaching deal with a regular routine or there are a few representatives doing likewise work. It uncovered that association can decrease stress; worker non-appearance and turnover along these lines expand representative confidence and unwaveringness. Since there is only a few literature review about five day work week which as a new practice start implementing in Malaysia’s workplace. According to the report of Malaysia Institute of Human Resource Management, 80% of majority of Human
  16. 16. ! 12! Resources professionals in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur particularly support the implementation of five-day workweek policy in the workplace. The reason was that they trusted it would help representatives accomplish superior work-life parity. Likewise, a shorter working week is accepted to improve representatives' execution and profitability (MIHRM, 2012). Many of the employees also respond towards this approach by stating that they believed a five-day work week would help them better manage their private matters, while half of respondents said it would allow them more time with family and improve their quality of life. Thus, the following hypothesis is proposed. Hypothesis 1a: Five-day workweek will be positively related to employees’ job satisfaction. Hypothesis 2a: Five-day workweek will be negatively related to employees’ turnover intention. b) Flextime Flexible working arrangements take a number of forms. These include the flexibility in working time arrangement, the number of hours worked and with regard to place of work (Papalexandris & Kramar,1997). These days’ associations receive different sorts of strategic scheduling approaches, for example, adaptable booking system, employment sharing, low maintenance work, and teleworking and so forth in work environment. Former inquires about on strategic scheduling analyzed that non- appearance and turnover could be decreased and representatives' occupation fulfillment was enhanced when actualizing such adaptable projects. For employees, adaptable working course of action can encourage the compromise of work and family needs and permit people to adjust both obligations and consequently accomplish personal satisfaction. The advantages of adaptable work strategies were exhibited in a bank within South East Asia with enhanced client benefits and lessened turnover and truancy. Besides, Grover and Crooker (1995) also reported a negative relationship between this policy and turnover intention. In this
  17. 17. ! ! 13! manner, it is trusted that representatives are more inclined to stay in the association when they were embraced adaptability work routine. Hypothesis 1b) Flexible working schedule will be positively related to employees’ job satisfaction. Hypothesis 2b) Flexible working schedule will be negatively related to employee’s turnover intention. c) Family Leave Family leave policies allow employees to be away from the workplace for varying period of time in order to deal with family responsibilities (Bond & Wise, 2003). On the other hand, some particular arrangements for time far from work for maternity, paternity, or reception are at the caution of the superintendent in diverse associations. In Hong Kong just maternity law propels leave, different types of families leave are diverse in the middle of head honchos and bosses. Female workers are qualified for have at least 10 weeks maternity leaves if there should arise an occurrence of pregnancy. Like flextime policies specified above, family leave arrangements help representatives increase the balance to perform so as to accomplish an equalization of work life work fulfillment and lessening the goal to leave the association. Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed. Hypothesis 1c) Family leave policy will be positively related to employees’ job satisfaction. Hypothesis 2c) Family leave policy will be negatively related employee’s turnover intention
  18. 18. ! 14! d) Employee Assistance Programs Employee assistance programs (EAP) are intended to perceive the cooperation between individuals' household and working lives and to offer secret guiding to staff to address individual or different issues, including business related anxiety that may be influencing their execution (Clemmet, 1998). The way of today EAPs is not quite the same as associations to associations. The normally samples of EAPs included giving help with the regions of individual issues, relationship issues, eldercare, childcare, child rearing issues, badgering, substance misuse, occupation anxiety, adjusting work and family, monetary or legitimate and family brutality. Some EAPs suppliers are likewise ready to offer different administrations including retirement or lay-off help, and wellbeing and wellbeing advancement and wellness while others may offer guidance on long haul diseases, handicap issues, directing for emergency circumstance. In this manner, EAPs does not simply restrain on advising administrations and may incorporate life abilities projects and work out schedules. It can help representatives in overseeing push and determining individual issues too. Carolyn & Cooper (1994) reported that EAPs are an important to improve employee mental and physical well-being so that they have better performance at work and enhanced job satisfaction and reduced turnover intention. Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed. Hypothesis 1d) Employee assistance program will be positively related to employees’ job satisfaction Hypothesis 2d) Employee assistance program will be negatively related to employee’s turnover intention
  19. 19. ! ! 15! 2.2!Turnover!intention!! ! Turnover intention can be describe as the thought of quitting, the intention to search for another job elsewhere, and the intention to quit as assessed briefly in the turnover model of Mobley et al. (1978). It is accepted that representatives with high level of turnover expectation from an association will subjectively survey that they will be leaving the association sooner rather than later had investigated the relationship between different family friendly policies and turnover intention. 2.3!Job!satisfaction!! ! Job satisfaction is the overall summary evaluation a person makes regarding his/her work environment. Spector (1997) defined job satisfaction as an individual’s cognitive, affective and evaluation reactions towards his or her job. Cranny et al. (1992) additionally characterized occupation fulfillment is a mix of subjective and full of feeling responses to the differential impression of what a worker needs to get contrasted with what he or she really gets. 2.4!Job!satisfaction!and!Turnover!intention!! ! A few literary works exhibited that representatives' occupation fulfillment and workers' responsibility are indicators of turnover likewise demonstrated the nearby relationship among occupation fulfillment, hierarchical responsibility and diminished turnover, and exhibited the unmistakable impact that employment fulfillment had on the turnover expectation of building staff Ostroff (1992). Spector (1997) has also investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Therefore, the following hypothesis is tested. Hypothesis 3: Employees’ job satisfaction will be negatively related to employee’s turnover intention.
