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23.80 NOTICES & PROCEDURES USED ON SITE
Hazards exist in every workplace in many different forms: sharp edges, falling objects, flying
sparks, chemicals, noise and a myriad of other potentially dangerous situations. The
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) require that employers protect their
employees from workplace hazards that can cause injury.
Controlling a hazard at its source is the best way to protect employees. Depending on the
hazard or workplace conditions, OSHA recommends the use of engineering or work practice
controls to manage or eliminate hazards to the greatest extent possible. For example, building
a barrier between the hazard and the employees is an engineering control; changing the way
in which employees perform their work is a work practice control.
When engineering, work practice and administrative controls are not feasible or do not
provide sufficient protection, employers must provide personal protective equipment (PPE) to
their employees and ensure its use. Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as
"PPE", is equipment worn to minimize exposure to a variety of hazards.
Examples of PPE include such items as gloves, foot wear and eye protection, protective
hearing devices (earplugs, muffs), hard hats, respirators and full bodysuits.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is designed to protect against safety and/or health
hazards. Hard hats, safety glasses, and safety boots, for instance, are designed to prevent or
reduce the severity of injury if an accident occurs.
Other PPE, such as hearing and respiratory protection, is designed to prevent illnesses and
unwanted health effects. It is important to remember that PPE only provides protection. It
reduces the risk but does not eliminate the hazard. PPE should only be considered as a control
measure when exposure to a risk cannot be minimized in another way, or when used in
conjunction with other control measures as a final barrier between the worker and the hazard.
PPE does not control the hazard at the source.
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Personal protective equipment
To ensure the greatest possible protection for employees in the workplace, the cooperative
efforts of both employers and employees will help in establishing and maintaining a safe and
healthful work environment.
In general, employers are responsible for: Performing a "hazard assessment" of the workplace
to identify and control physical and health hazards;
Identifying and providing appropriate PPE for employees.
Training employees in the use and care of the PPE.
Maintaining PPE, including replacing worn or damaged PPE.
Periodically reviewing, updating and evaluating the effectiveness of the PPE program.
In general, employees should: Properly wear PPE.
Attend training sessions on PPE.
SAFE WORKING PRACTICE
Companies should establish Safe Work Practices/Safe Job Procedures for addressing
significant hazards or for dealing with circumstances that may present other significant
risks/liabilities for the company. Some regulations require employers to have written
procedures/instructions for specific activities/conditions. The number of practices/procedures
and the degree of detail will depend on the range of work activities your company performs.
It is important that management and supervisors are involved in the development of safe
work practices and that they provide adequate training for workers likely to follow these
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PROTECTION REQUIRED FOR THE PUBLIC AT LARGE
The law says that business must be conducted without putting members of the public at risk.
This includes the public and other workers who may be affected by your work.
The public can be seriously injured by:
Materials or tools falling outside the site boundary.
Falling into trenches; or being struck by moving plant and vehicles.
The project client or co-ordinator should provide information about:
Construction site boundaries
adjacent land usage
access to the construction site; and
measures to exclude unauthorized persons
The client’s pre-construction information should include:
adjacent land use
measures to exclude unauthorized people.
Managing site access
Site boundaries: the boundaries need to be defined physically, where necessary, by
suitable fencing. The type of fencing should reflect the nature of the site and its
surroundings. Determining the boundary is an important aspect of managing public
Questions you need to ask yourself include:
What is the nature and type of the construction work?
How heavily populated is the area is?
Who will need to visit the site during the work?
Will the site attract children?
What are the site characteristics (e.g. existing site boundaries, location, and
proximity to other buildings).
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Typically, in populated areas, this will mean a two-metre high small mesh fence or
hoarding around the site.
Authorization: The principal contractor must take reasonable steps to prevent unauthorized
people accessing the site.
People may be authorized to access the whole site or be restricted to certain areas;
Relevant site rules should be explained to authorized people and necessary site
induction should be conducted;
One may need to supervise or accompany some authorized visitors may need while
they are on site or visiting specific areas.
HAZARDS CAUSING RISK TO THE PUBLIC
Many hazards have the potential to injure members of the public and visitors. Consider if
they exist on your project and how you will manage them.
Falling objects – It must be ensured that objects cannot fall outside the site boundary.
On scaffolds this can be achieved using toe-boards, brick guards and netting.
Walkways may also be necessary.
Delivery and other site vehicles - Make sure pedestrians cannot be struck by
vehicles entering or leaving the site. Obstructing the pavement during deliveries may
force pedestrians into the road, where they can be struck by other vehicles.
Scaffolding and other access equipment - Prevent people outside the boundary
being struck while they are erecting, dismantling and using scaffolding and other
Storing and stacking materials - You can reduce the risks associated with the
storage of materials by storing materials within the site perimeter, preferably in secure
compounds or away from the perimeter fencing.
Openings and excavations - People can be injured if they fall into excavations,
manholes, stairwells or from open floor edges. You’ll need to put up barriers or
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Other hazards include -
Slips, trips and falls within pedestrian areas.
