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Imikhakha emithathu yohlelo lolimi
lwesiZulu
1
IsiZulu
Mine imikhakha yokucwaningwa
kolimi
• Isifundo semisindo (Phonology= phone+ology)
• Isifundo sezakhi (Morphology = morph+o...
Isifundo semisindo: Ifonoloji
(phonology)
• Isifundo semisindo simayelana nokuphinyiswa
kwemisindo olimini ngalunye. (a, b...
Isifundo sezincazelo: Isemanthiki
(Semantics)
• Lesi sifundo simayelana nencazelo oyithola
egameni, emagameni, noma emshwe...
Isifundo sezakhi kanye nesemisho
(Morophology and Syntax)
• Isifundo sezakhi siqondene ngqo nezakhi ezakha
amagama, amabin...
Imisindo YesiZulu
EsiZulwini njengakwezinye izilimi
imisindo yehlukene kathathu:
Onkamisa, osingankamisa kanye
nongwaqa
6
Onkamisa
• Lena yimisindo esithi uma siyiphimisa sikhamise,
yingakho kuthiwa ngonkamisa.
• IsiZulu sinonkamisa abahlanu: /...
Sichaza onkamisa
• Onkamisa abaphezulu (high vowels): /i/, /u/
• Onkamisa abaphezudlwana noma abaphakathi
nendawo (mid-low...
Osingankamisa esiZulwini
• Lena yimisindo ezenza onkamisa yingakho
kuthiwa ngosingankamisa. Iphinyiswa
ngokuthi ucishe ukh...
Sichaza osingankamisa
• /w/: uphezulu, usemuva futhi udilingene.
Uthini wena?
• /y/: uphezulu, uphambili, futhi akadilinge...
Isifundo Sezincazelo/
Semantics
Isifundo sezincazelo simayelana nezincazelo
zamagama, zeqoqo lamagama noma
umusho ophelele...
Izincazelo zamagama
• Ngokwencazelo IsiZulu njengezinye izilimi
sinamagama esiwehlukanisa kanjena
ngokwencazelo yawo:
- A)...
Ophimbohluka
• Lana ngamagama abhaleka ngokufana kodwa ahlukanayo
ngokwephimbo lapho uwaphimisa:
Ugogo
Ingoma
Ufunani?
Umf...
Omabizwafane/Puns
• La magama kuthiwa angomabizwafane ngoba lapho
uwabiza ayefana kodwa izincazelo zawo azifani. Ngamanye
...
Omqondofana/Synonyms
• Lawa ngamagama ahlukene amabili noma ngaphezulu
kodwa anencazelo eyodwa efana ncamashi:
ibhuku > in...
Omqondophika/Antonyms
• Amagama abhaleka abuye aphimiseke ngokungefani,
amqondo uphikisana nowelinye
uvukuvale –
umfokazan...
Ofuzamqondo
• La magama anomqondo elinye elifuze owelinye:
- umsila –
- ucingo –
- inkatha –
- inqola –
- ingonyama –
- us...
Ukulandelana Konkamisa/
Vowel juxtaposition
EsiZulwini onkamisa abalandelani.
Imithetho yesiZulu iyakuphika ukuthi
imisind...
Uma onkamisa belandelana nazi
izinguquko ezenzekayo emisindweni:
• Ukulumbana konkamisa (vowel coalescence)
• Ukweqiwa kon...
Uma onkamisa belandelana
balumbana benze unkamisa omusha
• Unkamisa ophansi + unkamisa ophezulu =
unkamisa ophakathi nenda...
Ukulumbana konkamisa kwenzeka
ngaphansi kwalezi zimo:
• Uma kusetshenziswa isakhi sesihlanganiso /na/:
na+abantu = nabantu...
Ukweqiwa konkamisa/ Vowel elision
• Uma onkamisa belandelana ngesinye isikhathi
abalumbani kodwa omunye wonkamisa uyeqiwa
...
Ukweqiwa konkamisa
(kuyaqhutshwa)
• Ukweqiwa konkamisa ngempoqo: lokhu
kuvamise ukwenziwa ekuqaleni kwegama:
Lo mfana akez...
Ukweqiwa konkamisa
(kuyaqhutshwa)
• Seqa unkamisa uma ibizo landulelwa yisenzo
esiphikayo: Angifuni kuzwa lutho okushoyo.
...
Ukweqiwa konkamisa
(kuyaqhutshwa)
• Uma isabizwana soqobo, umuntu okhulumayo
noma okukhulunywa naye, sandulela ibizo:
Nina...
Ukweqiwa konkamisa
(kuyaqhutshwa)
• Uma onkamisa belandelana siyameqa omunye ngenxa
yohlelo olungakuvumi ukulandelana konk...
