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Smart grid

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A Smart Grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity production and distribution. Just as ICs were used to improve the bandwidth of copper cable, they can also be used to improve the bandwidth of electrical cables. These improvements enable a Smart Grid to more effectively purchase and distribute electricity and provide users with real-time prices including time of day prices.

A Smart Grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity production and distribution. Just as ICs were used to improve the bandwidth of copper cable, they can also be used to improve the bandwidth of electrical cables. These improvements enable a Smart Grid to more effectively purchase and distribute electricity and provide users with real-time prices including time of day prices.

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Smart grid

  1. 1. CLEINT LOGO Apr 2013 GREENER, SAFER, SMARTER Smart Grid Technology MT5009- Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities Group Project Bae Jinwoo A0102853M Christopher Tan A0046244L Ivan Mufthi A0077081E James Tong A0081902L Mun Kek Chian A0090745B Peter Katona A0103338N
  2. 2. CLEINT LOGO What is a Smart Grid?  Improvements in the smart grid  Applications (Demand Response & Time Based Pricing) Key elements of the Smart Grid  Smart Metering / Power Line Communication  Transmission & Distribution, EVs  Integration of renewable energy Is Smart Grid the way to go? Q & A AGENDA
  3. 3. CLEINT LOGO According to GSGF (Global Smart Grid Federation) the official definition of smart grid is:  An electrical* network  Efficiently integrating all the stake holders – From generators to consumers  In order to ensure  Economic efficiency (Time Based Pricing)  Sustainable network (Demand Response) WHAT IS SMART GRID?
  4. 4. CLEINT LOGO Improvements of Smart Grid over the traditional grid over the past 30 years  Communications (PLC, Optical)  Transmission & Distribution(Super Conductors, Gas-insulated cables & equipment, Better Underground Works)  Better Storage Capacities(Batteries) (Electric Vehicles / Uninterrupted Power Supplies)  Better Smart meters & Controllers (processors / sensors / memory )  Integration to more distributed sources (Renew Energy; Wind/Solar Farms, EVs) WHAT IS SMART GRID?
  5. 5. CLEINT LOGO Loading Curve Price Curve Source: IEEE Paper ; “Optimal Scheduling and Operation of Load Aggregator with Electric Energy Storage in Power Markets” Demand Response & Time-based Pricing WHAT IS SMART GRID?
  6. 6. CLEINT LOGO Smart Metering & Powerline Communication
  7. 7. CLEINT LOGO Evolution of Energy Meters SMART METERING+PLC Meters are measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems.
  8. 8. CLEINT LOGO Basic improvements to different Smart meter systems over time SMART METERING+PLC AMI Full Two Way AMR Plus AMR One Way SmartMeterSystemCapability  Real Time based rates  Power Quality  Remote meter programming  Load forecasting  Power procurement  Outage notification  Daily or On Demand Reads  Hourly interval data  T&D Operation  Metering Service  Automated Monthly Reads  One Way Outage Detection  Meter Reading  Billing, Account, Collection Smart Meter System Functionality Stakeholders or Benefactors
  9. 9. CLEINT LOGO Although price is $15 more, the AMI provides more functions and average expected payback time is the same SMART METERING+PLC AMR/AMI AVERAGEE COST & FUNCTION COMPARISON
  10. 10. CLEINT LOGO PLC compared with existing smart grid communication SMART METERING+PLC Hybrid Fibre Coaxial Asymmetric digital subscriber line Powerline Communication
  11. 11. CLEINT LOGO PLC improvement - Carrier frequency and Max Effective Data Rates SMART METERING+PLC 2001 2001 2005 2010
  12. 12. CLEINT LOGO Electric Vehicles (EVs)
  13. 13. CLEINT LOGO A multitude of connected EVs acts like a big battery source to the grid. ELECTRIC VEHICLES Vehicle-to-grid (V2G)  Vehicle and Smart Grid interaction  Enables stored energy in EVs to sell back to the electrical grid  Allows for Peak-load shifting
  14. 14. CLEINT LOGO Case study of an unnamed energy market in the US ELECTRIC VEHICLES Loading Curve Source: IEEE Paper ; “Optimal Scheduling and Operation of Load Aggregator with Electric Energy Storage in Power Markets”
  15. 15. CLEINT LOGO Pilot project for EV parking integration to Smart Grid ELECTRIC VEHICLES EVs used on a Smart GridEVs used on a Normal Grid Source: “Electric vehicle smart charging and vehicle-to-grid operation” , Siddhartha Mal, Arunabh Chattopadhyay, Albert Yang, Rajit Gadh Pockets of opportunity (Black regions) to sell energy back to the Smart Grid Shift Peak Load
  16. 16. CLEINT LOGO Case Study: EV Fleet Sedan in Southern California ELECTRIC VEHICLES RT GRID 2011 Monthly Bi-Directional Power Capacity Revenues Assumptions:  Lease Price: $290/month  15KW bi-directional capability  12,000 miles driven per year  Typical operation from 9am to 5pm (parked 90% of the time)  2011 remuneration values for California ISO, in Southern California
  17. 17. CLEINT LOGO How can Smart Grid make EVs more economically feasible? Cost of EV can be reduced by time-based pricing.  EVs can be charged during “off-peak” hours  EVs can sell back energy during “peak” hours Bottom line  Bi-directional capacity alone can reduce the monthly lease price of a EV sedan by about 72%  More savings expected with the increase in fuel prices nth ELECTRIC VEHICLES RT GRID
