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USA BPPA presentation 07

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USA BPPA presentation 07

  1. 1. The California Solid-Fuel Biomass Power Industry How California is Helping, …..Or Not January 2007
  2. 2. What Are the California Biomass Plants? They all…… Burn wood wastes… To boil water… And make steam… To turn the steam turbine… That turns the generator… That makes electricity… That is sold wholesale… To the utilities.
  3. 3. Wheelabrator’s Shasta Energy Co., Anderson, CA 53 MW
  4. 4. Delano Energy, Kern County. 50 MW
  5. 5. Delano Plant Boilers
  6. 6. Colmac Energy 47 MW Riverside Co. CA
  7. 7. Current Biomass Power Industry • 28 Operating Plants • In 17 Counties • 555 MW net generation capacity • About 1.75% of California’s Power • 14 Idle Plants, 117 MW capacity
  8. 8. California Biomass Power plants 2004 MW net 0-15 15-30 30-60 operating idle dismantled
  9. 9. Today, the California biomass power industry is using about 7 MILLION tons per year of wood wastes to generate electricity.
  10. 10. The Biomass Power Industry Fuels: All are wastes with no higher-value market. Three categories of waste wood fuel source: 1. Forest-derived 2. Agricultural residues 3. Urban wood wastes
  11. 11. 1. Forest-derived Fuels
  12. 12. Over Dense Forestland
  13. 13. Shears cut all trees to be removed…
  14. 14. Skidders move the cut trees from forest to roadside landing…
  15. 15. Chippers process whole trees directly into chip vans…
  16. 16. Cull Logs
  17. 17. What We Have By The Millions Of Acres
  18. 18. Dead Trees in San Bernardino National Forest
  19. 19. Thinning Helps Prevent This
  20. 20. 2. Agricultural-residue Fuels
  21. 21. Orchard Prunings
  22. 22. Whole Tree Orchard Removals
  23. 23. Rice Hull
  24. 24. Walnut Shell
  25. 25. Almond shell Pistachio shell
  26. 26. Open Burning Of Ag Wastes
  27. 27. 3. Urban Wood Waste Fuels
  28. 28. Urban/Industrial Wood Pallets Raw lumber from drop boxes
  29. 29. Urban Wood Waste
  30. 30. URBAN WOOD WASTES
  31. 31. Eucalyptus
  32. 32. Railroad Ties
  33. 33. Urban Wood; Energy Instead of This
  34. 34. Brush Today we are reaching out for more diverse fuel sources …
  35. 35. Wax Coated Corrugated Cardboard
  36. 36. Marijuana
  37. 37. Over 40% Smaller than the Peak in the Mid-90s. Our State has lost 2 plants per year for the last 5 years. 117 MW of generating capacity closed. California’s Biomass Power Industry Is in Decline.
  38. 38. Why is This Happening? • It’s the Fuel, Stupid!
  39. 39. Change in the Fuel Mix 1992 – 2006 (% of BDT) 1992 2006 Forest-derived 62% 43% Urban 18% 35% Ag 20% 22%
  40. 40. Biomass Generation is Expensive • Collection • Chipping • Trucking • On-site Handling • Contrast to the cost of the fuel for a wind generator, or a hydro or geothermal plant.
  41. 41. Value of the Non-Electric Benefits?? Calculate the costs of the alternate fates of the materials NREL says > 10 cents/kWh Plants are paid: 5.37 – 6.45 cents for the electricity, or Short-Run Avoided Cost (SRAC)
  42. 42. California has tried to help… 1. What has not worked. 2. What has worked, sort of. 3. What is now in play.
  43. 43. 1. What has Not Worked
  44. 44. 1a. Ag Fuel Grants $10/ton of ag fuels used; Effective while it lasted 2000-2001; Legislature pulled the plug after a year.
  45. 45. The Biomass Power Industry A huge waste-management industry… That makes a little electricity on the side. BUT…. Is not paid for the non-electric benefits.
  46. 46. 1b. Trash Bill Surcharge 75 cents a month on everybody's trash bill; Distribute as a usage-based fuel subsidy. No Traction.
  47. 47. 1c. California has passed a Renewable Portfolio Standard. It has not worked. 20% Renewable kWh by 2010; Fulfilled by kilowatt hours alone; Not differentiated by technology; Effectively, Low Price Wins. Utilities have resisted. Wind is winning most of the bids. No new biomass plants.
  48. 48. 2. What has worked..sort of.
  49. 49. Subsidizes biomass generation a bit during Off-Peak hours; Funding from Ratepayers “Public Good Charge” Keeps most plants running and consuming waste. (This is good.) BUT…The subsidy is very limited. 2a.The California Energy Commission
  50. 50. California's Biomass Power Decline - 1993 to Present 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jun-93 Jun-94 Jun-95 Jun-96 Jun-97 Jun-98 Jun-99 Jun-00 Jun-01 Jun-02 Jun-03 Jun-04 Jun-05 MW
  51. 51. 2b. “Fixed” Prices Most renewables negotiated fixed energy prices w/IOUs (Escalate at 1%/yr.); 5-year term; After 5 years???
  52. 52. 3. What’s now in play.
  53. 53. 3a. New State Policy, April 2006 (After 10 years of trying.) Biomass-to-Electricity is to constitute 20% of RPS; (Includes LFG) 20% of 20% = 4% Double the existing industry?
  54. 54. The California PUC Is deciding the gas-based price that renewable generators should be paid by the utilities. A decision may be released this spring. How this interacts with State Policy and the RPS Is up in the air.
  55. 55. The CPUC, CARB, CEC, CIWMB, CalEPA, CDF&FP, Resources Agency, Food & Ag, Dept. of Gen’l Svcs, SWRCB are trying to figure out how to implement the 20% Policy.
  56. 56. The CEC is now deciding on continuation of the ‘off-peak’ subsidy. Will it continue? If so, at what level?
  57. 57. Conclusions The California biomass industry future depends on: 1. Implementation of the 20% Policy; 2. The future determination of SRAC; 3. Fuel availability from Federal lands; 4. Continuation of the “Off-Peak” subsidy
  58. 58. Send Guns, Money, and Lawyers

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