Ukukhuphuka konkamisa/
Vowel raising
Uma onkamisa abaphezulu [i, u]
belandela uhlamvu olunonkamisa [e,
o], laba onkamisa a...
Izimo zokukhuphuka konkamisa
• Uma unkamisa /i/ elandela u-/o/ no-/a/ kulezi zindawo:
- Esijobelelweni sikandaweni:
inkonz...
Ukungwaqazisa / Consonantalisation
• Ukungwaqazisa kwenzeka uma onkamisa
belandelana egameni:
uku+akha > ukwakha;
uku+azi ...
Amagama abhalwa ngokufana kodwa
aphinyiswa ngokungafani
• La magama kuthiwa angophimbohluka ngoba
kwehluka iphimbo lapho s...
Ukusonga – Imisindo
• Sithe ukwehlukana kwephimbo emagameni
kuletha incazelo engafani. Lokhu kusitshela
ukuthi uma sikhulu...
Ukulwangisa/
Palatalisation
EsiZulwini kunongwaqa abangonsinini
nabangondebembili abaguqukayo
babe ngolwangeni ezimeni ezi...
Izimo okwenzeka ukulwangisa
ngaphansi kwazo
• Ukulwangisa kwenzeka ngaphansi kwezimo
ezilandelayo (Palatalisation occurs u...
Ukunciphisa amabizo
• Ukulwangisa yinguquko eyenzeka emisindweni lapho imisindo
engondebembili nengonsinini iphenduka iba ...
Ukwenza ondaweni
• Imbobo > embotsheni
• Isampompo > esampontshini
• Umlomo > emlonyeni
• Izinsipho > ezinsisheni
• Isibub...
Ukwenza impambosi yokwenziwa
• Umfana uhlatshwe yiva. (hlaba > hlatshwa)
• Inja ilunywe yinyoka. (luma > lunywa)
• Isigubh...
Ukwenza izinciphiso
• imbobo > imbotshana
• ikopi > ikotshana
• Isampompo > isampontshana
• iphaphu > iphashana
• insimu >...
1ST, 2ND AND 3RD PERSON
• First person Okhulumayo Mina ngi- /
• Thina si-
• Second person Okukhulunywa naye Wena u- /
• Ni...
• Module 1-2 IZIMPAWU ZESIZULU
• IZIMPAWU ZESIZULU/ZESINTU EZISEMQOKA
• 1. Izigaba zamabizo (Amabizo anesiqalo):
• umu- x ...
3. IsiZulu sinethoni/iphimbo:
• Úfúnani? ‘What does he/she want?’
• Ùfúnani? ‘What do you want?’
• Ínyangá ‘moon’ x Ínyang...
6. IsiZulu sisebenzisa izenzukuthi:
• Kumhlophe qwa; Kuthele kuthe du;
• Induku iqonde thwi; Ibomvu tebhu
• 7. Kubalwa nga...
Module 3-1 Noun class prefixes.doc
IZIGABA ZAMABIZO
ISIGABA ISIBONELO ISIQALO
ESIJWA-
YELEKILE
ISIQALO
SENKAMBISO
(esigcwe...
Luyini uhlelo lolimi?
• Singathi lena yindlela ehlelekile yokufunda ngemigomo
nezimiso zolimi. Singasho futhi ukuthi yisif...
Kunemikhakha emine okuhlelwa ulimi
ngaphansi kwayo. Le mikhakha nansi:
• 1. ISemanthiksi
• 2. IFonoloji
• 3. IMofoloji
• 4...
• ISemanthiksi wumkhakha wokuhlela ulimi ogxile
encazelweni noma engqikithini yemiyalezo
eyedluliswa yigama, idlanzana lam...
Ukuhlonzwa kwamagama
• Kukhona izingqalabutho zosozilimi ekufundweni kwezilimi zaboMdabu base-Afrika. Igama
eligqama kakhu...
• Separability: Igama liyehlukaniseka ngokufaka elinye
phakathi kwamagama.
• - USipho uthanda imicimbi./ USipho yena uthan...
Ukugxekwa kwendlela kaDoke yokuqoqela
ndawonye amagama ngokwezigaba
1. UDoke akasho ukuthi yimuphi umsebenzi kanye nesakhi...
Ukuhlonza amagama ngokukaVan Wyk
1. UVany Wyk usebenzisa amazinga/imikhakha yokucwaningwa kwezilimi ukuhlonza
amagama: Ifo...
Nawa amagama angakwazi ukuzimela esiZulwini:
(a) U-na oyisakhi sokuhlobanisa/igama elingakwazi ukuzimela elikhomba ukuhlob...
Module 2, Section 2
Ibizo
2. NgokweSemanthiksi: Ibizo yigama lento embambekayo
(concrete) noma engabonakali (abstract): it...
