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Industrial ecology- the missing link for sustainable resource recovery

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Industrial ecology- the missing link for sustainable resource recovery

  1. 1. Industrial Ecology- The missing link for sustainable resource recovery Grant Musgrove, CEO
  2. 2. About ACOR • Australia’s peak representative of the resource recovery and recycling industry • Advocate on behalf of the industry to influence government policy and decision making • Work closely with the Federal and the State Government to promote a sustainable and productive economy
  3. 3. The “old” waste hierarchy • This is linear, not circular, but a useful intermediate /transitional framework grantm@acor.org.au
  4. 4. Linear Vs Circular C&P Linear C&P • Unsustainable consumption and production • Materials lost in the value chain • High operation and production cost • Increase pressure in landfill • Loss of residue energy Circular C&P • Sustainable consumption and production • Materials are reused/ recycled • Mitigate the impacts of resource volatility • Reduce waste generation • Save up to 80% of upstream energy
  5. 5. What are the challenges of businesses and industries facing today?
  6. 6. “Peak Resources” is Past Us! Need Industrial Ecology for Radical Resource Efficiency
  7. 7. Future Pathway of Waste? Sustainability of Current System? grantm@acor.org.au 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 In$million Waste Exports Paper Metal Plastics
  8. 8. Source: RBA 2013
  9. 9. Volatility has been increasing since peak resources: bad for supply chain certainty/ resource recovery
  10. 10. Increasing Waste Generation 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Waste generated Population GVA Source: ABS Waste Account 2013
  11. 11. Secondary Resource Prices Are Not Telling the Truth: They are too Expensive!! • P- price • Q – quantity • D- demand • MPC – marginal production cost • BUA/regulatory cost– marginal cost from regulating a resource as a waste P QD MPC MPC +BUA cost
  12. 12. Dimensions of Resource Scarcity Physical Not accessible Decline of ore grade Depletion of reserve Economic Price volatility Market development Skill shortage Geopolitical Resource nationalism Political stability Regional conflicts Technological Supply bottlenecks Lack of innovations Environmental Social license to operate Climate change Environmental standards
  13. 13. China’s Green Fence Policy • Come into effect in February 2013 • Higher standards on imports of recycled material to promote circular economy • Reject shipments considered to have a contamination rate of 1.5% or higher – Loads of shipping containers that carried recyclable materials have been rejected • Provide discounted prices for local manufacturing companies to purchase new equipment for manufacturing recycled products CHINA is moving fast to a circular economy
  14. 14. Other issues • Information gap between waste generators and recyclers in relation to material inputs and outputs • Increasing operation cost of recyclers subject to carbon tax liability • Increasing production cost of manufacturers due to high resource prices • Loss of valuable commodities and materials suitable for recycling due to export and loss to landfill • Environmental and social issues
  15. 15. Opportunities and Barriers to Industrial Ecology
  16. 16. Opportunities • The total value of resource recovery in Australia is over $9.5 billion • NSW EPA supports the development of IEP – Waste Less, Recycle More strategy: $465.7 million package over 5 years – $4 million investment in the IE program over 4 years – Sustainability Advantage Program • NSW 2014 recycling targets
  17. 17. Increasing NSW Recycling Rates 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 2002-03 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11 MSW C&I C&D Overall Source: Waste Less, Recycle More 2013 %