  20. 20. ! 16! 2.5!Meditating!effect!of!job!satisfaction!! ! Base on the above literatures reviews closely supported the relationship among family friendly policies, job satisfaction and turnover intention. It should be interesting to examine that the mediating effect of job satisfaction between family friendly policies and turnover intention. Therefore, the following hypothesis is proposed. Hypothesis 4: The mediating effect of job satisfaction between family friendly policies and turnover intention. 2.6!Conceptual!model!of!hypotheses!! DV IV MV Family Friendly Policies 1) Five day work week 2) Flextime 3) Family leave 4) Employee Assistance Programs Job Satisfaction Turnover Intention
  21. 21. ! ! 17! 2.7!Chapter!Summary!! ! Work life balance adopts a number of guises within an organizational context, and manifests in issues directly relating to operations or those relating to human interaction and personality. Interestingly, ever-present factors such as culture also play a role in how to get the right balance in the workplace and back home as well as how it is managed. . In fact, the WLB is a global phenomenon and influences the organizations worldwide. Contemporary research has been carried out in the Europe and UK as well as other countries, which supports its global relevance. (Gambles, 2006) included seven countries, including UK and USA, in their research on three different generations of women who showed signs of experiencing WLB challenges. The researchers suggested that difficulties men and women experience when combining paid work with other parts of life that can no longer be considered as purely personal, familial, employer-based, or even national issues, these are global in nature and attract global attention. By exploring both the interior privacy orientations and exterior privacy orientations created by these rules, we are able to explore the relationship between privacy orientations and family and work-related outcomes. From theory to reality, the concept becomes much more complex as contextual circumstances change the landscape and alter the work life dynamic. For example, previous discussions of work life balance for women typically revolved around balancing work demands with those of raising children. People regulate the permeability of their privacy boundaries in a given situation through an array of access and protection rules (Petronio, 2002). Families with moderately permeable collective privacy boundaries enact a wider range of behaviors related to privacy and disclosure, while often making conscious choices about what information they share and whom they share it with. Families who have high or low permeability orientations tend to employ more rigid patterns of behavior, favoring either high disclosure or high privacy (Serewicz & Canary, 2008). By exploring both the interior privacy orientations and exterior privacy orientations created by these rules, we are able to explore the relationship between privacy orientations and family and work-related outcome.
  22. 22. ! 18! CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.0!Chapter!Overview! ! The purpose of the following chapter is to guide the reader through the design of the research process that underpins this thesis. The chapter will firstly outline and justify the chosen research philosophy, before providing insight and justification into the data collection methods and analysis techniques that will be employed in the completion of the overall research. Prior to doing so however, the first section of the chapter will provide a brief insight into the framework that the author has selected; the chapter is therefore structured in line with the chosen framework. 3.1!Research!design! The research framework advocated by Saunders et al (2012) will inform the design of the study’s underpinning methodology. The framework in question is the 'research onion' framework; the framework itself dictates that the research paradigm, or philosophy, be the first 'layer' to be determined, with each subsequent layer superseding the next, akin to an onion – hence the framework's name. In that respect, the chosen research philosophy should be selected in line with the overall objectives of the research, to maintain a cohesive and reliable piece of research. Ultimately, the framework allows researchers to adopt a planned and structured method to academic research, allowing for a greater sense of academic integrity and validity (Saunders et al, 2012) Figure 3.1: The Research 'Onion' adopted from Saunders et al (2012) Research(Philosophies% Research( Approach% Data$collection$ method%
  23. 23. ! ! 19! 3.2!Research!philosophy!! ! Upon conducting a thorough examination and evaluation of competing philosophies within the research arena, an Interpretivist paradigm has been identified as being the most suited to the aims and objectives of the study. Interpretivism differs drastically from its more traditionalist sister philosophy, Positivism, in that is rejects the notion of hard facts and figures and instead places primary importance on more qualitative, rich data (Crotty 1998). As such, Interpretivism is best suited to this study seeing as the research revolves around the study of human behaviour and responses such as anger, confusion, misunderstanding and frustration and the impact this has on the work life balance policy by the HR professionals within the context of Malaysian organisations. Such emotions are typical of those, which arise during workplace conflicts, especially within more social contexts, such as projects (Jones and Deckro 1991). In this regard, the research will aim to develop an understanding of the issues which contribute towards the work life balance implementation within Malaysian organisations, as well as the implications of said issues. More so, the resolutions, or lack thereof, of these components by human resources professionals will be appraised and determined. The proposed research occupies itself with the observance of a social phenomenon, mainly, the factors behind, and the implications of work life balance and the resolution of said approach by HR professionals. Said issues in this research context are most commonly within groups such as projects, within a Malaysian organizational background. In that respect, Jones and Deckro (1991) claim that it is imperative to understand the make-up of groups, cultural differences and barriers, as well as the assigned roles given to individuals within professional contexts in order to fully gain an understanding of conflicts within groups, and their ultimate through the development of conflict resolution frameworks (Jones and Deckro 1991). Human resources professionals must therefore be appraised and assessed in regards to both the development and application, of said conflict resolution frameworks.
  24. 24. ! 20! In light of the above, Interpretivism as a research philosophy has been chosen in keeping with the data collection techniques and methods of analysis that the research proposes. As a major part of the research must be conducted with human participants, primarily human resources professionals in order to understand and analyse the approaches and implementation of work life balance within Malaysian organisations, without human interaction the research objectives would be impossible fulfil. Therefore it has been concluded that Interpretivism suits both the study and the research context to the greatest extent. 3.3!Research!Approach! ! With the research philosophy chosen, the Saunders et al's (2008) research onion next layer consists of a research approach. Two of the most prominent research approaches are that of qualitative and quantitative techniques (Myers 2007, Oates 2006). For the sake of this study, qualitative research suffices in the sense that qualitative data is rich in insight and understanding, unlike quantitative data that occupies itself with numbers and hard raw data materials (Willis 2007). Qualitative techniques therefore provide a detailed, deeper understanding of the research domain, with the ability to extract richer data (Myers 2007). Furthermore, Oates (2006) suggests that qualitative techniques are suited to both primary and secondary data. The current study will use both primary and secondary data collection techniques, in order to collect data from a vast array of sources. The primary sources that will be used within this study will be mainly interviewees and questionnaires. Secondary sources include online publications, journals, industry publications, core academic primers and newspapers also, as they provide contemporary insight in to the research domain. It is prudent to note that all secondary sources consulted are those that are available within the public domain.