Izinhlobo Zamabizo
1. Ibizo loqobo/Ibizoqho
• umuthi, umuzi, isihlahla, uthi
1. Amabizo angondaweni
• ekhaya, ezulwini, es...
Izinhlobo zesabizwana
1. Isabizwana soqobo:
• bona, yena, lona
1. Isabizwana sokukhomba:
• le nto, lesiya sitsha, leyo mbi...
Izinhlobo zezenzo
1. Izenzo ezizimele (main verb)
2. dlala, khahlela, dlula, khala, hleka
3. Insizasenzo (auxiliary verb)
...
Izinhlobo zesandiso
1. Isandiso sesimo (adverb of manner)
• kahle, kabi, masinyane, kamnandi, kalula, kanzima,
kakhulu, ka...
Amagama angakwazi ukuzimela
1. Elesichasiso: ezinhle, elimanzi
2. Eliyisibanjalo: USimangele muhle.
3. Isibanjalo esiphika...
Izibanjalo zokukhomba
1.Esikhomba eduze: nazi, naba, yilezi
2.Esikhomba buqamama: nazo, nabo, yilezo
3.Esikhomba kude: naz...
Izinhlobo zezibabazo
• Izibabazo zikhombisa imizwa eyahlukene. Nansi eminye yemizwa
eziyikhombisayo:
1. Ukucasuka: Mamesha...
UKULANDELANA KWAMAGAMA
OKUVAMILE EMUSHWENI
1. S V O
(Inhloko/Umenzi Isenzo umenziwa
[N S M])
• Lena yindlela ejwayelekile ...
Ukulandelana kwamagama okwejwayelekile
emshweni kungaguquka phansi kwezimo
ezithile. Ake sithi janti kule misho:
(a)Umfana...
Isivumelwano sikamenzi kanye nesikamenziwa
nendawo ezitholakala kuyo esenzweni
(a) Isivumelwano sikamenzi/senhloko siba ng...
Isintsheksi Yebizo:
(a) Ibizo lingasebenza njengenhloko emshweni. (Izingane zidlala umacashelana.)
(b) Ibizo lingasebenza ...
Isintsheksi Yesenzo
(a) Isenzo sisebenza njengesilandiso (predicate)
- Amantombazane adlala ingqathu.
(a) Isenzo singasebe...
Izandiso ziyizinhlobo ezintathu esiZulwini.
Kukhona isandiso sesimo, esendawo
kanye nesenkathi.
• Izandiso
(a)Isandiso ses...
Izabizwana Nezivumelwano Zokhulumayo Kanye
Nokukhulunywa Naye
Okhulumayo: mina (ubunye); thina (ubuningi)
Isiv. ngi- (umen...
ISIGABA 1 NO-1
• Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele: /umu-/
• Isiqalo esigcwele sivame ukuhambisana namabizo anez...
ISIGABA 3
• Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele: /umu-/
• Isiqalo /umu-/ sisebenza emagameni anesiqu esilungaliny...
• ISIGABA4
1. Isiqalo esijwayelekile/ senkambiso esiphelele: /imi-/
2. Amabizo akulesi sigaba awubuningi bamabizo akusigab...
ISIGABA 5 + 6
• Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele/esiphelele: /ili-/ (5) no-/ama-. (6)
• Akujwayelekile ukuthi l...
ISIGABA 7 + 8
• Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso sesigaba 7. Isiqalo esehlukile u-/is-/ sisebenza kuphela namabizo
aneziq...
IZIGABA 9 NO-10
1. Iziqalo zenkambiso zala mabizo: isigaba 9 = in(i), isigaba 10 = izin(i)
2. Kawasekho amabizo esiZulwini...
IZIGABA 11 NO-10
1. Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele sesigaba 11: /ulu-/
2. Kulesi sigaba imvamisa asisebenzisi...
ISIGABA 14
1. Isiqalo esejwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele ssesigaba 14: /ubu-/
2. Amabizo akulesi sigaba awakhombisi ubun...
ISIGABA 15
• Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele: /uku/
• Lesi sigaba saziwa njengesamabizo asazenzo.
• Amabizo a...
ISIGABA SE-16
•
• Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele: /pha/
• Lesi yisigaba esaziwa ngokuthi ngesamabizo angonda...
ISIGABA 17
1. Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele: /uku-/
2. Njengesigaba se-16, isigaba se-17 saziwa njengesigaba...
Module 3, Section 2
•
• Ukusebenza kwebizo njengomenzi:
• Uyini umenzi/inhloko emshweni?
• Yinto noma umuntu owenza okubal...
Isivumelwano senhloko/sikamenzi –
ukuvuma
1. Isivumelwano sikamenzi/senhloko sisuselwa kusiqalo-ngqo sesigaba sesigaba ibi...
Ake sithi ukubheka kabanzana ukuthi isivumelwano senhloko
sakheka kanjani. Sakheka kanjani-ke?