  18. 18. Barriers to IE • Legislation and regulation – High- level resource recovery policies & strategies are inadequately integrated across govt portfolios, e.g. industry policy, environmental planning, regulation and enforcement – Current legislation/ regulation is too strict on wastes, esp. prescribed wastes inhibit firms’ search for industrial waste reutilization – Different jurisdictions have different interpretations on the definition of waste
  19. 19. Barriers to IE (Cont.) • Costs of licensing and approvals – Time consuming (up to 5 years), complicated assessment process • Not enough markets to absorb recyclables and quality issues (contamination) • Lack of communication between product manufacturers and recyclers
  20. 20. Barriers to IE (Cont.) • Site location and planning – Difficulties in obtaining development approval when aspects such as location, community agreement and capital cost are in place – Lack of certainty about planning policy – The site location is often ‘out in the bush’ or lacks of social license to operate= complaints= NIMBY
  21. 21. What is Required for Success?
  22. 22. Recommendations • resource recovery and recycling policy integration and alignment • The definition of waste needs to narrow so that the inherent value of recyclable materials can be reflected • Clear and consistent definitions of waste and resource recovery
  23. 23. Recommendations (Cont.) • No legislative constraint on businesses to favour recycling/IE as long as the materials do not threaten human and environmental health • Master plan for approvals to ease the costs and streamline the approval process • A broad network of the IEP to facilitate and support interactions between industries • “Rethink design” = Made to be made again
  24. 24. Reduce unnecessary complexity in streams
  25. 25. A Precinct and Partner Identification Program (PPIP) • Deliver both bi- lateral symbiotic relationships for existing businesses • Work with companies and governments on precinct identification and development • Create new investments opportunities in industrial processes, mining and agriculture
  26. 26. PPIP Key Process Steps • Maximum source separation of waste – Green waste, recyclables, hard/ difficult/ problem wastes and residual waste • Creation of infrastructure and technology advancement – Reduce material separation and pre- sorting costs • The development should be gradual and led by industry
  27. 27. Elements of PPIP • Accessible and user friendly for the community • Accept and process a wide range of wastes • Diverse business activities • Industry- led • Driven by economic motivations • Maximise the output of energy from waste • Operate 7 days
  28. 28. Key Facilities • A composting or Biochar operation- Green waste • A MRF- Recyclables • An energy from waste plant- Residual materials • An e- waste plant • A drop off centre
  29. 29. Organic waste Glass, paper, cardboard, beverage cans, etc E- waste Batteries, paint, oil and chemicals Residual Waste (wood, textiles, masonry) Recycling Process Manufacturing industry Composting Facility MRF Residual Derived Fuel Domestic Consumption Export Market Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Renewable Energy
  30. 30. Outcomes • Reduction of illegal dumpling • Sustainable employment creation and investment opportunities • Less resilience on landfill • Business cost reduction and improved community relations • Support local re- manufacturing, reprocessing and national and international trade • Develop export markets for recovered resources • Create revenue streams from commodities
  31. 31. Transitioning Towards Industrial Ecology and a Genuinely Sustainable Materials Economy Means… • To provide ‘correct’ incentives for behavioural change, the regulation of wastes (BUA’s, storage regulations) being applied to “wastes” needs to cease when the waste becomes a resource as long as the “negative externalities” (harm to environmental, and human health) cease to exist • This should be risk based regulation reflecting the magnitude and probability of occurrence of negative environmental ‘externalities’ • Industrial ecology is potentially a great business model too because of ↑ resource prices/input costs! • Govt policy is contradictory, both promoting and constraining simultaneously • We may need to start with a blank piece of paper, and share the pen around!

