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  1. DANIEL BRAUNWORTH Instrumentation Segment Manager Intelligent Sensing for Environmental and Process Measurement 1 1/24/2019 MICHAL RANINEC Systems Applications Engineer
  2. Real-time Measurement Advances Our Quality of Life ►Environment ►Process monitoring ►Materials quality ►Early failure detection ►Safety
  3. Foundational Measurement Concern: Analysis Reliability 3 There is a lack of confidence in instrument performance, often seen as being inconsistent, with operation and maintenance requiring highly specialized support. ” “ —Water Environment Research Foundation
  4. Future The Smart Sensing Revolution Digitize the sensors Reduce the maintenance Expand the network Advance the data analytics Sensing System SENSORS SIGNAL PROCESSING & SENSOR DIAGNOSTICS POWER CLOUD SECURITY COMMUNICATION Today
  5. Broader Sensing Networks Enable Better Monitoring and Control ►Greater benefits from intelligent sensors ►Network-level assessments ►Increased spatial resolution Expanding wireless networks demand reduced power and increased reliability
  6. Making Electrochemical Sensors Intelligent Increases Measurement Reliability and Reduces Total Cost of Ownership 6 Vision: Fully Integrated, Easy to Use, Plug ‘n’ Play Sensors “Analyte In, Measurement Out” Industrial Gas Sensing Water Quality & Liquid Analysis Environmental Air Quality Signal Conditioning & Data Conversion Sensor(s) Smart Sensor Digital Processing & Control Embedded Compensation, Calibration, Data Fusion, Diagnostics / Prognostics / Extended Life Smart interrupts Memory/ FIFO ADUCM355 I2C/SPI/UART.. Reliable measurements in real-world conditions Temperature - Humidity - Contaminants Handling - EMC
  7. Liquid Analysis
  8. Electrochemical: The Smart Sensor of Choice for Water Quality Analysis 8 Colorimetric / Titrimetric Nephelometric / Turbidimetric Electrochemical Microbiological Luminescence, Absorbance, Fluorescence Trace Analysis / Lab Methods Disadvantages Sensor fouling, aging & maintenance Calibration Environment compensation Drift over life pH Oxidation- Reduction Potential Conductivity Ion Selective Electrodes Dissolved Oxygen Advantages Most common indicators Low power High resolution Linear output Economical Intelligent EC sensing • Enables continuous & real-time sensing without reagents • Utilizes long proven sensor technology • Diagnoses or overcomes traditional EC disadvantages
  9. Electrochemical Liquid Sensors – Basic Principles & Operation 9 RTD Connections RTD Connections RTD Measurement RTD Measurement ADC High Input Impedance Op Amp High Input Impedance Op Amp ADC Vref RTD Excitation Conditioning RTD Excitation Conditioning ISO pH Probe Reference junction Internal reference electrode Inner buffer solution Reference electrolyte Temperature sensor Indicating electrode Electrodes AC Excitation AC Excitation DAC Precision Transimpedance Amplifier Precision Transimpedance Amplifier ADC Conductivity cell housing Potential Sensors (e.g. pH, ORP, ISE) Impedance or Current Sensors (e.g. Conductivity, DO) Proper Operation Requires: ► Routine calibration against a standard buffer solution ► Clean sensing surface ► Operation within specified sensor range ► Temperature compensation ► Precision, low noise, low drift measurement electronics
  10. Biggest Market Expansion Barrier: Maintenance Costs 10 ©2018 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. In-line pH measurement is perceived as being one of the most difficult process analytical measurements to implement. ” “ — literature from a top pH probe manufacturer
  11. Reducing Maintenance Cost Requires Diagnostic Measurements 11 Frequent calibration requirements (environment & electrode stability) Sensor breakage & wear-out (membrane replacement, etc.) Sensor cleaning & maintenance (fouling / film growth) Associated Diagnostic Measurements Common Measurement Problems • Calibration health self-test for user alert • Sensor health – signal validity • Sensor health – signal integrity Need: Sensor-integrated diagnostics electronics with complete electrochemical measurement toolbox
  12. Small Signal Diagnostic Testing: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 12 Double Layer Capacitance Electron Transfer Resistance Uncompensated (electrolyte) Resistance -2.00E+02 3.00E+02 8.00E+02 1.30E+03 1.80E+03 2.30E+03 0.00E+00 5.00E+02 1.00E+03 1.50E+03 2.00E+03 2.50E+03 3.00E+03 3.50E+03 -Imag (Ohm) Real (Ohm) Ru Ru + Rp High Freq Low Freq Nyquist Plot Randles Cell (Simplified) RU RP CDL Other large signal EC techniques: • Voltammetry (e.g. CV, square wave) • Chronoamperometry
  13. pH Probe Impedance Spectroscopy Reveals Probe Condition Impedance of various solutions Impedance change with pH sensor dry-out
  14. CN0428 – A Programmable Liquid Analysis Reference Platform Water quality solution enables platformization in low power, small footprint designs ► Sensor health analysis made possible through integrated measurement & diagnostic functions ► Very low power, integrated measurement platform adaptable to probe form factor  Measures pH, Conductivity, ISE, ORP ► Programmable liquid analysis daughter boards  AFE and measurement pre-processing with ADuCM355  Integrated compensation (ATC) Hardware, software and documentation ► Based on ADICUP3029 development platform ► Software examples available on ► Circuit Note and user guide
  15. Gas Sensing