  25. 25. ! ! 21! 3.4!Data!Collection!! ! In order to address the objectives of the study the researcher intends to engage in a mixed methods study. This will involve both qualitative and quantitative research approach resulting in the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data. Myers (2008) states that a mixed method approach allows the researcher to engage in a more detailed investigation, collecting data that can be effectively compared and contrasted. Furthermore, such an approach can lead to a more reliable investigation, as the researcher is forced into collecting and analyzing data from a number of different sources, using a number of different data collection techniques (Myers 2008). The blended strategy examination will be encouraged and bolstered through essential and auxiliary exploration. The last will be sourced from information and data accessible in the general population area and will be basically encouraged through the Internet. The creator will likewise hope to get reports, where conceivable, from the associations partaking in the essential exploration. As this information will fundamentally be in content configuration, it will require subjective investigation the points of interest of which is provided in the next section. Primary research will center upon collecting data from multinational organizations in Malaysia, which will be focusing more within the Kuala Lumpur area, a breakdown of which is provided in the next chapter. Bryman and Bell (2011) refer to the use of a mixed approach, comprising of qualitative and quantitative data, as triangulation, which they assert, provides the research with greater validity and credibility. The data collection techniques that will be used to collect the quantitative and qualitative data will be a combination of questionnaires and interviews. The former will be used to elicit data from employees within firms in Malaysia, whilst in depth interviews will be used specifically to obtain data from HR managers and professionals from the same organizations. These firms will be sourced through the researcher's contacts in his home country of Malaysia, as well as through friends, family and other acquaintances in the country as well. The reason of setting this examination in the development area has been given somewhere else in this exposition, however to condense, this is a
  26. 26. ! 22! connection in which there are various partners inside of the association all with their own particular hobbies and motivation. Such a situation is interested in misconception and struggle, particularly given the inside and outer weights, and in this manner speaks to a brilliant setting in which to investigate the issues of society upon peace promotion. The author will hope to use a snowballing procedure through which every meeting will serve as a stage for the following. This will include returning to the past interviewee where essential with a specific end goal to further investigate issues raised, and in addition giving bearing to the following arrangement of meetings. Meetings will be semi organized in nature, in this way permitting the interviewee to manage the majority of the meeting. Admissible the author will record the meetings and interpret it verbatim later, with respondents needed to sign an assent structure affirming their intentional investment in the study. ! 3.5!Data!Analysis!! ! The research will however adopt a dual pronged approach to data analysis given that in addition to interviews; a questionnaire will also be administered to employees within the organizations in question. The questionnaire will therefore be analyzed using quantitative techniques; a statistical approach will therefore be employed to analyze the data obtained from the questionnaires. Statistical software package such as SPSS will therefore be used to examine patterns and correlations that are present in the data. The dependence upon statistical analyses has therefore played a fundamental role in informing the author’s decision when developing the questionnaire. As a result, to facilitate more effective data collection, the questionnaire will wholly consist of close questions, whereby respondents will be presented with multiple-choice questions. Closed questions are therefore regarded as being the mode effective in generating workable and valid quantitative data (Dunsmuir and Willis 1992, Myers 2007). A thematic approach will be employed to analyse the interview data; thematic analyses are most suited to qualitative data, which is devoid of figures, numbers and statistics (Creswell 2012, Bryman and Bell 2011).
  27. 27. ! ! 23! Qualitative data, unlike its quantitative counterpart tends to require a greater degree of interpretation, as it is not always possible to ‘spot’ correlations and patterns due to the lack of numerical focus. A thematic approach therefore allows researchers to note common themes and pattern that emerge amongst interviewees; these themes are subsequently presented in a case study whereby each theme will be expounded further. This research expects to use the idea of information "canisters" or categories, which are gotten from the information itself, as the exploration participates in an iterative procedure of recognizing subjects and patterns from the information and allocating them to these classifications. This will permit the key issues identifying with society and struggle to rise specifically from the information gathered, as opposed to for issues to falsely surface through a more organized, controlled examination approach (Bryman and Bell 2011). The research will therefore be more data driven, with the author engaging in a simultaneous process of analysis and interpretation. In addition, the data will be analysed using principles from Grounded Theory. Grounded Theory is a research approach in which the researcher looks to let the data determine the direction of the research (Myers 2008). It varies from different methodologies in that it is does not take after an organized or successive methodology in which the scientist has a reasonable arrangement of targets, got from a hypothetical position distinguished from the writing and hopes to assess this position through the information gathered. Grounded Theory operates in reverse, allowing the 'theory' to emerge from the data itself and is therefore less structured (Myers 2008). In keeping with the snowballing interview approach stated previously, utilizing a Grounded Theory approach will involve the results and interpretation of one interview dictating the direction of the next and will continue until either the researcher has exhausted his interview options or until new relevant data cannot be generated (Myers 2008). This is referred to as the saturation point.
  28. 28. ! 24! 3.6!Chapter!Summary! ! Now that the research methodology has been established and justified, the next section will look to present the empirical findings of the research. Said findings will be presented within a case study format, which will allow the themes that arose from the interviews to be explored and analysed. In addition to the interview data the data derived from the questionnaires will also be presented within the two-part case study.
  29. 29. ! ! 25! CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 4.0!Chapter!Overview!! ! The fourth part of this study will exhibit the key discoveries that have risen up out of the essential exploration endeavors. The opening segment of the section gives a brief foundation into the examination members taking after this; the discoveries from the meetings will firstly be exhibited, by unmistakable topics that have risen as an exploration's consequence. These themes in turn mainly center on the attitudes relating to family friendly policies as well as current approaches employed by the organizations in managing and addressing work life balance. The later part of this chapter will detail the findings of the questionnaire and provide perspective to the overall research findings as the questionnaires will provide insight into employee opinions and attitudes towards conflict. ! 4.1!Background!to!research!participants! ! The interview sample was made up of a total of 6 participants, from a total of 3 companies. Prior to the data collection process, a total of 6 companies were contacted, from which only 3 agreed to take part in the study. The interviews were conducted in person and arranged at the convenience of the research participants. Each interview lasted approximately 10 minutes and both the companies and research participants have been granted anonymity due to their requests whilst personal details relating to specific locations and specific job titles have been withheld. It is once again important to note that all the companies contacted and those who agreed to take part in the study were based in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur area. Total duration of interviews conducted was therefore 30 minutes (See Appendix One for Interview questions)
  30. 30. ! 26! Whilst personal information relating to the interviewees has been withheld, the following table presents a brief summary of the interview participants containing information that was deemed permissible by the research participants. Table 4.1: A summary of the interviewed participants Participant Number Company Nationality Gender Job level 1 Company A Malaysian Male Senior Human Resource Coordinator 2 Company A Malaysian Female Supply Chain Executive 3 Company B American Female HRM Support Specialist 4 Company B Malaysian Male Business Development Associate 5 Company C German Female Training and development Executive 6 Company C Malaysian Female HR Generalist
