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  1. Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human Person
  2. CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, including icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik. Lesson 1: What is Philosophy? What is real? Are we able to perceive and understand and everything in it? How do we know what we know? Are the things that we know true? What is the ultimate cause of all things? What is our purpose in this world? To what extent are our choices and actions considered “free” ?
  3. Have you ever found yourself wondering about the things you experienced or where your life is headed? Have you ever encountered a situation where you had to think about the “ deeper” questions in life? Throughout our lives, we have wondered about many things which lead us to ask a lot of questions. As we grow older, our questions are influenced by our experiences and circumstances. We find ourselves asking more “serious” questions.
  4.  The word Philosophy comes from two Greek words: philos (love) and sophia (wisdom).  Among the ancient Greeks, the philosophers became pioneers in various fields of knowledge such as history, biology, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and physics. It was quiet common to hear of ancient philosophers who were “experts” in various fields of learning.  The ancient Greeks used this term to refer to “love of wisdom” and they soon applied it to the study or discipline that uses human reason to investigate the ultimate causes, reasons, and principles which govern all things.  People who engage in Philosophy are called philosophers or “lovers of wisdom”
  5. The Following Are The Most Notable Ancient Greek Philosophers
  6. Phythagoras (570 BCE to 495 BCE) A mathematician and scientist, he was credited with formulating the Pythagorean theorem. His work earned him many followers, and the established a community of learners who were devoted to the study of religion and philosophy.
  7. Heraclitus (535 BCE to 475 BCE) He proposed that everything that exists is based on a higher order or plan which he called logos. For him, change is a permanent aspect of a human condition as he was credited with saying “No man ever steps in the same river twice”
  8. Democritus (460 BCE to 370 BCE) He devoted himself to the study of the causes of natural phenomena. He was among the first to propose that matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms.
  9. Diogenes of Sinope( 412 BCE to 323 BCE) He was a known advocate of living a simple and virtous life. For Diogenes, one should not only talk of virtue but should show it in words and actions. His emphasis on austerity and simplicity often went to the extreme, and he was said to have lived like a beggar. He was also known to be a vocal critic of well-known philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle. His teachings and views were later developed by his followers and influenced the development of several schools of Philosophy such as Cynicism and Stoicism.
  10. Epicurus (341 BCE to 270 BCE) He believed that philosophy could enable man to live a life of happiness. His views gave rise to Epicureanism – a school of philosophy which believes that wisdom and simple living will result in a life free of fear and pain.
  11. Socrates (470 BCE to 399 BCE) He was considered the foremost philosopher of ancient times. Socrates was a known critic of intellectuals during his time, but he himself did not claim to be “wise” and merely considered himself a “midwife” that helped inquiring minds achieve wisdom. He was credited with formulating the Socratic Method – means of examining a topic by devising a series of questions that let the learner examine and analyze his knowledge and views regarding the topic.
  12. Plato (427 BCE to 347 BCE) A student of Socrates, he wrote down his mentor’s teachings and incorporated some of his own ideas into them. Plato’s most significant ideas including his Theory of Forms, which proposes that everything that exists is based on an idea or template that can only be perceived in the in the mind. Plato is also known for his dialectic – a method of inquiry where two opposing ideas and discussed in an attempt to arrive a new knowledge. Plato’s lasting contribution to learning was his founding of the Academy, an institution of higher learning which was the first of its kind in the Western World.
  13. Aristotle (384 BCE to 322 BCE) He attended the Academy, and was a prominent student of Plato. Aristotle, however, disagreed with Plato’s Theory of Forms and took a different stance in interpreting reality. For him, all ideas and views are based on perception and our reality is based on what we can sense and perceive. Aristotle was involved in a great variety of disciplines such as zoology, psychology, ethics and politics. He also proposed a system for the classification of plants and animals. His studies in logic led to the formulation of a formal process of analyzing reasoning which gave rise to deductive reasoning – the process by which specific statements are analyzed to reach a conclusion or generalization.