• Isivumelwano senhloko sak...
ISINTHEKSI YESENZO
• Izenzo zakheke kanjani? Izenzo ngokujwayelekile
zakheke kanjena (inkathi yamanje – ukuvuma):
isivumel...
Inkathi yamanje eqhubekayo (ukuvuma):
Isenzo Isivumelwano
senhloko
Isakhi senkathi
yamanje
Umsuka
wesenzo
Unkamisa
ogcinil...
• Izivumelwano zikamenzi ezikhomba ukuphika
eziqabeni ezineziqalo ezinomankankane (m, n),
ziyehluka kulezo ezivumayo ngoba...
Okwenzekayo lapha yilokhu:
1. Sifaka usingankamisa /w/ phakathi kwesakhi sokuphika /a/ kanye
nesivumelwano senhloko esigab...
Isivumelwano senhloko ecashile (impersonal subject morpheme):
Kuyabanda; Kuyaziwa lokho; Kuyafiwa.
• Kuyenzeka izinhlokok ...
UKUSEBENZA KWEZIVUMELWANO
ZENHLOKO NEZIQU EZIQALA
NGONKAMISA
• EsiZulwini kukhona iziqu zezenzo eziqala ngonkamisa: e.g. a...
• Iziqu zezenzo eziqala ngonkamisa /i/ kuthiwa zinonkamisa
ocashile. Lokhu kushiwo ngoba inguquko eyenzekayo kulezi ziqu
y...
• Izivumelwano zikamenzi ezandulela iziqu zezenzo eziqala ngonkamisa:
• Isigaba Isivumelwano
1. w-
2. b-
• 1a w-
• 2a- b-
...
Ukusebenza kwamabizo njengomenziwa
emshweni:
(a)Indawo ejwayelekile kamenziwa emshweni: ulandela isenzo eduze
(b)Umenziwa ...
Isivumelwano sikamenziwa:
(a)Isivumelwano sikamenziwa sandulela isiqu sesenzo.
(b)Izakhi zilandelana kanjena esenzweni: is...
ISIVUMELWANO SIKAMENZIWA UMA UMENZIWA
EBUYE ABE NGUMENZI
(a) Kuyenzeka umenzi nomenziwa kube yibizo elilodwa emshweni:
• U...
ISAKHIWO/IMOFOLOJI YESENZO
• Isenzo esisabizo yisona esithathwa njengesenzo esinesakhiwo
esiyisisekelo. Zonke izenzo zisus...
Izinguquko Ezakhiweni Zesenzo
(Morphological processes)
• Kukhona izinguquko ezenzekayo esenzweni, kwengezwe
nezakhi ezith...
Compounding – Ukuhlanganisa amagama
ahlukene ayizingcezu zenkulumo ezahlukene
ukwakha ibizo elithile (imvamisa kuba yisenz...
1. Ukuguquka okwenzeka kusiqu: ukuhlala > uhlala (isenzo esiyisekelo uma kufakwa isivumelwano sikamenzi, kususwa
isiqalo k...
UBUDLELWANE BAMAGAMA ESIZULU EMSHWENI
UMENZI
│
↓
ISENZO
│
↓
UMENZIWA
│
↓
ISANDISO
│
sesimo
↓
ISANDISO
│
sendawo
↓
ISANDISO...
3.1.1 THE POSITION OF THE SUBJECT IN THE SENTENCE
The basic word order, as indicated above, may change. Even though the de...
a. V O S
↓ ↓ ↓
Ifunda incwadi intombazane
‘She reads the letter the girl.’
b.
S O V
↓ ↓ ↓
Intombazane incwadi iyayifunda.
...