  31. 31. ! ! 27! 4.2!Analysis!of!Interview! 4.2.1!Attitude!towards!a!balance!working!system! The first set of interview questions sought to determine the participants towards work life balance, from the responses given, a discernable divide emerged amongst the respondents. The divide was not necessarily clear initially and came to light during discussions with participants who were originated here in the Malaysia. In this respect, during engagements with interviewees 1 and 2, it emerged that work life balance was not necessarily regarded as being a pressing issue, as the interviews believed that often, employees would overcome any differences and resolve any dissatisfaction amongst themselves within the organization, in their opinion, work life balance was a minor issue and rarely required intervention. The above opinion and attitudes were not necessarily restricted to the same company, rather similar interviewees 5 and 6 exhibited views. In this respect, when prompted and asked about how they manage work life balance within the company, both these interviews suggested that it is not necessarily foremost concern for them. Statements such as further evidence relate to this: ____________________________________________________________________ “Work life balance is not really a huge problem for us, I am not saying it does not being implemented but on the whole we are very laid back and this is reflected in both our organizational and national cultures. Our company works and operates in a unique way; we don’t have very rigid rules or required employees to abide by a strict code of conduct. We have an open door policy here and I think our employees reflect our core values. In working place, when we do encounter different job requirement and over workloads, we do rely or arbitration and intervention from third parties, such is the nature of our industry” Interviewee 5
  32. 32. ! 28! This view whilst common, was not necessarily ubiquitous amongst the interviewees, interestingly, alternative opinions were provided by interviewees 3 and 4 who stated that work life balance, much to their dismay, occurred within their firms however by the time they were made aware of it, intervention was futile. When prompted, both the interviewees, who incidentally were interviewed at the same time, added that details relating to specific occurrences of work life balance commonly emerged when there are turnover intentions from the employees themselves that they felt dissatisfied and contributes towards the morale of the particular individual, which is not up to the task. Therefore, it will eventually affect his or her department performance within the organization. When prompted, it was stated that: ____________________________________________________________________ “In all honestly, we as HR professionals are often brainstorming and figuring out the best possible way to implement when it comes to work life balance. What I mean by this is that details relating to interpersonal conflict on projects or between staff members have commonly been brought to our attention once it has occurred. For example, in my last exit interview, where one of our very promising young talent sat down with me for his exit appraisal revealed that his decision to leave the company had been promoted due to a unresolved conflict with another staff member, which occurred during one of our projects. The conflict had a lasting impact on this employee who revealed that it was never actually addressed. I mean this is such as shame and we were quite disappointed that it was never really brought to our attention” Interviewee 3 __________________________________________________________________ Interviewee 4 also offered an interesting perspective as he added that when he has ‘gotten wind’ of the conflict, often there appears to be a sense of reluctance amongst employees to address this immediately. This apparent reluctance as also touched upon by interviewees 2 and 5 who state that they have a considerable amount of experience with managing human resources and they found that the employees were often uncooperative when HR professionals sought to intervene. This latter factor relating to a lack of employee cooperation and feedback when it came to
  33. 33. ! ! 29! conflict management, relating to job satisfaction was a common theme amongst Malaysian employees. Attitudes towards a balance work life system were therefore distinct in this regard as HR professionals did not necessarily regard finding the right balance as being a major issue, whilst having a more harmony and unity among the employee themselves could really played vital part on establishing a more solid unit and morale in terms of their job satisfaction. Furthermore, Malaysians employee are also likely to be indirect in their communication styles, further exasperating the management process and complicating matters for HR professionals who are not necessarily familiar with this aspect of local culture. 4.2.2!Common!sources!of!turnover!intentions! Whilst attitudes to a balance work life differed, the interviewees did acknowledge that they were aware of some common sources of turnover intentions and added that for them, interpersonal conflict between members of staff were not necessarily common, rather it was projected related conflicts that most commonly impacted the organization. Furthermore, some interviews stated that in the event that interpersonal conflict did occur, there was a possibility that the source was a disagreement relating to the working operations or the management of the company in terms what they can offer. The HR professionals however provided opinion, which clarified a number of stances taken previously and provided greater clarity into passive views taken on work life balance. In this respect, interviewee 2 stated that the company had a feedback channel in place that staffs were able to express views; this feedback channel was available on the Internet however it was seldom used. The researcher sought clarification and asked if the feedback channel allowed for anonymity to be held, however this was not the case.
  34. 34. ! 30! From the staff that had used the channel, the HR professional stated that she noticed that younger, less experienced members, to whom she referred as juniors, often displayed hesitancy in providing their opinions on operations and how they should be executed. The interviewee went on to provide clarity, stating that; ____________________________________________________________________ “In my opinion I feel that the current approach to work life balance and turnover intention is not one that is particularly healthy. From the feedback I received, it seems as though younger members are reluctant to voice their opinions out of fear offending more experienced members in the organization. I think what has happened is that in many cases, the organizational structure mirrors that of a family, whereby senior members are likely to be correct and know what is best, however with this attitude we will miss out on new solutions and innovations as ideas are important to us. For example, a younger member held back recently on providing important info as it countered what the resource manager had said. The resource managers himself is a very agreeable person and would have had no issue in hearing this feedback as we work towards what is best for our firm. Reluctance stemming from cultural practices unfortunately impact on employee interactions and contribute to tension in the organization which later contributes towards turnover intention among the employees” Interviewee 2 As far as the present research is concerned however, it emerged that the HR professionals as issues did not necessarily regard issues, which they felt contributed to or were responsible for the turnover intentions. In this respect, the interview participants were in consensus with one another in that hard conflicts would not necessarily emerge due to cultural reasons as Malaysians were more likely to let things ‘go’ rather than confront one another, particularly senior staff members on any issues or procedures that they felt were not necessarily correct. On this matter, interviewees 1,2,3,4, offered interesting insight; the participants added that despite having long standing experience in human resource management, they had encountered a considerable number of challenges during their roles within the
