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DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Mixing top-down and bottom-approaches
in clustering policies
Workshop on the operatio...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Agenda
• Background elements
• Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3
angles
– ...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Agenda
• Background elements
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
The development of clustering policies in Wallonia
2001
• 2001 : launch of the busine...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Agenda
• Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3
angles
– Selecting strategic pr...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Creation process of the Competitiveness poles :
a mix of top-down and bottom-up appro...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Selection criteria: quantitative and qualitative data
• Private employment
• Number o...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Implementation : Annual call for projects
• Analysis by :
• the Pole
• the
administra...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Governance of the Poles
Governing board : Strategic orientation
President = industria...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
http://clusters.wallo
nie.be/
Competitiveness Poles Clusters
Industrial processes
and...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
http://clusters.wallonie.be/ Pôles de Compétitivité Clusters
Sustainable development ...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Selecting priorities and involving stakeholders –
key points:
 Top-down = policy fra...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Agenda
• Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3
angles
– Selecting strategic pr...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Business Clusters Competitiveness Poles
Bottom-up, large sectoral scope Top-down (6 s...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
15
Number of Clusters in Wallonia
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 200...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Combining Poles and Clusters – key points:
Phase 1 : 2 policy tools – tailored anima...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Agenda
• Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3
angles
– Selecting strategic pr...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Implementation : Policy mix
• Collaborative R&D projects (2 enterprises and 2
researc...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Implementation : Development of the Policy mix
• Collaborative R&D projects (2 enterp...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
New impulses towards an integrated and coherent policy mix
• Innovation platforms
• C...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
21
Building an efficient Policy Mix
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Finding the right policy mix – key points:
 Building progressively the appropriate p...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Agenda
• Lessons learned
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Lessons learned
Political leadership
needed : key
objectives, policy
processes, makin...
DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE
Thanks for your attention !
http://economie.wallonie.be
http://clusters.wallonie.be/f...
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Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches in clustering policies

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Experience of Wallonia in Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches in clustering policies
Presentation at the 12-13 november 2015 Workshop on the operational development of Flemish cluster policy

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Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches in clustering policies

  1. 1. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Mixing top-down and bottom-approaches in clustering policies Workshop on the operational development of Flemish cluster policy Brussels, 12-13 November 2015 Florence HENNART
  2. 2. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Agenda • Background elements • Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3 angles – Selecting strategic priorities and involving stakeholders : the Competitiveness Poles policy – Combining « top-down » and « bottom-up » clusters – Finding the appropriate policy mix : meeting the needs of clusters • Lessons learned
  3. 3. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Agenda • Background elements
  4. 4. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE The development of clustering policies in Wallonia 2001 • 2001 : launch of the business cluster policy, bottom-up 2006 • 2006-2009 : 1st Marshall Plan (1,6 billion €) • Launch of the Competitiveness Poles policy, 280 millions € (5 poles created). Mix of top-down and bottom-up approaches 2009 • 2009-2014 : Marshall Plan 2.Green (2,75 billion €) • Pursuing and deepening the competitiveness Poles policy, 388 millions € – Creation of a 6th Pole (Green chemistry) 2015 • 2015-2019 : Marshall Plan 4.0 •  Axis II: Deepening of regional smart specialisation strategy through Competitiveness Poles (316 millions €) – new policy impulses