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Imikhakha

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Imikhakha emithathu yohlelo lolimi lwesiZulu

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Imikhakha

  1. 1. Imikhakha emithathu yohlelo lolimi lwesiZulu 1 IsiZulu
  2. 2. Mine imikhakha yokucwaningwa kolimi • Isifundo semisindo (Phonology= phone+ology) • Isifundo sezakhi (Morphology = morph+ology) • Isifundo sezincazelo (Semantics) • Isifundo semisho (Syntax) 2
  3. 3. Isifundo semisindo: Ifonoloji (phonology) • Isifundo semisindo simayelana nokuphinyiswa kwemisindo olimini ngalunye. (a, b, c, d, e, njl) • Isifundo solimi simayelana nemigomo okukanye imithetho elawula ukulandelana kwemisindo okuvumelekile kanye nokungavumelekile. (vh, tf, hh) • Siphinde sibe mayelana nokuguquguquka kwemisindo olimini. (umbombo = embonjeni) 3
  4. 4. Isifundo sezincazelo: Isemanthiki (Semantics) • Lesi sifundo simayelana nencazelo oyithola egameni, emagameni, noma emshweni. • Simayelana namagama amqondofana, amqondophika, kanye namqondomningi. • Siphinde sibe mayelana nezincazelo: esobala, esikiselwayo necashile • Masisho nokho ukuthi kukhona ukuxhumana phakathi kwemikhakha eyahlukahlukene yokuhlelwa kolimi. 4
  5. 5. Isifundo sezakhi kanye nesemisho (Morophology and Syntax) • Isifundo sezakhi siqondene ngqo nezakhi ezakha amagama, amabinzana noma iqoqo lamagama. • Isifundo sezakhi sibheka ukuthi izakhi zihlangana kanjani ukuze zenze igama elithile noma amagama athile asuke ebhekwa. (Umfana omncane uhleli ngasemnyango.) • Isifundo semisho siphathelene nokuthi kunezindlela ezivumelekile kanye nezingavumelekile zokukhuluma. Yile mithetho ecashile eyenza sikwazi ukumthola olimini umuntu uma ekhuluma ukuthi akayena umZulu kahle. 5
  6. 6. Imisindo YesiZulu EsiZulwini njengakwezinye izilimi imisindo yehlukene kathathu: Onkamisa, osingankamisa kanye nongwaqa 6
  7. 7. Onkamisa • Lena yimisindo esithi uma siyiphimisa sikhamise, yingakho kuthiwa ngonkamisa. • IsiZulu sinonkamisa abahlanu: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, no-/u/ • Uma sichaza onkamisa sibheka ukuthi lowo nkamisa uphinyiswa kuphi: Ngabe uphezulu, uphezudlwana, uphansi, uphambili okukanye usemuva. • Ake sibheke umfanekiso wolimi. 7
  8. 8. Sichaza onkamisa • Onkamisa abaphezulu (high vowels): /i/, /u/ • Onkamisa abaphezudlwana noma abaphakathi nendawo (mid-low): e, o • Unkamisa ophansi: /a/ • Onkamisa abaphambili: /i/, /e/ • Onkamisa abasemuva: /o/, /u/ • Onkamisa abadilingene: /o/, /u/ • Onkamisa abangadilingene: /i/, /e/, /a/ 8
  9. 9. Osingankamisa esiZulwini • Lena yimisindo ezenza onkamisa yingakho kuthiwa ngosingankamisa. Iphinyiswa ngokuthi ucishe ukhamise umlomo nayo. • EsiZulwini sinosingankamisa ababili: /w/, /y/. • Nokho kukhona abacwaningi abathi imisindo elandelayo nayo ingosingankamisa ngoba nakuyo uma siyiphimisa siyakhamisa njengakubo onkamisa: /h/, /hh/. 9
  10. 10. Sichaza osingankamisa • /w/: uphezulu, usemuva futhi udilingene. Uthini wena? • /y/: uphezulu, uphambili, futhi akadilingene. Uthini? • /h/: • /hh/: 10
  11. 11. Isifundo Sezincazelo/ Semantics Isifundo sezincazelo simayelana nezincazelo zamagama, zeqoqo lamagama noma umusho ophelele. Singafunda ngesemanthiki yegama, yeqoqo lamagama kanye neyomusho ophelele 11
  12. 12. Izincazelo zamagama • Ngokwencazelo IsiZulu njengezinye izilimi sinamagama esiwehlukanisa kanjena ngokwencazelo yawo: - A) Ophimbohluka (Polysemies) - B) Omabizwafane (Puns) - C) Omqondofana (Synonyms) - D) Omqondophika (Antonyms) - E) Ofuzamqondo (Words with similar meanings) 12
