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Drug information system.pptx

  1. Gopal Pokhrel M.Pharm
  2. Drug information system  Huge number of drugs have been coming in the past years and a pharmacist have to provide drug related information to medical, nursing staffs and patients which leads to the need of drug information centre in the hospital.  The centre might contain electronic record system  It is the process of providing drug related information.
  3. Common sources of drug information  Medical journal  Drug bulletins  Drug information sheet
  4. Who is responsible?  The hospital pharmacist is responsible to provide relevant information about drugs.  He/she does it through drug information centre.  The drug information centre publishes a drug information bulletin for transmission of information to members of the health care team.
  5. Sources of drug information  Primary sources  Secondary sources  Tertiary source
  6. Primary sources  It is the source that includes information by the author(s) without any evaluation.  These are the original pieces of information which have not been interpreted, condensed or commented upon by any other person.  E.g.: thesis
  7. It consists of:  Patents that contain original information regarding the discovery of a drug  Scientific journals e.g. British medical journal  Conference  Thesis/research paper
  8. Advantages of primary sources  Information from primary literature is current and original.  Many articles undergo review by the various persons before an article is accepted to publish, thereby incorporating unbiased views and suggestions to improve the quality of the report.
  9. Disadvantages of primary sources  With any research report, flaws in study methodology may lead to inaccurate conclusions.  Since the information presented in primary literature is so new, it may take time before wide acceptance.
  10. Secondary sources  It is the one where the original source of information has been selected, modified, rearranged, interpreted or condensed.  They are usually abstracts that summarize the information of primary sources.  It consists of Formularies Pharmacopeia Abstract
  11. Advantages of secondary literature  Provides quick access to the primary literature.  Provides a broad scope on specific topic.  The journal sources are reviewed and of a high standard.
  12. Disadvantages  The time period between publication and conversion into secondary sources can vary depending upon database.  The number of journals encompassed depend on the scope and relevancy of the database.
  13. Tertiary source  Tertiary sources consist of primary and secondary source information which has been collected and distilled.  It does not answer the problems concerned but act as a pointer or guide to where it may be found.  It includes: Dictionaries Encyclopaedia
  14. Advantages of tertiary sources  Tertiary references are convenient to use.  Usually the information contained in tertiary literature is well accepted in medical sciences.
  15. Disadvantages  Space limitation within a text may prevent extensive discussion of a drug or topic.  Insertion of any updates and new information on the topic is time consuming.
  16. How to use literature  Once pharmacist received the question, he/she has to follow a series of orderly steps in order to arrive at the answer. 1. First the background information is obtained: it refers to whether the information being sought is of a general nature or it relates to a specific patient. 2. A systematic research of literature is made: The usual order of search is tertiary, secondary then primary. 3. A response is given.
  17. Drug information bulletin  This bulletin publishes the latest development in medical sciences, new drugs introduced, new indications for drugs, adverse drug reactions etc.  It is the responsibility of the drug information centre, run by pharmacist, to publish the bulletin.  A regular publication of the bulletin will update the knowledge of the drugs on patient care.  Doctors and pharmacists are the primary audience for most drug bulletins.  Some bulletins, however, are read by a broader range of health professionals, including nurses and community health workers, and a few reach the general public.
  18. Drug information center (DIC)  Drug information centers are service providers, which provide drug information relating to therapies, pharmacoeconomics, education and research programs.  According to WHO, “DIC is an independent center that is accessible to any health professional regarding all queries about drug.”  It is usually a unit located within the hospital which may include a pharmaceutical library.
  19. Resources and facilities of DIC  Staffing: people trained in library science and pharmacy, medicine or pharmacology is needed. Additional training in drug information and computer based information system is desirable.  Reference materials: DIC should have the latest publications and ideally publish a newsletter or other bulletins. It must contain books, journals, manufacturer’s literature and other drug information sources.  Technological facilities such as computers with internet, phones, faxes etc. are required.
  20. Drug information centers in Nepal  Some of the representative examples in Kathmandu that are initially identified as potential sites for drug information centers are:  1. Department of Drug Administration (DDA), ministry of health  2. Drug Information Unit (DIU), Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH).  3. Resource Centre for Primary Health Care (RECPHEC), a local non-governmental organization  4. Nepal Chemists and Druggists Association (NCDA), a professional association for retailers and wholesalers.
  21. Drug information network of Nepal (DINoN)  DINoN is an initiative to develop and disseminate information about the proper use of drugs, possible adverse reactions, contraindications, toxicity, drug standards and efficacy, precautions and proper storage and handlings of drugs to health care professionals and patients.  DINoN was established on 23rd September 1996 with multisector participation including government, academic and non-government institutions to provide unbiased information on drugs.
  22. Founder members of DINoN  DDA, Ministry of Health and Population  TUTH, DIC  Nepal Chemists and Druggist Association (NCDA)  Resource Center for Primary health care (RECPHEC)  Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC).
  23. Drug information approaches  For the proper functioning of DICs, while giving information to the inquirer, the drug informer should understand the intention of inquirer, his/her background, nature of the question and should ask all the needed questions to get the ultimate question.
  24. Step by step description of Drug information approach:  Step 1: ask demographics of the requestors: It is important to know whether the inquirer is medical or non-medical personnel/ educated or non-educated personnel. So you should ask name, location, phone, email, etc.  Step 2: obtain background information: The following questions can be asked to determine what additional information should be provided.  Is he/she taking medicines? For what purpose?  Where does he/she heard about the drug?
  25.  Step 3: determine the ultimate question: All the information should be put together to form the ultimate question/s.  Step 4: develop strategy and conduct research: It should be done this way: tertiary to secondary to primary literature.  Step 5: evaluate, analyze and synthesize a good reply.
  26.  Step 6: formulate and give a response: The response can be formulated in a logical way that may include introduction, body and conclusion parts.  Step 7: follow-up and documentation: It is always a nice step to check whether the inquirer get the required reply or not. Documenting all the steps is another important task of the process.