  5. 5. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Agenda • Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3 angles – Selecting strategic priorities and involving stakeholders : the Competitiveness Poles policy – Combining « top-down » and « bottom-up » clusters – Finding the appropriate policy mix : meeting the needs of clusters
  6. 6. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Creation process of the Competitiveness poles : a mix of top-down and bottom-up approaches •University study •Regional potential and perspectives •Criterias •5 domains identified Selection of priority domains • Creation of 1 Pole/domain • Terms of reference • Stakeholders defining the Partnership, strategy, concrete projects, mix of technologies and sectors Call for interest • Analysis by an independant jury •Labellisation of the poles and first projects by the Government Creation of the Poles Same process for the 6th Pole (Green chemistry and materials) • Aerospace • Transport and logistics • Life science and health • Agro-food • Mechanical engineering
  7. 7. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Selection criteria: quantitative and qualitative data • Private employment • Number of enterprises • Export propensity • Multipliers effects Economic basis and its evolution • Patents • R&D investment and enterprises Technological basis and its evolution • Participation to EU programs • Scientific publications • Citations Scientific basis and its evolution • Existing potential and past policy efforts : support to investment, structural funds, public research centers, training centers, business clusters, export clusters, spin- offs,… Redeployment process • Spatial distribution of employment and entreprises • Technological intensity • Growth potential • Global leaders and endogenous potential Strategic perspectives
  8. 8. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Implementation : Annual call for projects • Analysis by : • the Pole • the administration • Internal jury Letter of Intent • Formal administration opinion • External jury recommendation Finalized project • Decision of support / budgets • Conditional decisions Regional Governement
  9. 9. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Governance of the Poles Governing board : Strategic orientation President = industrial, vice-President : academic SMEs representation Regional representatives Operating cell Internal jury Regional Government: Policy choices External jury : scrutiny on the projects / results Coordination administration + functional administrations Inter-Poles committee
  10. 10. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE http://clusters.wallo nie.be/ Competitiveness Poles Clusters Industrial processes and new materials MECATECH Mechanical engineering, materials and surfaces of the future, shaping of materials, additive manufacturing, microtechnology and mechatronics, intelligent maintenance and manufacturing PLASTIWIN Plasturgy : polymers, engineering plastics, elastomers and rubbers, foamed products, composites, technical textiles GREENWIN Green chemistry, environmental technologies, treatment and reuse of waste and effluents, waste water management, bio-sourced chemistry, management and storage of energy, sustainable building and renovation LOGISTICS IN WALLONIA Transport, Logistics and Mobility: multimodality, sustainable logistics, supply chain security, internal logistics and management of industrial processes SKYWIN Composites and metal materials, industrial processes, embedded systems, airport services, space applications and systems, modeling and simulations Health and nutrition BIOWIN Biomarkers, Diagnostics in vitro and in vivo, innovative tools and equipment, medication administration systems, innovative therapies (cell therapy, protontherapy), IT applied to human health, medical equipment, drug discovery, innovative processes and organizational innovations WAGRALIM Health and nutritional quality of food, industrial efficiency, packaging and sustainable agro-food industry
  11. 11. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE http://clusters.wallonie.be/ Pôles de Compétitivité Clusters Sustainable development - Sustainable building and energy GREENWIN Green chemistry, environmental technologies, treatment and reuse of waste and effluents, waste water management, bio-sourced chemistry, management and storage of energy, sustainable building and renovation TWEED Development of sustainable energy sectors: renewable energy sources, development of new processes and products for energy saving and energy efficiency ECO-CONSTRUCTION Green building and green renovation CAP 2020 Green building , low energy consumption building, energy- efficient building Transport and mobility LOGISTICS IN WALLONIA Transport, Logistics and Mobility: multimodality, sustainable logistics, supply chain security, internal logistics and management of industrial processes SKYWIN Composites and metal materials, industrial processes, embedded systems, airport services, space applications and systems, modeling and simulations Digital Technologies Big Data innovation Platform INFOPOLE CLUSTER TIC Smart mobility, e-health, green technologies, Internet of things, serious games, big data, open data, transmedia TWIST 3D stereoscopic imaging, serious games, digital media, Internet and mobile content, scanning and digital archiving, motion recognition
  12. 12. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Selecting priorities and involving stakeholders – key points:  Top-down = policy framework  Focus on processes, giving the right incentives  involvement and ownership  Industry in the driver seat for defining strategy and selecting priorities  External jury as facilitator for Government's choices  Avoiding a pure sector approach value chains, cross-sector