  16. Gas Sensing Technologies 16 Catalytic Sensors (pellistor, thermoelectric) Thermal Conductivity Sensors Electrochemical Optical & Infrared Sensors Semiconductor Sensors (metal oxide) Acoustic Wave Sensors Advantages Low power High resolution Linear output High accuracy Economical Disadvantages Temperature & Humidity dependency Limited shelf life Cross-sensitivity Drift over life Requirements for Proper Operation ► Temperature and humidity range ► Stable bias voltage ► Avoid exposure to high concentration of target gases, VOCs, dust and oil mist ► EMC and Functional Safety compliance Ammonia Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Sulphide Nitrogen Dioxide Oxygen Ozone
  17. Electrochemical Gas Sensors – Basic Principles & Operation 17 ► Measuring current proportional to target gas concentration generated due to oxidation or reduction at sensor electrodes ► Most common electrode configuration: ► Sensing (working) – SE (WE) ► Reference - RE ► Counter - CE ► Stable bias voltage is required between RE and SE (WE) Basic signal chain
  18. Biggest Market Expansion Barrier: Sensor Lifetime 18 ©2018 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Strong support by wireless network design, longer battery life, implementation, and maintenance are the key services demanded by end users in the current phase of technological development. ” “ — Frost & Sullivan
  19. Reducing Maintenance Cost Requires Diagnostic Measurements 19 Frequent calibration requirements (electrode stability & electrolyte health) Sensor breakage & wear-out (oxidation on contacts, electrolyte leakage ...) Open/Short circuit between sensor contacts (sensor disconnected from device …) Associated Diagnostic Measurements Common Measurement Problems • Calibration health self test for user alert (Impedance Spectroscopy, Ramp Test) • Bias Voltage Ramp Test and Pulse Test • Bias Voltage Pulse Test Need: Sensor-integrated diagnostics electronics with complete electrochemical measurement toolbox
  20. Sensor Diagnostics I Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) ► Applying AC signal sweep on sensor electrodes  Detects aging of sensor’s electrolyte  Diagnoses charge transfer between electrodes ► Good correlation between impedance and sensitivity ► On-chip EIS enables long term drift compensation, end of life prognostics and other smart sensor features 20
  21. Sensor Diagnostics II Pulse and Ramp Test ► Pulse Test (Chronoamperometry)  Applying voltage pulse on top of bias voltage while monitoring the sensor’s output  Tests sensor responsivity ► Ramp Test (Cyclic Voltammetry)  Voltage applied on top of bias is ramped in steps  Diagnoses electrolyte and charge transfer health 21 time voltage VBias current time Good Sensor Poor Quality Sensor Poor Quality Sensor time voltage VBias
  22. CN0429 – A Programmable Gas Sensing Reference Platform 22 Smart EC gas sensing platform enables integrated, low power, digital gas sensors ► Sensor health analysis made possible through integrated measurement & diagnostics functions ► Measure any four EC gas sensors (in “4-series” form factor) ► Programmable gas sensing daughter boards  AFE and Signal Processing with ADuCM355  On-Board Temperature & Humidity sensor Hardware, software and documentation ► Based on ADICUP3029 development platform ► Software examples available on ► Circuit Note and user guide
  23. ADuCM355 Integrating Intelligence at The Core
  24. ADuCM355 Precision Microcontroller Industry’s Most Advanced Chemical Sensor Interface IC ► Low Power, High Precision Sensor Measurement Platform  Voltage, Current and Impedance Measurement capabilities ► Advanced Sensor Diagnostic Capability  High Speed Waveform Generator  Impedance Spectroscopy Engine ► Ultra-Low Power Cortex™ M3 Processor  Algorithms, data post-processing, communication, security Available Collateral: ► Datasheet & Hardware Reference Manual ► ADuCM355 Evaluation Kit ► 3rd party module solutions ► 3x Circuit From The Lab® Reference Design  Multi-sensor system reference design (CN0428, CN0429)  EMC compliant reference design (CN0425) 24 Applications: • Gas detection • Water quality analysis • Biosensing analysis • General environmental sensing (air, water, soil)
  25. Complete Onboard Electrochemical Measurement Toolbox Feasible Measurement Functions with CN0428 & CN0429: Possible Functions w Added Drive Circuit: *Example projects from ADI available Amperometry • Multistep Amperometry (MA) • Chronoamperometry * • Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD) • Fast Amperometry (FAM) • Zero Resistance Ammeter (ZRA) Voltammetry • Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) • (Differential) Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) • Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV) • Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV) • AC Voltammetry (ACV), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) * Potentiometry • Multistep Potentiometry (MP) • Chronopotentiometry • Stripping Chronopotentiometry (PSA or SCP) • Open Circuit Potentiometry (OCP) Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) * Stripping Voltammetry • Anodic/cathodic/adsorptive
  26. Summary The environmental and process measurement market growth will implement smart sensors and expand sensing networks to take advantage of advanced data analytics 26 Integrated measurement and diagnostics is now possible in platformized, low power, compact point-of-sensing solutions Intelligent sensors reduce maintenance and cost of ownership
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