• After the Ottomans defeat the Byzantine Empire they continued expanding into
the Balkans. The Ottoman Turkish Empire will move its capital from Bursa to
3. • Growth of the Ottoman Empire:
• . Expansion and apogee (1453–1566).
• Bayezid II:
• When Bayezid II was enthroned upon his father's death in 1481, he first had to fight
his younger brother Cem Sultan, who took Inegöl and Bursa and proclaimed himself
Sultan of Anatolia. After a battle at Yenişehir, Cem was defeated and fled to Cairo.
The very next year he returned, supported by the Mameluks, and took eastern
Anatolia, Ankara and Konya but eventually he was beaten and forced to flee to
Rhodes .Ottoman civil war(1509-1513) .
• Selim I
• During his reign, Selim 1 was able to expand the empire's borders greatly to the
south and east. He defeated the Mameluks and conquered most of modern
Syria, Lebanon , Land of Israel, and Egypt, including the holy city of Jerusalem as well
as Cairo, the residence of the Abbasid caliph. Thus, Selim was able to proclaim
himself caliph of Islam.
• Suleiman the Magnificent
• Thereafter, attention reverted to the west, and Suleiman I, upon ascending the
throne in 1518, led a series of campaigns into the Balkans. Under Suleiman, a
brilliant strategist, the Ottomans advanced steadily northward, taking Belgrade, the
capital of Serbia in 1521, defeated Hungryin 1526, and besieging Vienna in 1529.
4. • Selim II
• Sokollu Mehmed Paşa was one of the Grand Viziers of
Suleiman but he gained absolute power after the death of
Suleiman. During the reign of Selim II, he became the real
ruler of the Ottoman Empire, a situation which lasted until
Mehmed Pasha's death in 1579.
• Revolts and revival (1566–1683)
• Ahmed I
• In the earlier part of his reign Ahmed I showed decision and
vigour, which were belied by his subsequent conduct. The
wars which attended his accession both in Hungary and in
Persia terminated unfavourably for the Empire, and her
prestige received its first check in the Treaty of
Sitvatorok, signed in 1606, whereby the annual tribute paid by
Austria was abolished. Georgia and Azerbaijan were ceded to
5. • Osman II
• Osman II after securing the Empire's eastern border by signing a
peace treaty with Safavid Iran, he personally led the Ottoman
invasion of Poland during the Moldavian Magnate Wars. Forced to
sign a peace treaty with the Polish after the Battle of Chotin
(Chocim) (in fact siege of Chotin by the Polish hetman Jan Karol
Chodkiewicz) in September–October, 1621, Osman II returned
home to Constantinople in shame, blaming the cowardice of the
Janissaries and the insufficiency of his statesmen for his
• Murad IV
• Murad IV was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to
1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for
the brutality of his methods. Murad IV's reign is most notable for a
war against Persia in which Ottoman forces conquered
Azerbaijan, occupied Tabriz, Hamadan, and, in the last great feat of
Imperial Ottoman arms, captured Baghdad in 1638. Murad IV
himself commanded the invasion of Mesopotamia and proved to be
an outstanding field commander.
• The city of Istanbul was the crossroads of trade between the East
and West. Caravans and ships carried silk, tea, spices and porcelain.
Ships from Venice and Genoa carried goods to Europe. From the
Black Sea and southern Russian came ships with furs, grain and
amber and from Europe mirrors and drugs. Ships from Venice and
Genola carried goods to Europe.
• Profit was limited to 10% and the government tried to insure trade
was conducted fairly and moved securely over the trade routes
.Foreign trade needed the permission of the government and
exports were tightly controlled. The main exports were
leather, skins and wool. Items needed for the military such as wood
for shipbuilding, minerals and food were rarely allowed to be
• The largest sector of the economy was the agricultural sector.
Engaging an estimated 80-90% of the working age population.
9. Coffee became associated with the Ottomans for Europeans.
European merchants in Istanbul brought coffee to
Europe and there were coffee houses in London by the1650s
The early Ottoman allies, the French were
the first Europeans to be granted trade
rights in 1534. The English were allowed in
1567 and in 1581 Queen Elizabeth I granted
the Turkey Company an exclusive charter to
trade with the Ottoman Empire.