  13. 13. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Agenda • Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3 angles – Selecting strategic priorities and involving stakeholders : the Competitiveness Poles policy – Combining « top-down » and « bottom-up » clusters – Finding the appropriate policy mix : meeting the needs of clusters
  14. 14. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Business Clusters Competitiveness Poles Bottom-up, large sectoral scope Top-down (6 strategic sectors)+bottom up SME’s Oriented Triple helix approach : Large companies, technological SME’s, universities and research centers, training centers + governement Financing : animation structures 3 * 3 years (100%-80%-50%) Max 160.000 €/year Policy mix : support to projects + animation : Up to 350.000- 400.000 € / Pole / Year (Wages) IF Private counterpart of 50% (expenses / valorisations) +/- 900 members +/- 1.000 members (750 companies) Networking, cooperation and innovation throughout the whole economy in Wallonia. Technological, industrial or commercial collaborations Reaching global competitiveness in key domains by developing niche markets (critical mass) VL : Innovative Company Networks VL : Spearhead clusters
  15. 15. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE 15 Number of Clusters in Wallonia 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Business Clusters Competitiveness Poles Aeronautics Space/Nutrition Automotive MiTech T&L
  16. 16. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Combining Poles and Clusters – key points: Phase 1 : 2 policy tools – tailored animation support for the Poles  Phase 2 : progressive integration of clusters – developing priority axis within the Poles  Criterias for the selection of clusters  2 competing policies ? Specific objectives  Benefits for entreprises vs fees  Bottom-up clusters as tools for mobilizing SMEs  Finding the right balance…depending on the regional context / potential
  17. 17. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Agenda • Mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches : 3 angles – Selecting strategic priorities and involving stakeholders : the Competitiveness Poles policy – Combining « top-down » and « bottom-up » clusters – Finding the appropriate policy mix : meeting the needs of clusters
  18. 18. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Implementation : Policy mix • Collaborative R&D projects (2 enterprises and 2 research centres)RDI • Investment subsidies • Common infrastructures (R&D, infrastructures)Investment • Sector expert to support export approaches • Promotion actions and international prospection • Attraction of FDI Internationalisation • Development of specific trainings according to the needsTraining
  19. 19. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Implementation : Development of the Policy mix • Collaborative R&D projects (2 enterprises and 2 research centres) • Innovation platforms RDI • Investment subsidies • Common infrastructures (R&D, infrastructures)Investment • Sector expert to support export approaches • Promotion actions and international prospection • Attraction of FDI Internationalisation • Development of specific trainings • Internships , Dual trainingTraining • Up to 350.000-400.000 € / Pole / Year (Wages) • IF Private counterpart of 50% (expenses / valorisations) • Project support, networking,… Animation structures
  20. 20. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE New impulses towards an integrated and coherent policy mix • Innovation platforms • Creativity, business innovation, ICT, user- led innovation RDI • Industrial valorisation : prototyping, financial instrumentsInvestment • EU projects and networks • Internationalisation strategy Internationalisation • Training policyTraining • Linkages with broader animation policy • SME’s involvement, entrepreneurship • Circular economy Animation structures Cross-cluster collaboration – Building new industrial value chains Smart specialisation strategy
  21. 21. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE 21 Building an efficient Policy Mix
  22. 22. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Finding the right policy mix – key points:  Building progressively the appropriate policy mix  Evolving needs and ambitions (maturity curve)  Too strong focus on cluster dedicated tools, with focus on R&D projects  Balance between specific tools (incentives) and horizontal ones (synergies)  Too strong focus on regional tools  Articulation with EU programs  Keeping key policy objectives in mind !
  23. 23. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Agenda • Lessons learned
  24. 24. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Lessons learned Political leadership needed : key objectives, policy processes, making choices It’s a long time process, learning curve – time to results ! 1st result = networking Need of flexibility  piloting, learning by doing, monitoring and evaluation, dialogue Balance the stakeholders requests External expertise Avoid locked-in effects Innovation dynamics within the clusters Private participation
  25. 25. DIRECTION DE LA POLITIQUE ECONOMIQUE Thanks for your attention ! http://economie.wallonie.be http://clusters.wallonie.be/federateur-en/ florence.hennart@spw.wallonie.be

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