  13. 13. Ophimbohluka • Lana ngamagama abhaleka ngokufana kodwa ahlukanayo ngokwephimbo lapho uwaphimisa: Ugogo Ingoma Ufunani? Umfundisi úḿfúndísì – uthisha úgógó – umama kamama úgògò – umuntu omude úthì – uma umuntu esho úthí – lokuvungula Kubalulekile ukwazi ukukhombisa ukuguquka kwephimbo kula magama. Bese-ke wazi izincazelo zamagama ngokuphimiseka kwawo 13
  14. 14. Omabizwafane/Puns • La magama kuthiwa angomabizwafane ngoba lapho uwabiza ayefana kodwa izincazelo zawo azifani. Ngamanye amazwi igama elilodwa lingaba nezincazelo ezimbili ezahlukene. Bheka lapha: Icala – uhlangothi; Imbulu – isilwane; umuntu onocenga noma kungasafanele Ikhabe – isitshalo esidliwa siluhlaza; umuntu okwazi ukusebenzisa izandla zombili ngokufanayo Ilanga – imbulunga esemkhathini phezulu; usuku Ake sixoxe ngamanye amagama eniwaziyo. Yimaphi lawo magama? 14
  15. 15. Omqondofana/Synonyms • Lawa ngamagama ahlukene amabili noma ngaphezulu kodwa anencazelo eyodwa efana ncamashi: ibhuku > incwadi ifoni > ucingo isigebengu > inswelaboya umfana > umkhapheyana indoda > injeza inkomo > imanta/imayi ukudla > ukumaya ikhanda > ichelezo Omqondofana bavela ngenxa yokukhula kolimi kanye nesiko lokuhlonipha. 15
  16. 16. Omqondophika/Antonyms • Amagama abhaleka abuye aphimiseke ngokungefani, amqondo uphikisana nowelinye uvukuvale – umfokazana – isigqala – igcokama – isigwili – izaqheqhe – impi – khala – vala – 16
  17. 17. Ofuzamqondo • La magama anomqondo elinye elifuze owelinye: - umsila – - ucingo – - inkatha – - inqola – - ingonyama – - usiba – - ihlamvu – 17
  18. 18. Ukulandelana Konkamisa/ Vowel juxtaposition EsiZulwini onkamisa abalandelani. Imithetho yesiZulu iyakuphika ukuthi imisindo ilandelane 18
  19. 19. Uma onkamisa belandelana nazi izinguquko ezenzekayo emisindweni: • Ukulumbana konkamisa (vowel coalescence) • Ukweqiwa konkamisa (vowel elision/deletion) • Ukulwangisa (palatalisation) • Ukunkankazisa (nasalisation) • Ukungwaqazisa (consonantalisation) • Ukukhuphuka konkamisa (vowel raising) • Ukunsininiza (alveolarisation) 19
  20. 20. Uma onkamisa belandelana balumbana benze unkamisa omusha • Unkamisa ophansi + unkamisa ophezulu = unkamisa ophakathi nendawo, unkamisa ophansi+ophansi= ophansi: > a + i = e (na+inja = nenja; nga+impama = ngempama) > a + u = o (na+umona = nomona; nga+umusa = ngomusa > a + a = a (na+amanga = namanga; nga+amandla = ngamandla) • nganga+ijuba = ngangejuba; njenga+umuntu = njengomuntu; nganga+amanzi = ngangamanzi 20
  21. 21. Ukulumbana konkamisa kwenzeka ngaphansi kwalezi zimo: • Uma kusetshenziswa isakhi sesihlanganiso /na/: na+abantu = nabantu; na+itshe = netshe; na+umuntu = nomuntu • Uma sisebenzisa izakhi zokuqhathanisa: njenga+amasi = njengamasi; okwa+izwe = okwezwe; nganga+uThemba = ngangoThemba; kuna+inja = kunenja • Uma sakha isivumelwano sesiphawulo kanye nongumnini: a+umu = omu- (omuhle); a+isi = esi- (esihle); a+ama = ama- (amakhulu); la+inkukhu = lenkukhu; la+amasi = lamasi; la+umuntu = lomuntu 21
  22. 22. Ukweqiwa konkamisa/ Vowel elision • Uma onkamisa belandelana ngesinye isikhathi abalumbani kodwa omunye wonkamisa uyeqiwa noma alahlwe. • Onkamisa beqewa ngaphansi kwezimo ezintathu: seqa ngokuthanda, seqa ngempoqo, seqe ngokohlelo • Ukweqiwa konkamisa ngokuthanda – seqa ngokuthanda uma sikhuluma ngokushesha: Ingan’ egulayo iphuthunyiswe esibhedlela ngemoto. / Umfan’ omubi ulunguza ewindini. – Qaphela: seqa unkamisa wokuqala! 22