10. • Guilds
Most trades had a guild with a specific dress. Most guilds were linked with a certain religious sect and
one or two patron saints and there were religious ceremonies in the initiation ritual. The guilds attained a
high degree of workmanship, but advances were slowed by all the regulations
• Taxation and the Treasury
Ottoman coin with tugra (monogram) of sultan
Abdul Hamid II
11. • Taxation was not applied uniformly throughout the
empire, usually between 10-20%. Taxation on
Muslims was done with tithes, non-Moslems paid a
poll tax. There were also numerous taxes in everyday
life which Moslem and non-Moslems paid marriage
tax. After Mehmed II, the job of tax collection was
given to the highest bidder. There were two
Treasuries, one for the government and another for
the sultan. The sultan received a fifth of all booty, a
10 % death tax and all property of civil servants on
their death in addition to the numerous luxurious
gifts he received sultan owned all lands except for
those of the mosques. Official registers were kept of
all the animals, crops of the large timar and zimat
• Millet - Separate legal courts , Communities allowed to rule under own system.
• Grouped by religious confessions
• Empire was dynastic
• Character determined by military and administrative power
• Attempting to increase territory.
• Every non- Muslim absorbed into empire -> protected subjects
• Integrated into every level of society
• Sense of unity & qualified individuals continued to do their parts
• Wear distinctive clothing
• Paid special taxes
• Separate courts, schools & welfare
• Treated well
• Every sultan had a vizier
• Seen as 2nd most powerful in empire
• Usually a slave
• Military draft for Christian children
• Be part of elite military force
• Fearless warriors
• Best education
• Paid well with higher standard of living (slaves)
• Toleration for other beliefs (unique)
• Did not force religion
• Muslims not allowed to convert
• Preference was given to Muslims
• Women given freedom
– Better rights than woman through Europe
– Lived woman's quarters known as a Harem.
• Ottoman traditions relied on slave concubinage & legal
marriages for reproduction.
• 16th century both male and female members of
imperial family used title ‘Sultan’.
• The Ottoman Empire had filled roughly the
territories around the Mediterranean Sea and
Black Sea while adopting the traditions, art and
institutions of cultures.
• Making art with ceramics, tile decorations,
paintings, singing, dance and act.
• Women-Chokers and long necklaces were used
by Ottoman ladies. Gold coins were strung on
long gold or silver chains or on a string of pearls.
Such necklaces were worn by rich women.
• 1st Islamic religious buildings consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations.
• Domed architecture style evolved from Bursa & Edrin, 14th&15th centuries.
• Developed from earlier Seljuk architecture after conquest of Constantinople
• Byzantine architecture such as church of Hagia Sophia (main source if inspiration)served as models for many
• Synthesized with architectural traditions of Middle East and Mediterranean.
• Highest level of architecture in their land since
• Perfect harmony between inner & outer spaces
• Architectural light and shadows
• Seemingly weightless , yet massive dome.
• Classical period under influence of MIMAR SINAN saw new unifications and harmonization's of
various architectural parts
• Syncretic blends of influences and adoptions to Ottoman needs.
• Domed structures used but proportions changes
• Freed interior structure from colanders & other structural elements that broke up the inside(everything unnecessary
eliminated, every part considered in relation to a whole)
• Added more light , huge windows
• Inner & outer court yards added
• Soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, turkish baths and tombs added to mosques.
• Tekkes – buildings constructed to house dervishes and holy men.
• Often joined to mosque
• Continues central domed structure.
• Stone & brick used together.
19. Mimar Sinan
• 1492 – 1588
• Created 334 buildings
• Master architect of this period
• Simplicity of design often attributed to fact that Sinan
& other Ottoman architects were 1st trained as military
• Everything in building were subordinated to imposing central
• Domes and acending buttresses lead eye up & down buildings
• Open space of surrounding courtyards prevented buildings
from being swallowed by surrounding city
• Royal architecture masterpiece -> Palace complex of
Topkupi Saray at Istanbul.
• The Ottoman cavalry depended on high speed and mobility rather than heavy
armour, using bows and short swords on fast Turkoman and Arabian horses .
• Ottoman Turkish was a Turkic language highly influenced by Persian
and Arabic. The Ottomans had three influential languages: Turkish,
spoken by the majority of the people in Anatolia and by the
majority of Muslims of the Balkans except in Albania and Bosnia;
Persian, only spoken by the educated; and Arabic, spoken mainly in
Arabia, North Africa, Iraq, Kuwait and the Levant. Throughout the
vast Ottoman bureaucracy Ottoman Turkish language was the
official language, a version of Turkish, albeit with a vast mixture of
both Arabic and Persian grammar and vocabulary. If the basic
grammar was still largely Turkish, the inclusion of almost any word
in Arabic or Persian in Ottoman made it a language that was
essentially incomprehensible to any ethnic Turkish Ottoman subject
who had not mastered Arabic, Persian or both.
• Paper bank notes, rather than coins.
• The Ottoman Empire formalized postal delivery services
• It also created formalized identity documents (originally only for men!)