  35. 35. ! ! 31! organization. The participants stated that they had experienced several challenges when it came to managing and addressing turnover intentions as the result from dissatisfaction from the employees. The participants referred to instances when an employee had raised concern regarding certain procedures, only to be met with tension and silence. Interviewee 5 who added that provided further insight, which is: ____________________________________________________________________ “Some of the expats in the company are not necessarily fully aware of the cultural protocol present in the country. Malaysians value of politeness and civility very highly and have a very different approach to addressing conflict and intentions. You will not get anywhere kicking and screaming and instead learn the hard way. Malaysians enjoy conversation and negotiation and the concept of being direct or painfully blunt, is not necessarily one that is favored in this country. Expats are not often aware of this and may therefore make statements or voice discontent in a manner which offends their colleagues, however the nature of the culture means that employees are less likely to engage in discourse around disagreement” Interviewee 5 “I myself have tried to use an approach to resolving or addressing employees on their turnover intention when I have been made aware of it and found that a direct approach, such as those favored in the States and Western Europe are not necessarily appropriate here. There is a risk that even more conflict may be created as a result. I think an important lesson to learn from this is that it is integral that we has human resource professionals consider the context and environment in which our operations take place” Interviewee 3 In this respect, from the discussions with the research participants, it emerged that culture and working environment was prominent area as far are sources of were concerned. The presence of culture meant that when emerged, turnover intention was likely to be avoided and unresolved conflict contributed high levels of tension. Furthermore, it emerged that culture also influenced communication, as channels of communication were likely to be impacted due to unresolved conflict. Interestingly,
  36. 36. ! 32! the interviewees did not necessarily point to specific issues such as resource and knowledge related to the intentions. Rather culture remained the predominant issue as far as the firms operating in this country were concerned. This is very much in keeping with the likes of Qu and Cheng (2013), Liang et al (2012) and Dada (2012). More specifically, Behfar et al (2006) add that the highly projective firms as well as those who employ individuals from a wide range of backgrounds will fore mostly experience challenges relating to culture. 4.2.3!Turnover!intention!resolution!strategies!! From the literature, a number of turnover resolution strategies emerged including mediation and logrolling. When asked about resolution strategies, the participants revealed that they were aware of the available resolution strategies however these were not necessarily applicable to the context in which they operated. It was stated that for mediation to be effective, it would be necessary for the parties involved to be present and both voice their concerns and views. It emerged that the model itself was not popularized within the organization in the country and knowledge was relatively scant as far as the existence of the model was concerned. A number of participants did however state that an appropriate turnover resolution model would have to take into account the diverse and growingly multicultural work force in the organization itself. To elaborate, interviewee 3 stated that: ____________________________________________________________________ “Whilst the model such as the one you just mentioned would certainly be useful, it is necessary to note that the globalized nature of the world means that we are constantly looking to develop and grow through the input and ideas from people from all walks of life. I just feel that such as model, whilst useful, may alienate members from difference cultures” Interviewee 3
  37. 37. ! ! 33! At this stage, it is prudent to note that the author then provided the interviewee with a brief insight into the proposed model and upon doing so, the interviewee appeared to have become more accepting of the model, adding that it had ‘some potential’. More specifically, the interviewee stated that the model would have to be incorporated into company policy however certain factors would have to be emphasized across the organization in order to focus on the importance of communication. Ultimately, the interviewee felt that for issues need to be appropriately addressed, as it would be necessary for employees to be educated into turnover strategies, its impacts as well as the potential it holds to bring about positive change. This is further evidenced in statement such as: “I agree we do need an overhaul and at least a new set of guidelines to help us overcome the current difficulties that we continue to experience. Ultimately, we need to incorporate this into our organizational policy, and perhaps in the long run, organizational culture. If not, I envisage that these challenges will be compounded further if something is not done to address this as we have a growingly international body of staff, who are likely to butt heads if they are not on the same page as far as issues is concerned” Interviewee 2 ____________________________________________________________________! The interviewees did reveal that the company did have a distinct set of turnover resolution strategies relating to specific issues that were likely to occur including cost and resource conflicts as well as administrative issues. It emerged that these issues were likely to emerge during project or when the task was given out to the team and department. But however despite having a resolution policy in place, HR was seldom changed expected to resolve such issues. Reasons for this centered on the fact that there was an implicit sense of agreement within the department or team, which reflected on the task of the project manager and the project manager alone.
  38. 38. ! 34! In this respect, it emerged that often project managers would contact HR to gain a broader insight into policies and procedures as far as turnover resolution was concerned. When asked if these issues highlighted by the project manager were documented, a number of interviewees revealed that they did not necessarily officially log these events. This is further revealed in statements such as: ____________________________________________________________________ “Project managers or the supervisor are expected to deal with the minor issues that occur within the team, if the issue is with stakeholders outside the organization, we are likely to involve our legal teams for advice in order to ensure minimal disruption. I do think however that it would be useful to not only document these issues when they occur but potentially ask the manager or the supervisor to provide insight into how she or he dealt with the situation. At the moment, we focus a lot on turnover resolution but however I do feel that issues within the management requires more attention” Interviewee 4 Over half the interviewees made the distinction between turnover resolution and issues within the management. Turnover resolution according to these interviews was just as integral issues of the management in their view. Interviewee 4 in particular elaborated that whilst turnover resolution helped to minimize conflict within the organization, issues within the management was effective in bringing about change and ideas. The interviewee went on to clarify that conflict was healthy to some degree and that current policy did not necessarily address this. Instead policies focused on minimizing and resolving conflict. In keeping with this, interviewee 3 also agreed and stated that conflict management was an integral component to turnover resolution but however this thinking was yet to make its way into company policy. Both interviewees provided insight from their own departments and experience, adding that:
  39. 39. ! ! 35! “Our department does not necessarily follow a very rigid structure. In HR we all have an immense amount of appreciation and mutual respect of one another. We regard ourselves as being agreeable and understanding and having spent over 4 years working together, we are not afraid to make our views and opinions known. What I mean by this is that our department is not necessarily reflective of the organization as a whole however in my experience, hearing out differing and contrasting views and not taking these personally plays a huge part in problem solving. For example, I may decide to approach a task in a certain way, but my colleague who has prior experience of the task I am undertaking may some input my sharing his past experience, which would help me better understand the task at hand. We may butt heads at first- who knows but at the end, at least we had several options from which to choose. In an age where costs, time and quality rule and in an industry where these factors are heightened, I would say that arguments can be very positive, however the challenge lies in managing these issues for successful outcomes. ” Interviewee 4 In addition to this, interview participants 5 and 6 also stated that they felt that turnover resolutions could yield positive outcomes but however the participants stated that they felt that not all issues would be able to facilitate positive outcomes. The participants were therefore keen to highlight the fact that it was necessary to recognize or at least delineate between constructive and destructive conflict, adding that certain sources of issues could bring about positive change whereby negative arguments may impact on entire departments negatively if not addressed instantly and efficiently. It was later clarified that this meant that inter-personal issues such as those relating to personality clashes were more likely to have negative consequences.