  18. 18. CLEINT LOGO Opportunities of EVs in the Smart Grid  With the increase in EV numbers, the Smart Grid will be more efficient in managing peak loads (Peak Load Shifting & Time-based pricing)  Smart Grid allows for better integration of the EVs into the market  With improvements to the V2G technology in the Smart Grid, it is more economically feasible to own an EV ELECTRIC VEHICLES RT GRID
  19. 19. CLEINT LOGOTRANSMISSION Transmission High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Power Electronics (Semiconductor)
  20. 20. CLEINT LOGO Key drivers for Smart Grid Transmission TRANSMISSION • All HVDC solutions prevent cascading disturbances, even in connected AC networks Improve quality, stability and reliability • Semiconductor solution Saves space, reduced losses • Create long-distance energy highways via HTS cables • Underground, subsea solutions Move more power, further
  21. 21. CLEINT LOGO Technological advancement of transportation of electricity HVDC Year Powered Distance Per unit Cost Vs. Year Both charts show that HVDC is trending up over the year from 1960 and beyond Source: A Functional Approach for studying technological progress: Extension to Energy Technology, by Heebyung Koh, Christopher L. Magee - (MIT) Powered Distance Vs. Year Powered Distance = Amount of Energy transported over a given distance in a given time Performance metric in transmission:
  22. 22. CLEINT LOGO HVDC Vs. HVAC HVDC Break even distance The capability of an AC line degrades with increasing length. Total Cost Summary of cost after break even distance
  23. 23. CLEINT LOGO Technology acceleration of DC transmission moving underground and subsea HVDC
  24. 24. CLEINT LOGO Semiconductor solution for New transmission - Switching Device POWER ELECTRONICS Ideal controllable Power Semiconductor Switch  When turned on, current can flow only in the direction of the arrow  Instantaneous switching from one state to the other at extremely large switching frequency  Zero voltage drop in on-state, therefore zero power loss  When turned off, current flow is zero, therefore zero power loss
  25. 25. CLEINT LOGO What is the next Semiconductor solution ? POWER ELECTRONICS Benefits of the AlGaN/ GaN material system over SiC Gallium Nitride promises performance that is at least 10 times better than existing silicon devices and looks to be the most promising all over the range from 20V- 1200V SiC based Technology Significant cost premiums Limited scalability Comparison of controllable power for different power electronic devices ?????
  26. 26. CLEINT LOGO High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) HTS Improvement in performance of YBCO & BSCCO superconducting cables This timeline of discovery of superconducting materials shows how dramatic the discovery of high-Tc YBCO was. Credit: Wikipedia. CurrentCarryingCapacity
  27. 27. CLEINT LOGO The Grid of Today VS. Tomorrow TRANSMISSION
  28. 28. CLEINT LOGO Opportunities TRANSMISSION  Advanced designs and new materials for HTS cables  high current carrying capacity  reduced weight, line sags and corrosion  Development of more efficient and affordable (costs and size) cryogenic refrigeration system for HTS cable  New types of semiconductors for a new generation of thyristors
  29. 29. CLEINT LOGO Integration of Renewable Energy INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  30. 30. CLEINT LOGO Key Driver for Smart Grid – Sustainability & Integration INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY  Renewable Energy (RE) is a sustainable solution which does not produce CO2 (green house gases)  Smart Grid creates a highly flexible platform for the integration of Renewable Energy any time and any where without any changes in the equipment configuration  Higher adoption of more renewable energy sources into the Smart Grid, reduces reliance on fossil-power generation hence lowering CO2 emission.
  31. 31. CLEINT LOGO As high as 16.7% of global energy generation came from Renewable Energy in 2010 INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  32. 32. CLEINT LOGO Governments Support & RE Trend INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy generation capacity is trending up Source: Renewable 2012 Global Status Report; International Energy Agency: World Energy Outlook 2011
  33. 33. CLEINT LOGO Forecasted global impact on CO2 emission by 2020 INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Total CO2 emission CO2 reduction by Smart Grid CO2 reduction from Integration of renewable energy Source: The Climate Group, 2008. “SMART 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age.” Smart Grid has potential to reduce 2.03Gt CO2 emission where the integration of renewable energy accounted for 41% of the reduction
  34. 34. CLEINT LOGO Challenges and Opportunities INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY  Renewable energy supply intermittency raises its difficulty in the integration with the electrical grid  However, the flexibility of Smart Grid via demand response and time- based pricing has made the integration of renewable energy becomes feasible.  For e.g., Utilities operator offers consumers incentives to shed load during peak hour based on the demand response and time-based pricing
  35. 35. CLEINT LOGOCONCLUSION  Smart Grid is not only an electricity network  A smart network of energy flow (Electricity, gas, etc.)  The smartness brings  Time-based pricing (Efficiency)  Demand Response (Reliability)  Higher integration of renewable sources with the grid (Sustainability)  The possible FUTURE (Selling electricity as a commodity in the stock market)
  36. 36. CLEINT LOGOQ&A

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