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Used by Government and industry
    All resources are inherently limited
    Avoidance=cost minimisation should not be at the expense of viable recovery options
    Its not going to work
  • Waste in the value chain:
    a large volume of materials are lost in the chain between raw material extraction and final manufacturing process
    loss of materials in the food production process
  • Price volatility levels for metals, food, and non-food agricultural output in the first decade of the 21st century were higher than in any single decade in the 20th century. Prices and volatility are likely to remain high as populations grow and urbanise, resource extraction moves to harder-to-reach locations, and the environmental costs associated with the depletion of natural capital increase

    Towards the circular economy vol. 1 p. 18
  • Paper, Plastics and Metals exports up and up: but going to china!!!!!!!!!!!
    They only want the good stuff
    Sick of being a toxic dump for the world
    Note glass, LCA, cost reduction, light weighting issue, lost resource at design phase
  • Food Commodity Price: cereals, sugars, dairy products, meats (FAO 2013)
    Agricultural materials: fertilizer, machinery, labour, pesticides

    Towards the circular economy vol. 1 p. 19
  • Notes:
    The total waste generation in Australia was 53.7 million tonnes in 2011-12, in which 24.9 million tonnes is to landfill.
    The amount of waste generated in NSW has increased from 11.8 million tonnes in 2002- 03 to 17.1 million tonnes in 2010-11.
  • Market failure which does not take into consideration marginal social costs of packaging in order to internalise this market failure price needs to contain marginal social , economic and environmental cost including the cost of recovery and recycling
  • Declining ore grades– zinc, lead and particularly copper and nickel will be affected, as will precious metals such as gold and platinum, rare metals already running out
    Low hanging fruit — the high quality large deposits have already been found, lower economic attractiveness of new projects, cost inflation
    Price and currency volatility
    Market restrictions - a number of emerging economies such as Indonesia have either imposed or are considering new export restrictions on a variety of metals
    High risk – greenfield projects located outside traditional mining countries face multiple challenges. Citigroup suggests that a quarter of these may not be developed before 2020, with a further 40% at risk.
    Increasing interdependence of resource systems - closely interlinked on the local level and increasingly on the global level
    Access -Supply bottlenecks for much needed and scarce equipment
    Lack of innovation and technological advancements
    Environmental group and labor risks, mining unrest — lack of a social license to operate, incredibly difficult and lengthy permitting processes
    Climate change, accidents and natural disasters


  • Notes:
    Increasing production cost– A Euro- barometer survey found that more than half of companies in manufacturing, construction, water, food services and agricultural sectors spend at least 30% of their total cost on materials. Almost 90% of the businesses expected the prices will go up in the future (Bleischwitz 2011).

  • NSW Waste Less, Recycle More Strategy
    $250 million to waste and recycling infrastructure package

    Sustainability Advantage Program
    Industrial ecology focus
    Over 630 organisations involved
    Cost saving over $50.4 million
    80, 000 tonnes of industrial waste reused or recycled
  • Statistics of NSW’s recycling rate:
    MSW: 52% (2010-2011) 66% (2014 target)
    C&I: 57% 63%
    C&D: 75% 76%
    Overall in 2010- 2011: 63%
  • Note:
    High- level resource recovery policies & strategies are inadequately integrated across govt portfolios, e.g. industry policy, environmental planning, regulation and enforcement
    E.g. Alternative waste technology: the marketing of organics or alternative fuel resources from municipal solid waste (MSW) are hampered by EPA preventing their beneficial use
    Energy rich resources, such as non- marketable paper and plastics derived from MSW are not allowed to be used by industry as alternative fuels. These materials are being disposed in landfill
    2) Strict legislation/ regulation
    Decreases the value of recyclable resources and impedes optimal resource recovery performance
    Kalundborg, Denmark:
    Govt provides flexibility over the treatment of wastes as long as the wastes are provided not to cause human and the environmental harm.
    Confusing definition
    E.g. Use of Ash
    Ash generators have to go through BUA for the use of ash as fertilize. However, BUA does not apply to fertilizer manufacturers for the use of ash.
  • Note:
    Difficulties in obtaining development approval
    Development consent from local government
    Developer has to provide:
    Environmental assessments, e.g. EIA/ EIS
    Integrated development assessment
    Project approvals
    Waste licensing
  • Rethink design:
    policy makers should align thinking to accelerate what needs to be pushed
    Producers and waste managers should work together to increase the efficiency of collections for recycling and the design for disassemble
    “Cradle to cradle” approach: how the products can be recycled at the end of life
    Reference: http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/2013/06/debate-over-the-role-of-design-for-recycling-and-the-move-to-a-c.html
  • diversity of chemistry
  • Resource recovery and recycling industry is the main driver for IE!!!!!!
  • Accessible:
    Easy access to expressway, ports or major transport route
    Facilities should be recognises as an “issue of State significant’ rather than locating them “out in the bush” or located where they will incur higher transportation costs.

    Led by Private Sector:
    Main driver for industrial ecology is financial initiatives whilst government regulation plays a smaller role
    Role of government is to provide initiatives for private sector to invest in technology and infrastructure rather than direct regulation to enforce or encourage industrial ecology

    Driven by economic motivations:
    Financial gain
    Companies reduce costs by using the by- products of other companies
    Avoiding transport costs
    Purchasing resources below market prices

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