  40. 40. ! 36! 4.3!Questionnare!Analysis!! As mentioned previously, a total of 100 usable questionnaires were collected from the 3 organisations that took part in the study. The author made use of Google Forms to developed the questionnaire and ensures successful distribution; the online survey tool was chosen due to the ease in which it facilitated the delivery of the questionnaire. A total of 100 responses were initially returned to the author however 10 of the questionnaire were deemed to be unusable due to them being incomplete, as certain questions had been skipped. The results below have been analysed using statistical software package SPSS (See Appendix Two for Questionnaire). Satisfaction working in The Company (Overall) Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Dissatisfied 6 10.0 10.0 10.0 Neutral 38 30.0 30.0 40.0 Satisfied 52 53.3 53.3 93.3 Very satisfied 4 6.7 6.7 100.0 Total 100 100.0 100.0 In order to determine whether how the employees viewed the issue of satisfaction differently, I decided to analyse whether there were any difference based on the choices from the scale of dissatisfied up to very satisfied within the data. The first test sought to determine the percentage on wether there was any link between job satisfaction and the family friendly policies relate positively extent to which their motivation was effected by the variable. As the Table 4.2 illustrates, there’s a very high response from the employee on how they felt on their company and based on the table it showed that majority of them are satisfied on what they have been offered and treated on their respective companies.
  41. 41. ! ! 37! Correlation between Family friendly policies and the morale affecting the employees Family policies Morale Effect Family Policies Pearson Correlation 1.00 .128 Sig. (2-tailed) .328 N 100 100 Morale Effect Pearson Correlation .128 1.00 Sig. (2-tailed) .328 N 100 100 Similar results were shown when determining if the Family friendly policies were ikely to indicate the extent to which morale are being affected. The results to the two above tests indicate that the policies of the company towards the employees working within the organization, or more specifically, a person working in company with an different organisational culture, is unlikely to have any significance on the way in which they view and react to the policies in an organisation. Correlation between job satisfaction and employee turnover intention Job satisfaction Turnover intention Job satisfaction Pearson Correlation 1.00 -.158 Sig. (2-tailed) .229 N 100 100 Turnover intention Pearson Correlation -.158 1.00 Sig. (2-tailed) .229 N 100 100
  42. 42. ! 38! Having established the fact that family friendly policies has no real significance, the next test sought to establish whether there is a link between how a person perceives on their job satisfactory and the extent to which he or she able to work in a conflicting environment that leads to turnover intention. Through a Pearson's Correlation it is possible to see that there is a strong link between these two factors thereby leading this analysis to conclude that people who perceive their job scope as negative are more likely to find it difficult to work when there is conflict occurs. This has implications upon their productivity if the majority of people perceive conflict to be negative which will eventually led to turnover intentions. Unfortunately for the local working culture here in Malaysia, the majority of people surveyed stated that they see job satisfactory as being a subjective thing, saying that it really depends on how the company or the management really handle and taking a good care of their employees welfare while avoiding away from turnover intentions from the employees. Thereby indicating that they will find it easier to quit when there is satisfactory on their job. In order to establish the implications of Family friendly policies job satisfaction, and thereby highlight the importance of addressing conflict by HR, the next test examined the extent to which people acted postiviely or the opposite towards to policy and the extent to which there motivation and satisfaction are effected when the needs are being fulfilled. The majority of respondents (96%) stated that they were satisfied on what they have received so far from their company. As such, there is a very strong correlation between family friendly policies and impact on job satisfaction and motivation, thereby indicating that most people aim to satisfied with the policies given and it arises when it is being fulfilled as it was a significant impact upon their motivation and job satisfactory throughout.
  43. 43. ! ! 39! Correlation between Family friendly policies and job satisfaction Family policies Job satisfaction Family policies Pearson Correlation 1.00 -.148 Sig. (2-tailed) .260 N 100 100 Job satisfaction Pearson Correlation -.148 1.00 Sig. (2-tailed) .260 N 100 100 4.4!Implication!of!Findings!! ! From the findings, it could be concluded that overall the HR professionals consulted during the primary research phase were revealed to have a somewhat ‘passive’ approach and strategy to work life balance management. More interestingly however, the lack of involvement of HR in area such this was mainly seen as the role of the supervisor or the manager. Initial research into the area of study revealed that HR professionals across the globe called for greater skills on managing work life balance management, as this was regarded as being even more of an challenge for HR professionals in the professional sector, who felt that this was an area that was considerably unbalanced and need some solid guidance to it. The findings of the present study thus echo those of global recruitment as it emerged that work life balance management was an area which HR professionals were relatively have to be selective from. The results revealed from the questionnaire, further supported this notion as a number of staff felt that work life balance was crucial to increase the levels of motivation experienced whilst an alarming number of professionals also revealed that they had at one point in their careers considered leaving their employers due to a dissatisfaction that emerged from lack of management. In addition to this, the interviews revealed that the latter was a major fear and concern amongst the professionals as often, insight into the impact as well as existence of work life balance
  44. 44. ! 40! in their organisation start to sent a wake up call to the employer to realized once employees had decided to leave the organisation. These findings in particular echo the opinion presented by the likes of Jiang et al (2013) and Liang et al (2012) who stated that conflict had a tendency to ‘spiral’ out of control if not addressed and managed effectively. Furthermore, Binder (2012) states that conflict cannot simply be ignored as within an organisational context, it has the ability to impact upon motivation and productivity as well as the overall health of an employee (Binder 2012). As a result, conflict was more likely to be ignored than addressed. Liang et al (2012) offer an interesting insight, adding that conflict is likely to be avoided in homogenous cultures, however as teams and groups become more culturally heterogeneous, the likelihood of conflict is likely to increase (Liang et al 2012). The findings provided within this chapter are highly reflective of the above assertions as it emerged that the Malaysians home to a growing number of expats, who as highlighted within the primary research are likely to counter issues in their own manner in line with their cultural framework. This in itself is likely to compound challenge within organisations in which cultural avoidance is the norm. This is aptly reflected in statements made by Liang et al (2012) who add that “social interaction among diverse individuals can lead to the emergence of new insights and effective learning that elevate team performance or add to detrimental conflict that detracts from effective performance of tasks” (Liang et al 2012:732). This further highlights the relative disenchantment between HR and the work life balance management as HR professionals in the region themselves are not homogenous in their make-up, it is interesting to note that 40% of the interview participants were non-local.