• They introduced steam powered commuter ferries
24. Clothing/ Hair
• Historically, there was little difference in clothing worn by women and men. Both
wore tunics and caftans over pants. The main difference was in the use of head
coverings, or veils, and in the more observant Muslim circles, a face covering was
also worn. Seasonal changes impacted the choice of materials, with lighter weight
fabrics used in the warmer months and wools and furs for colder weather
• The headdresses, as with clothing and jewellery was more or less ornate in
accordance with status and means.
• The rich wore clothing befitting their status, while the poor were concerned only
with covering themselves for warmth and modesty.
• The wealthy wore fur-lined caftans, richly embroidered with themes inherited
from the Byzantine era. In the 19th century, the commonly worn turban was
sometimes replaced with a fez.
• Shoes were high heeled and had pointy toes.
• In the 16th century, women wore a two-layered shawl on their heads.
25. • Women's clothing became more flamboyant in the detailing and embroidered
design. in the larger cities of Istanbul and Izmir, the prevailing fashions were
created, and trickled through to the outlying regions. This was the beginning of
tailoring as we know it today, and also the start of hair being used as an
accessory, put up in lavish buns, and embellished with jewels. Headpieces often
had a central stone suspended on chain or ribbon, or braid, placed on the
• Men wore a high-crowned cap, made of sheepskin or felt.
• Men and women wore Jelicks, or vests, which among the people of means were
richly embroidered. They were worn over a long white chemise or shirt, and
trousers and belted with a sash.
• The men wore turbans, the same style as worn by Sikhs today.
• Tithe yashmak or niqab is a face covering, still worn by women today to preserve
modesty.one fine piece of cloth is worn over the head and another over the nose
and mouth, with just the eyes showing.
• Turkish men wore a jacket called a dolman, which was a jacket, similar to those
worn by the Cossacks
• Little has changed. Coffee was highly ritualized then, as it is still, and so was the smoking of the
negilah, or hookah. Raki, very similar to ouzo was commonly drunk, but one would assume not by
followers of Islam.
• Many of the foods enjoyed today have their origins in the days of the Ottoman Empire, and include
swish kebab, doner, and baklava, a sweet pastry with honey, nuts and spices, enjoyed world wide
• Food was diverse, with many of the foods commonly eaten during the time of the OE still being
found worldwide today. Swish kebabs, baklava and flat breads being among the many foods eaten.
• Often gravies dishes were served with flat breads, to sop up the sauces. Dips of various kinds were
also eaten with flat breads. Ottoman cuisine has influenced many areas of cooking across the
• Many foods were made for easy transportation, and we're eaten with the hands, so self contained
parcels, wrapped in vine leaves, stuffed vegetables, perfect for containing rice, nuts and meat.
• Sweet foods were wrapped in pastry, like baklava.
• Minced meats were wrapped around sticks and cooked.
• Part of the reason for this was that armies are mobile, and eating is more easily done on the move
when food is presented this way
• The Ottoman Empire is well known for its adornments.
Metals used were gold and silver, with the more valuable
metal being used as gifts for weddings among the elite, and
silver being more commonly used by the less wealthy, but
for the same reason. The inherent values of the gifts were
viewed as a means of investment.
• Designs were elaborate and fine, and a lot of the pieces
were intricate filigree work. In less affluent circles, designs
• Gold and precious stones were applied not only to
wearable jewellery but also to articles of everyday objects
such as book covers, utensils, weapons etc. using a variety
of materials such as leather, ivory, glass, bone, mother-of-
pearl, horn, wood and metals such as zinc.
30. • Silver most common material used as gold was reserved for the elite
• In rural areas jewellery was simpler and often incorporated gold
• Most goldsmiths Christian American and Jewish.
• Jewellery reached peak in 16th century
– Not only wearable. They decorated everyday objects
• Materials included
– Leather - ivory – glass – bone – pearls – horn – wood – zinc.
– rubies – emeralds – carnelian – amethyst – jade.
• Jewellery was ornate & extremely colourful
• Differs from rest of europe
• Instead of strict symmetry, the nature of stone & material given
– Natural characteristics of stone are a feature in ottoman jewellery
• As Ottoman empire expanded, so did jewellery production.
31. • Aigrettes -> worn by sultan & noble woman
– symbol of power.
• Hair pins -> important piece of jewellery in woman head ornaments
– Mainly flower motifs
• Earrings -> thought to emphasise beauty of hairstyle & dress of
• Gold bangle-> given as gifts (often wedding gifts) as a sort of
‘savings’ . Sold when money was needed.
• Chokers and long necklaces -> gold coins strung on long gold/silver
chains or string of pearls
• Jewelled gold, silver, pearl or ivory belts
– Essential accessory of ottoman women
– Buckle floral or geometric