Plant machinery and equipment.
Electricity and other energy sources.
dust, noise and vibration and
The elderly, children and people with certain disabilities may need special attention. Work in
premises such as schools and hospitals need careful thought and planning. Some children are
drawn to construction sites as exciting places to play. You must do everything you can to keep
them out of the site and away from danger.
The following specific steps are particularly relevant to child safety;
Secure sites adequately when finishing work for the day.
Barrier off or cover over excavations and pits.
Isolate and immobilize vehicles and plant and if possible lock them in a compound.
Store building materials (such as pipes, manhole rings, and cement bags) so that they
cannot topple or roll over.
Remove access ladders from excavations and scaffolds.
Lock away hazardous substances.
Traffic management on site
The law says that you must organize a construction site so that vehicles and pedestrians using
site routes can move around safely.
The routes need to be suitable for the persons or vehicles using them, in suitable
positions and sufficient in number and size.
The term vehicles includes: cars, vans, lorries, low-loaders and mobile plant such as
excavators, lift trucks and site dumpers etc.
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The key message is: construction site vehicle incidents can and should be prevented
by the effective management of transport operations throughout the construction
Keeping pedestrians and vehicles apart
The majority of construction transport accidents result from the inadequate separation
of pedestrians and vehicles. This can usually be avoided by careful planning,
particularly at the design stage, and by controlling vehicle operations during
The following actions will help keep pedestrians and vehicles apart:
Entrances and exits - provide separate entry and exit gateways for pedestrians
Walkways - provide firm, level, well-drained pedestrian walkways that take a
direct route where possible.
Crossings - where walkways cross roadways, provide a clearly signed and lit
crossing point where drivers and pedestrians can see each other clearly.
Visibility - make sure drivers driving out onto public roads can see both ways
along the footway before they move on to it;
Obstructions – do not block walkways so that pedestrians have to step onto the
vehicle route; and
Barriers - think about installing a barrier between the roadway and walkway.
Keeping pedestrians and vehicles apart
Minimizing vehicle movements
People on site
Signs and instructions
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Minimizing vehicle movements
Good planning can help to minimize vehicle movement around a site. For example,
landscaping to reduce the quantities of fill or spoil movement. To limit the number of
vehicles on site:
provide car and van parking for the workforce and visitors away from the work area.
control entry to the work area.
plan storage areas so that delivery vehicles do not have to cross the site.
Employers should take steps to make sure that all workers are fit and competent to
operate the vehicles, machines and attachments they use on site.
training drivers and operators;
managing the activities of visiting drivers.
People who direct vehicle movements (signallers) must be trained and authorized to
Accidents can also occur when untrained or inexperienced workers drive construction
vehicles without authority. Access to vehicles should be managed and people alerted
to the risk.
The need for vehicles to reverse should be avoided where possible as reversing is a major
cause of fatal accidents.
One-way systems can reduce the risk, especially in storage areas.
A turning circle could be installed so that vehicles can turn without reversing.
If vehicles reverse in areas where pedestrians cannot be excluded the risk is elevated and
visibility becomes a vital consideration.
Aids for drivers - mirrors, CCTV cameras or reversing alarms that can help drivers
can see movement all-round the vehicle;
Signallers - who can be appointed to control manoeuvres and who are trained in the
Lighting - so that drivers and pedestrians on shared routes can see each other easily.
Lighting may be needed after sunset or in bad weather;
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Clothing - pedestrians on site should wear high-visibility clothing.
Signs and instructions
Make sure that all drivers and pedestrians know and understand the routes and traffic
rules on site. Use standard road signs where appropriate.
Provide induction training for drivers, workers and visitors and send instructions out to
visitors before their visit
The law says that clients and contractors have responsibilities regarding welfare facilities on
Contractors provide welfare facilities and clients must ensure this happens.
The pre-construction information prepared by the client should include the
arrangements for welfare provision.
The client must ensure the construction phase does not start unless they are satisfied
that there are arrangements for welfare facilities to be provided.
Contractors must maintain the facilities throughout the life of the project.
The nature and scale of facilities required will depend on the size, location and type of
project. Facilities include:
Changing rooms and lockers
Facilities for rest
Toilets should be suitable and sufficient, ventilated, lit and kept in a clean and orderly
condition. Washing facilities must be provided so that workers can use them immediately
after using the toilet or urinal, even if they are provided elsewhere.
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b) Washing facilities
General washing facilities must be suitable and sufficient, kept clean and orderly and with
basins or sinks large enough for people to wash their face, hands and forearms.
The facilities should include:
• clean hot and cold, or warm, running water.
• soap or other suitable means of cleaning.
• towels or other suitable means of drying.
• showers where the nature of work is particularly dirty or there is a need to
c) Drinking water
Drinking water must be provided or made available at readily accessible and suitable
Cups are required unless the supply is in a jet from which people can drink easily.