  45. 45. ! ! 41! 4.5!Chapter!Summary!! The fourth chapter of the study has sought to provide an in depth insight into the attitudes and opinions of HR professionals in the Malaysian generally on oil and gas sector. From the key themes that emerged, it can be regarded that family policies has played a key role in not only determining job satisfactory towards turnover intention, but also how these intentions are being managed and addressed. Despite this, it has come to light that work life balance can be positive however prior to identifying effective strategies, it would be necessary to bring about change to existing culture within the organization firms in question. Having provided the key themes that emerged from the research efforts, this next chapter will seek to draw the entire research to a close by outlining the limitations of the study as well as areas of further research, before doing so however, the study will seek reflect upon the initial objectives set in order to determine the extent to which they have been fulfilled successfully.
  46. 46. ! 42! CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 5.0!Chapter!Overview!! ! This chapter will outline the limitations of the present research as well as examine how the research can be furthered in future. Prior to doing so however, a brief reflection of the research objectives will be provided in order to examine the extent to which these have been achieved. 5.1!Review!of!Objectives!! ! • Identify and analyse the types of policies on the relationship between family friendly policies and employees job satisfaction: From the literature it emerged that a number of factors were likely to contribute towards conflict within organisations. These factors are covered extensively in organisational behaviour and project management related literature and can commonly be delineated into hard and soft issues. The hard issues typically relate to process and operations, and emerge as a result of different opinions on schedules, budgets, resources and more specifically, work processes. Softer issues on the other hand were directly related to humanistic issues and included knowledge of policies as well as those arising from clashes in opinion and a lack of communication or in many cases, miscommunication. More recent streams of literature revealed that culture also played a considerable role in work life balance and this was a growing phenomenon as a result of globalisation. The oil and gas sector, given its highly projectised nature is susceptible to all these issues however unlike other sectors, the nature of the sector is likely to heighten the occurrence of work life balance management. • Determine how can the policies contribute towards organisational goals: The outcome of this study shows comparative finding with different past inquires about. The whole family amicable arrangements were observed to be absolutely identified with occupation fulfillment and to be contrarily identified with
  47. 47. ! ! 43! turnover aim. The idea of "mental contracts" by Rousseau (1995) may offer a clarification of this finding. Since mental contracts allude to convictions that individual hold with respect to guarantees made, acknowledged and depended upon in the middle of themselves and another. Aside from that, Crooker and Grover (1993) additionally exhibited that giving family advantages to representatives absolutely impacts their connection to work through the typical activity. Since boss gave strategies that were receptive to representatives’ need. Workers may contribute with more noteworthy dedication to the association and better confidence in light of the offering of such family agreeable arrangements. Based upon the thought that family amicable arrangements speak to a part of the agreement in the middle of worker and business in the past writing, it is normal the view of family well-disposed approaches to be identified with occupation fulfillment. In this way, the above noteworthy relations are clarified. • Determine how employee turnover intention is currently managed in order to negate its impact upon organisations: The projectised nature of the sector means that project managers are expected to deal with internal conflict to the organisations, whilst HR follow company policy when it comes to the management of issues with external stakeholders. That said however, overall attitudes towardswork life balance emerged as being relatively passive. A number of factors contributed to the passive stance adopted, the most prominent of which related to the context. The organisations were situated in the South East Asia and influenced by the local culture, which in turn is a challege to achieve work life balance due to the mentality and mindset. In addition to high levels of avoidance, the literature review revealed that the oil and gas was charactersied by a highly culture which increased the likelihood of conflict decreased work life balance to achieve. The interview participants who added that they felt that the current organisational culture was not necessarily conducive to the effective management of culture, as this was dependent on a more open and communicative culture picked this up.
  48. 48. ! 44! • Develop a work life balance resolution framework by HR professionnals: Developing a work-life balance policy and practices is a strategic change process. There are five suggested stages of intervention: 1. 1 Undertake work-life balance assessment and needs analysis. ("Where are we now?") 2. Develop a strategic approach to work-life balance. ("Where do we want to be?") 3. Plan and implement a work-life balance plan. ("How do we get there?") 4. Evaluate the effectiveness of work-life balance initiatives. (Review of "How we got there".) 5. Review the work-life balance needs and develop strategic approach. (Review of "Where are we now?" and "Where do we want to be?").
  49. 49. ! ! 45! The model founded on the principles of the conceptual model from New Zealand State Service Comission of achieving the right approach towards work life balance. It begins with the stating phase in which the HR representative undertake and asess the grievances of each party, without judgment and without making either party feels as though they are in the right or wrong, a neutral position is thus always maintained. This is followed by the stage in which you develop the right formula and strategy on where the company want to be with a strategic approach of the framework towards work life balance whereby is acknowledged by both parties, and that both parties have played a role in facilitating the concept and idea. The next stage is the central aspect of the framework in which each party will then plan and and eventually implement the concept throughout the organization on the review of how the company tend to be as a whole in terms of the working process and productivity. However, it is usually at this stage that it is anticipated that things may get heated but HR’s role is to ensure that each part listens to the other party and ensure that there is engaged dialogue. Next stage, after the implementation is being done the company will then have to evaluate on how the framework has effected the job satisfaction from the employees. Surveys or interview can be done to receive opinions from the employees and based on this result the company can evaluate the effectiveness of the concept wether it is to be taken forward or change the strategy and approach towards work life balance. Lastly, the HR professionals from respective companies will then sit down and discuss on the process on the framework on wether it impacted the employees behavior and morale towards their working productivity. The HR personnels will also review on where they are now as the concept take place and how can they move forward from there. This is vital since the HR personnel will then make a analysis on the relating it towards the company objectives and also finding the right balance of the employees turnover intentions and welfare. The model is therefore grounded in both the findings of the literature review as well as the opinions presented by the interviewees. The foremost variable accompanying the framework however the separation of the
  50. 50. ! 46! national culture from organisational culture as this is is seen as being a major inhibitor within the region as far as the resolution and management of work life balance is concerned. ! 5.2!Limitations!of!the!research!! ! Whilst we have discussed the ways in which the research has addressed its objectives and therefore addressed its aims, it is not to say that this research is ignorant of this potential limitation. These predominantly centre on the data collection, on the basis of which the conclusions are draw. The South East Asia, and Malaysia in particular, are subject to significant investment, which in turn has resulted in a spate of oil and gas projects. The sheer volume of petroleum projects initiates, and the corresponding number of companies makes the sample size of this research look relatively small. A potential limitation of the research therefore is the extent to which generalisations can be made about the HR departments of the oil and gas firms in the sector on the basis of 6 interviews and 60 questionnaires. More specifically, it is possible to draw generalisations from a dataset originating from 3 companies? This may potentially be considered a limitation, as the survey has done just this, however it is supported insomuch that has interpretivist study in which conclusions are developed on the basis of the researcher's own understanding and insight. Nevertheless this may be considered a limitation of the study and one, which confines the conclusions to a narrow band of organisations. Another potential issue centres on language. The author’s first language is Malay, whilst so is that of a number of the research participants. The interviews where therefore conducted and transcribed in Malay and later translated into English by the author. Additional interviews of non Malaysian nationals were conducted in English, therefore the results of the interview process was two sets of transcripts, one capturing the comments of the interviews as they were expressed and the other converted into English by the author thereby leaving scope for mistranslation or misrepresentation.