  14. Why is there a need to philosophized? Philosophers have often wondered and argued about the role of philosophy in man’s life. One view is that each one of us is a philosopher, whether or not we have studied philosophy. We all have the potential to philosophized since we have the tendency to wonder and doubt. We possess the capacity to reflect on our experiences and we have a never-ending need to learn and discover.
  15. Take note! The Greek philosopher Plato traced man’s need to philosophized to his sense of wonder. Whenever we are confronted with an experience, we always wonder how it came about. The 15th-century French philosopher Rene Descartes traced the need to philosophize to doubt. The 20th-century Swiss-German philosopher Karl Jaspers saw the need to philosophize because of experience.
  16. Take note! Finally, the need to philosophize is driven by the love for wisdom. To love wisdom is to have an insatiable desire for truth. A philosopher does not seek to claim ownership of it; and one who engages in philosophy is not satisfied with figuring out the answer to a question. He seeks to continue to question, to probe, and to discuss in order to get to the bottom of things
  17. How do characterize the study of philosophy?
  18. One way of looking at philosophy is to consider it as a way of analyzing frameworks. A framework is defined as away of thinking about the world and is composed of the views and beliefs of a person.
  19. Questions dealing with our own correctness and values are considered internal questions which can be addressed using our own personal frameworks. Also, there are external questions that seek to question the very frameworks upon which people base their own beliefs and views.
  20. Philosophy itself is a distinct area of knowledge with its own goals, concerns, and ways of doing things. It is often divided into several branches each of which deals with a particular aspect of life and phenomena.
  21. The philosophy which deals with beauty and what make things beautiful is called Aesthetics. Logic is the branch of philosophy which deals with correct reasoning, while Epistemology discusses the nature of knowledge and knowing. Ethics is the branch which deals with moral questions and dilemmas, while Political Philosophy studies governments and deals with questions of justice, power and the rights and obligations of citizens. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy which deals with questions regarding reality and existence. Although, not a branch of itself, Philosophy of the Human Person is an area in philosophy that understands the human person from a philosophical perspective. “Philosophy does not limit itself to its own field”
  22. As a discipline As an examination of knowledge As an analysis of frameworks PHILOSOPHY Analyze the characteristics of Philosophy by expanding the graphic organizer
  23. What is the difference between holistic thinking and partial thinking? Partial thinking, on the other hand, focuses on specific aspects of a situation the partial views is an important component of analytical thinking as an individual focuses on certain areas or aspects of a problem on order to understand it. Holistic thinking refers to a perspective that considers large- scale patterns in systems. This is often described as looking at the big picture when describing and analyzing a situation or problem.
  24. How does one engage in reflection? Reflection requires a person to be willing to examine one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions and to learn more about one’s life and experiences. One can reflect on almost any subject. For instance, the moment you wake up you can already reflect upon the things that you plan to do for the day.
  25. Philosophy has an important place in our daily lives. Engaging in philosophical reflection leads to the development of beneficial skills that individuals can apply in everyday situations. What are the practical uses of philosophy in our lives?
  26. What are the practical uses of philosophy in our lives?  Philosophy enables a person to engage in critical analysis and interpretation of concepts, definitions, arguments, and problems.  Philosophy improves problem-solving and decision making.  A philosopher is a good communicator who can clearly and adequately present his or her ideas.  Wisdom is one intended product of philosophizing.  Knowledge of philosophy can contribute to self-development.
  27. Identify the following. 1. It is the study or discipline that uses human reason to investigate the ultimate causes, reasons, and principles which governs all things. 2. The Greek tern for philosophy, philosophia, means ______ 3. The Greek philosopher Plato believes that philosophy is brought about by man’s sense of _______ 4. He believed that philosophy could enable man to live a life of happiness. 5. Rene Descartes considers this as a reason why people philosophized. 6. His work earned him many followers, and he established a community of learners who were devoted to the study of religion and philosophy. 7. A branch of philosophy which deals with questions regarding reality and existence. 8. It is an activity that requires a person to examine his or her thoughts, feelings, and actions and learn from experience. 9. It is perspective that considers the bigger picture when looking at problems and situations. 10. Focuses on specific aspects of a situation. Activity 1