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McClelland's theory of Motivation

Need for Achievement Motivation Theory by David McClelland. It includes Need for Power, Achievement and Affiliation.Also includes How can the future HR Managers can apply the Need Achievement Theory? Even 2 case studies are included.

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McClelland's theory of Motivation

  1. 1. finding which bait works best for you! Motivation theories are all about HRM 1
  2. 2. In the early 1940s, Abraham Maslow created his theory of needs. His theory was the base of any modern day Motivation psychology ever researched. (This is the tribute to the Awesome Abraham!) He identified the basic needs that human beings have, in order of their importance. Around 20 years later, David McClelland built on his work. He came out with his book "The Achieving Society." David McClelland Born: 20th May, 1917 Profile: BA, MA, PhD Headed Dept. of Psychology and Social Relations at Harvard University
  3. 3. McClelland said that, regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver. This dominant motivator is largely dependent on our culture and life experiences. Thus, they are: He also said these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory).
  4. 4. Need for Achievement!
  5. 5. Need for achievement (N-Ach) refers to an individual's desire for significant accomplishment, mastering of skills, control, or high standards. These include: "intense, prolonged and repeated efforts to accomplish something difficult. To work with singleness of purpose purpose towards a high and distant goal. To have the determination to win". Opt for: Very easy tasks (to minimize risk of failure) or Highly difficult tasks (a failure would not be embarrassing) Opt for: Moderately difficult tasks (feeling that they are challenging, but within reach.)
  6. 6. Need for Affiliation!
  7. 7. The need of Affiliation (N-Aff) is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships, considerable value for friendship and tendency to express one’s emotion. High N-Aff People: Perform better in a team. Make social relationship with other people and need to feel accepted by others. Tend to conform to the norms of their work group. Prefer manageable tasks. Tends to be a loner who is uncomfortable socializing with others except for a few close friends or family. Lack motivation or energy to maintain high social contacts in networking, group presentations, public relations etc. Low N-Aff People:
  8. 8. Need for Power!
  9. 9. The need for Power (N-Pow) is the desire within a person to hold control and authority over another person and influence and change their decision in accordance with own needs and desire. High N-Pow People: Wants to control and influence others Likes to win arguments Enjoys Competition and winning Enjoys status and recognition
  10. 10. A person’s need of power can be of two types- Personal Power Those who need personal power want to direct others, and this need often is perceived as undesirable. Institutional Power Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization.
  11. 11. How can we, the future HR Managers can apply the Need Achievement Theory?
  12. 12. McClelland's theory can help you to identify the dominant motivators of people on your team. You can then use this information to influence how you set goals and provide feedback, and how you motivate and reward team members. You can also use these motivators to craft, or design, the job around your team members, ensuring a better fit. 1. Identify Motivational Needs Examine your team to determine which of the three motivators is dominant for each person. You can probably identify drivers based on personality and past actions. 2.Approaching According to Need Based on the driving motivators of your workers, structure your leadership style and project assignments around each individual team member. This will help ensure that they all stay engaged , motivated, and happy with the work they're doing.
  13. 13. Like challenging, but not impossible projects. Work very effectively either alone or with other high achievers. When providing feedback, give achievers a fair and balanced appraisal. Work best in a group environment. Don't like uncertainty and risk. When providing feedback to these people, be personal. Prefer not to stand out. Work best when they're in charge. Do well with goal- oriented projects or tasks. Very effective in negotiations. When providing feedback, be direct with these team members. Keen about their career goals ACHIEVEMENT AFFILIATION POWER
  14. 14. Sample Group: The study involved 350 salespeople and managers in selected multinational firms in Nigeria. Method: A Questionnaire was prepared with a scale of 5 choices: Definitely Disagree (DD) - 1 Generally Disagree (GD) - 2 Somewhat Disagree (SA) - 3 Generally Agree (GA) - 4 Definitely Agree (DA) - 5 CASE STUDY 1
  15. 15. CASE STUDY 1 Results: To reach a standard of excellence Unconscious drive: Working individually Recreational activities Performance analytics to asses themselves Preferences To provide/offer adequate income and good benefits package Steps to Motivate Need For Achievement
  16. 16. CASE STUDY 1 Results: To be a part of warm and close relationships and friendships. Unconscious drive: prefer collaborative, non-competitive activities Preferences Use of team selling, Holding social functions, Distribution of salesforce newsletters, Holding sales meeting Steps to Motivate Need For Affiliation
  17. 17. CASE STUDY 1 Results: To have impacts on others Unconscious drive: leadership positions in social groups, professional associations, and in the sales team. Preferences Recognizing salesperson achievements, Commendation letters, Assignments to special projects, More responsibility and authority Steps to Motivate Need For Power
  18. 18. CASE STUDY 2 Title: McClelland’s motivational needs: A case study of physical education teachers in West Azarbaijan, Iran Sample Group: 241 P.E. teachers (165 males and 76 females) were randomly selected. Method: : 11 questions that examine the motivational needs of employees based on McClelland’s motivational theory. In each question, the test subjects check only one of three types of needs.
  19. 19. CASE STUDY 2 Title: McClelland’s motivational needs: A case study of physical education teachers in West Azarbaijan, Iran Results: N-Ach was most prominent among both male and female P.E. Teachers, followed by N-Aff and N- Power respectively.
  20. 20. Achievers like to solve problems and achieve goals. Those with a strong need for affiliation don’t like to stand out and take risks and they value relationships above anything else. Those with a strong power motivator like to control others and be in charge. McClelland's theory helps managers identify how they can motivate individuals to perform better. All the individuals posses all of these needs however one of them is more dominant.
  21. 21. Thank you

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