  23. 23. Ukweqiwa konkamisa (kuyaqhutshwa) • Ukweqiwa konkamisa ngempoqo: lokhu kuvamise ukwenziwa ekuqaleni kwegama: Lo mfana akezwa. Baba uyafika, baba uyafika, lutho. • Siphoqeleka ukweqa unkamisa uma sibabaza: Mfana wami! Themba, woza lapha! • Uma isibanjalo sandulela ibizo: Yiyona nkululeko yenu lena. USipho nguyena mfana osahlonipha. 23
  24. 24. Ukweqiwa konkamisa (kuyaqhutshwa) • Seqa unkamisa uma ibizo landulelwa yisenzo esiphikayo: Angifuni kuzwa lutho okushoyo. Akusiniswa mahleza lapha enyuvesi. Angikhulumi manga mina. Akwaziwa mbhantshi kujiya. • Unkamisa siyameqa uma ibizo landulela inani: Mfundisi muni lona oweshela esontweni? Khanda lini leli elingapheli? 24
  25. 25. Ukweqiwa konkamisa (kuyaqhutshwa) • Uma isabizwana soqobo, umuntu okhulumayo noma okukhulunywa naye, sandulela ibizo: Nina bafana nicabanga ukuthi kuyadlalwa. Thina zingane sigqoka kahle. Wena Sipho uyedelela. • Uma isabizwana sokukhomba sandulela ibizo: Lo muntu udlala ngami. Lesi sinkwa simnandi kabi. 25
  26. 26. Ukweqiwa konkamisa (kuyaqhutshwa) • Uma onkamisa belandelana siyameqa omunye ngenxa yohlelo olungakuvumi ukulandelana konkamisa. • Unkamisa wesivumelwano uyeqiwa uma elandelwa isiqu sokubala /-nke/ noma /-dwa/: ba+a+o+nke> bonke; si+a+o+nke> sonke; ni+a+o+dwa> nodwa; ba+a+o+dwa> bodwa • Uma kwakhiwa isivumelwano sikamenzi esenzweni esiqala ngonkamisa: isela (li+eba=) leba imfe; Abafana (ba+osa=) bosa inyama. • Uma sinciphisa amabizo agcina ngonkamisa /-i/ nanezinhlamvu ezingalwangiseki: umsebenzi+ana> umsebenzana; isiyezi+ana> isiyezana; insizi+ana> insizana 26
  27. 27. Ukukhuphuka konkamisa/ Vowel raising Uma onkamisa abaphezulu [i, u] belandela uhlamvu olunonkamisa [e, o], laba onkamisa abaphansi bayenyuka babizeke phezulu 27
  28. 28. Izimo zokukhuphuka konkamisa • Uma unkamisa /i/ elandela u-/o/ no-/a/ kulezi zindawo: - Esijobelelweni sikandaweni: inkonzo > enkonzwéni; emfula > emfuléni - Empambosini yokwenzisa: thetha > théthisa, bona > bónisa - Esiqwini esiphelele esinesijobelelo /-ile/: bona> bónile; hlala > hlálile - Kumabizomuntu asuselwe ezenzweni: thenga > umthéngi; ondla > umóndli - Unkamisa wokugcina ezabizwaneni zokukhomba eduze: léli; lési; lólu; lézi; lókhu; lóbu 28
  29. 29. Ukungwaqazisa / Consonantalisation • Ukungwaqazisa kwenzeka uma onkamisa belandelana egameni: uku+akha > ukwakha; uku+azi > ukwazi; i+aphula > ihhabhula; esango+ini > esangweni, enkonzo+ini > enkonzweni 29
  30. 30. Amagama abhalwa ngokufana kodwa aphinyiswa ngokungafani • La magama kuthiwa angophimbohluka ngoba kwehluka iphimbo lapho siwaphimisa. • Incazelo yala magama iyehlukana ngenxa yokwehluka kwephimbo Umfundisi: úḿfúndìsì (umholi wezenkolo) úḿfúndísì – uthisha úgógó – umama kamama úgògò – umuntu omude úthì – uma umuntu esho úthí – lokuvungula 30
  31. 31. Ukusonga – Imisindo • Sithe ukwehlukana kwephimbo emagameni kuletha incazelo engafani. Lokhu kusitshela ukuthi uma sikhuluma ngesifundo sezincazelo namagama angophimbohluka singawasebenzisa. Ngamanye amazwi ophimbohluka basikhombisa ukuxhumana phakathi kweFonoloji kanye neSemanthiksi. 31
  32. 32. Ukulwangisa/ Palatalisation EsiZulwini kunongwaqa abangonsinini nabangondebembili abaguqukayo babe ngolwangeni ezimeni ezithile 32
  33. 33. Izimo okwenzeka ukulwangisa ngaphansi kwazo • Ukulwangisa kwenzeka ngaphansi kwezimo ezilandelayo (Palatalisation occurs under these circumstances): • - Ukunciphisa amabizo (making diminutives) • - Ukwenza ondaweni (locativising nouns) • - Ukwenza impambosi yokwenziwa (passivation) 33