  51. 51. ! ! 47! 5.3!Areas!of!further!research!! Whilst the focus of the study was on solely Malaysia, there will be space doe other countries in the South East Asia region can be examine too in order to have a larger view of working towards the right balance in the work place. As such it would be useful to gain more robust insight into the research area by examining more than one country alone in the region in order to determine if there is a degree of convergence between the regions in keeping with this study. Additionally, the study could be furthered by looking to pilot the framework developed in a small organisation in order to continue its evolution and refinement and determine its effectiveness. 5.4!Overall!Conclusion!! This study has examined the HR approach to work life balance resolution and management in the South East Asia with specific focus on Malaysia, and on the basis of which it has sought to understand and evaluate how culture in particular underpins the way in which conflict is managed. As such, it has emerged that in order for work life balance to be managed successfully, it is necessary to limit the influence of variables such as culture upon the organisation. The finding of this study shows family friendly policies to have a significant positive relation with job satisfaction and negative relation with turnover intention. The significant impact of whole family friendly policies to job satisfaction is mainly from five day workweek policy and employee assistance programs. There is no support for flextime and family leave polices even they are two components of entire family friendly policies. The finding of this study indicates that the relationship between family friendly policies and turnover intention were partially mediated by job satisfaction. The benefits to the organization for adopting more family friendly policies are clear, to gain a healthy and productive workforce. The findings of this study support and encourage more family friendly workplaces in Malaysia. It serves as reference for organization to propose more effective policies in the future.
  52. 52. ! 48! In light of this of however, upon completion of the research, the author is filled with immense pride and fulfillment having countered and overcome all the challenges faced during the completion of the study. By completing the research, the author has been able to develop a range of new skills as well as hone existing ones, which he feels will be invaluable during the next phase life as throughout. Throughout this sort of the particular organizational fact, each HR department associated with modest as well as major organizations would need to fully grasp the benefit associated with WLB along with begin any aggressive technique towards institutionalizing any WLB system to increase the particular achievement along with determination between their personnel. The idea ought to include those positive aspects in it's system, that make the organization more attractive along with help support the nearly all skilled personnel. WLB is usually a growing reason for problem for those stakeholders in addition to there's a must do this more religiously in the firm levels to be able to search for a mutually advantageous option to the corporations as well as the workers over time. The actual change inside operating behavior in addition to modifying thought patterns in the workforce require a in-depth investigation to build a comprehensive comprehension of the theory in addition to by using your WLB like a strategy and so that will not complete as being a gimmick however stay a ingredient in the people management policy framework. Using a arranged WLB framework in the firm levels, since recommended in this particular report, will really help to make your initiation regarding these kinds of attempt inside right path.
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  57. 57. ! ! 53! Appendix I: Interview Questions Interview Questions 1. What is your job title/ role? 2. Based on your experience, how would you define work life balance? 3. What are common types of policies in your organisation? 4. Do you think culture plays a role towars achieving work life balance system as a whole? 5. How do you describe your job satisfory? 6. What are the factors that could impact towards turnover intentions upon your organisation? 7. Can work life balance be positive? 8. What do you think needs to be done to ensure more effective management of employee’s welfare if not already effectively managed?
  58. 58. ! 54! Appendix II: Questionnaire Work life balance on job satisfaction and turnover intentions This questionnaire has been made using google forms, which will have the respondents to answer the questions online. Below are the questions that have been allocated to the respondents: 1) Gender o Male o Female 2) Age o 18 - 25 o 26 - 32 o 32 - 40 o 41 and above 3) How long have you worked for (Company) o Less than 3 months o 3 months - 1 year o 1 - 3+ years o 4 - 6+ years o 7 - 10+ years o 10+ years 4) Select your department o Sales o Human Resource o Marketing o Customer service o General Administration o IT & Engineering o Other: 5) Salary (Estimation) o 2000 - 2500 o 2600 - 3200 o 3300 - 3800 o 3800 and above
  59. 59. ! ! 55! 6) Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree a) The Company clearly conveys its mission to its employees. c) I have tools and resources I need to do my job. d) I am aware of the advancement opportunities in The Company for me. e) The amount of work expected of me is reasonable. f) It is easy to get along and adapt with the working culture and colleagues. g) The morale within the company is high. h) There is a good communication between employees to managers in The Company. i) There is a good communication between managers to employee in The Company. 7) Overall, how satisfied are you working in The Company? o Very dissatisfied o Dissatisfied o Neutral o Satisfied o Very satisfied 8) Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements: Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neutral Somewhat agree Strongly agree a) The Company working days are standardise for five days a week. b) I am flexible with the working protocol and procedures.
  60. 60. ! 56! Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neutral Somewhat agree Strongly agree c) My job gives me the opportunity to learn. d) I receive the right amount of leaves (family leave, annual leave, etc.) e) I am given a reasonable assistance and resources (consultation, etc.) 9) Does the family friendly policies above affects your morale to work? o Extremely disagree o Disagree o Neutral o Agree o Strongly agree 10) Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements: Completely dissatisfied Somewhat dissatisfied Neutral Somewhat satisfied Completely satisfied a) Your base pay? b) Your bonus and increment? c) The retirement plan? d) Your possibilities for future career progression at The Company? e) The process used to determine promotion? f) The vacation time receive? g) Other benefits offered by The Company?

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