Changing rooms and lockers
Changing rooms are needed where workers have to wear special clothing for the
purposes of their work and cannot be expected to change elsewhere.
The rooms must be provided with seating, means of drying and keeping clothing and
personal effects secure.
d) Facilities for rest
Rest rooms or rest areas are required equipped with tables and seating (with backs)
sufficient for the number of persons likely to use them at any one time.
There should be arrangements for meals to be prepared and eaten, plus means for
boiling water. In cold weather, heating should be provided.
CONTROL PROCEDURES FOR THE STORAGE OF SUBSTANCES HAZARDIUS
Hazardous materials that need to be considered include dust, asbestos and respirable
crystalline silica (RCS).There may also be material or contamination on site that has not been
cleared, for example:
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acids from industrial processes
Microbiological hazards (especially in old hospital buildings).
a) Control Strategies
Personal protective equipment should be the last resort in defence. Better alternatives lie in
engineering controls that eliminate as much of the risk as possible. Engineering controls fall
into five categories:
alternative work methods
This control substitutes a less toxic chemical that can do the same job. A common
example is the substitution of calcium silicate or fiberglass insulation for asbestos
insulation. Substitution is an effective control as long as the substitute is less
c) Alternative Work Methods
This simply means doing the job in a way which is less hazardous. For example,
brushing or rolling paint produces much lower vapor levels than spray painting.
Similarly, wet removal of asbestos releases up to 100 times less dust than dry
removal. The change should be checked to ensure that it is safer.
Isolation isolates the worker from the hazard. In a quarry, for example, the operator of
a crusher can be isolated from dust by a filtered, air-conditioned cab.
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A substance or procedure may be enclosed to contain toxic emissions. It may be as simple as
putting a lid on an open solvent tank.
Enclosures have also been built around compressors to reduce the noise level.
Enclosures must not restrict access when maintenance is required.
A common engineering control is to dilute the contaminant in the air by using general
Local ventilation is better because it removes the contaminant. General ventilation may
employ fans to move large volumes of air and increase air exchange. This is not suitable,
however, for highly toxic materials
RECORDING PROCEDURES FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF ACCIDENTS
In case of emergency it is the responsibility of the employee to report such cases to the site
foreman. Who will notify all personal on site, take relevant precautions and notify all relevant
parties are fully informed.
Recording accidents and dangerous occurrences
All accidents should be reported to the senior representative on site. Who will report to
relevant authorities? The occurrence (accident) / dangerous occurrence) will be noted in the
accident book and a review will be carried out with a report of what precautions should be
put in place to prevent any further accidents. The findings will be made available to all
employees, contractors and any other relevant body.
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First aid and welfare provisions
Management shall ensure that suitable Welfare facilities and arrangements to administer First
Aid are established for all its office and operational activities. Management shall determine
the welfare and first aid requirements in accordance with the relevant standards and the risk
assessments carried out.
a. First Aid.
Management is responsible to ensure:
That adequate first aid equipment is provided on site and employees with
responsibility for the Group’s work places shall ensure that it is kept fully replenished.
where conditions, materials, processes or equipment cause special risk, appropriate
additional training and arrangements are made, as identified by risk assessment:
that persons lone working away from Group premises are provided with a travelling
first aid kit and have received suitable training.
Management shall ensure that there are suitable facilities at all work places, taking account of
the number of personnel, in accordance with the requirements of the Workplace (Health,
Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992:
We follow the guidelines of the Reporting Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
(RIDDOR) for the reporting of accidents and incidents. Child protection matters or
behavioral incidents between children are NOT regarded as incidents and there are separate
procedures for this.
1. Our accident files:
are kept safely.
are accessible to all staff and volunteers, who know how to complete it; and
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are reviewed at least half termly to identify any potential or actual hazards.
Ofsted is notified of any injury requiring treatment by a general practitioner or hospital
doctor, or the death of a child or adult. When there is any injury requiring general practitioner
or hospital treatment to a child, parent, volunteer or visitor or where there is a death of a child
or adult on the premises, we make a report to the Health and Safety Executive using the
format for the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences.
DEALING WITH INCIDENTS
We meet our legal requirements for the safety of our employees by complying with RIDDOR
(the Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations). We report to the
Health and Safety Executive:
any accident to a member of staff requiring treatment by a general practitioner or
any dangerous occurrences. This may be an event that causes injury or fatalities or an
event that does not cause an accident but could have done, such as a gas leak.
Any dangerous occurrence is recorded in our incident book.
Our incident book
We have ready access to telephone numbers for emergency services, including the police.
Where we are responsible for the premises we have contact numbers for gas and electricity
emergency services, carpenter and plumber. Where we rent premises we ensure we have
access to the person responsible and that there is a shared procedure for dealing with
We keep an incident book for recording incidents including those that are reportable to the
Health and Safety Executive.
In the incident book we record the date and time of the incident, nature of the event, who was
affected, what was done about it - or if it was reported to the police, and if so a crime number.
Any follow up, or insurance claim made, should also be recorded