  34. 34. Ukunciphisa amabizo • Ukulwangisa yinguquko eyenzeka emisindweni lapho imisindo engondebembili nengonsinini iphenduka iba ngolwangeni. Ondebembili: b > tsh [imbobo > imbotshana] p > tsh [ikopi > ikotshana] ph > sh [iphaphu > iphashana] m > ny [insimu > insinyana] mb > nj [insimbi > insinjana] bh > j [isobho > isojana] Onsinini: t > tsh [ikati > ikatshana; imoto > imotshwana] nt > ntsh [isonto > isontshwana] th > sh [isikhathi > isikhashana] d > j [idada > idajana] nd > nj [idanda > idanjana] n > ny [inunu > inunywana] 34
  35. 35. Ukwenza ondaweni • Imbobo > embotsheni • Isampompo > esampontshini • Umlomo > emlonyeni • Izinsipho > ezinsisheni • Isibubhu > esigujini • Igumbi > egunjini ; ithambo > ethanjeni • Masiqaphele ukuthi ayenzeki le nguquko kwamanye amagama: inkomo > enkomeni; indoda > endodeni; isonto > esontweni; idada > edadeni 35
  36. 36. Ukwenza impambosi yokwenziwa • Umfana uhlatshwe yiva. (hlaba > hlatshwa) • Inja ilunywe yinyoka. (luma > lunywa) • Isigubhu sibhotshozwe yisipikili. (bhoboza > botshozwa) • Ngikhashwe umngani wami. (khapha > khashwa) • Umgodi ugujwe yizulu. (gubha > gujwa) • Izimpahla bezitatshwa endalini. (tapa > tatshwa) • Ukhonjwe indlela izolo. (khomba > khonjwa) 36
  37. 37. Ukwenza izinciphiso • imbobo > imbotshana • ikopi > ikotshana • Isampompo > isampontshana • iphaphu > iphashana • insimu > insinyana • Isobho > isojana • imoto > imotshwana • isonto > isontshwana • isikhathi > isikhashana • idada > idajana • idanda > idanjana • inunu > inunywana 37
  38. 38. 1ST, 2ND AND 3RD PERSON • First person Okhulumayo Mina ngi- / • Thina si- • Second person Okukhulunywa naye Wena u- / • Nina ni- • Third person Okukhulunywa ngaye/ngakho Izigaba zamabizo 38
  39. 39. • Module 1-2 IZIMPAWU ZESIZULU • IZIMPAWU ZESIZULU/ZESINTU EZISEMQOKA • 1. Izigaba zamabizo (Amabizo anesiqalo): • umu- x aba-; umu- x imi-; i(li)- x ama-; isi- x izi-; in(i)- x izin(i)- • 2. Kunezakhi eziyisivumelwano: • Abafundi laba abaxoxayo bafunde le (i)ncwadi • Izitshudeni lezi ezixoxayo zifunde lezi (i)zincwadi 39
  40. 40. 3. IsiZulu sinethoni/iphimbo: • Úfúnani? ‘What does he/she want?’ • Ùfúnani? ‘What do you want?’ • Ínyangá ‘moon’ x Ínyanga ‘doctor’ 4. Sinamalunga avulekile: • i/zi/nyo/ni; a/ma/the/nde/le; i/zi/nxa/mpu/nxa/mpu; i/sa/la/ku/tshe/lwa 5. Amagama anokudonsa elungeni elandulela elokugcina: • Amado.da aphu.za utshwa:la. • Amado.da aphu.za utshwa.la ekuse:ni • Amado.da aphu.za utshwa.la ekuse.ni nantamba:ma •
  41. 41. 6. IsiZulu sisebenzisa izenzukuthi: • Kumhlophe qwa; Kuthele kuthe du; • Induku iqonde thwi; Ibomvu tebhu • 7. Kubalwa ngakuhlanu: • Ukubala: 1-10 • 8. IsiZulu asisebenzisi ukugcizelela kwamagama: • Inja ilume umfana • Inja ilume umfana • 9. IsiZulu siwulimi olunokujobelela emagameni, okuvamile: • bafunda; bafundisa; bafundela; • bafundisana; basazofundisana • 10. Sinabonkamisa abahlanu: • a, e, i, o, u
  42. 42. Module 3-1 Noun class prefixes.doc IZIGABA ZAMABIZO ISIGABA ISIBONELO ISIQALO ESIJWA- YELEKILE ISIQALO SENKAMBISO (esigcwele) ISIQALO ESEHLUKENE 1 umuntu umu- umu- um- 2 abantu aba- aba- abe- 1a ugogo u- umu- 2a ogogo o- aba- bo- 3 umuthi umu- umu- um- 4 imithi imi- imi- 3a ushizi u- umu- 2a oshizi o- aba- 5 i(li)hhashi i(li)- ili- i- 6 amahhashi ama- ama- ame- 7 isitulo isi- isi- is- 8 izitulo izi- izi- iz- 9 inja in- in[i]- im- 10 izinja izin- izin[i]- izim- 11 u(lu)nyawo u(lu)- ulu- ulw- 14 ubuso ubu- ubu- ub-/utsh-/ utshw- 15 ukudla uku- uku- uk-/ukw- 16 phandle pha- uku-/pha phe- 17 ukunxele uku- uku- uk-
  43. 43. Luyini uhlelo lolimi? • Singathi lena yindlela ehlelekile yokufunda ngemigomo nezimiso zolimi. Singasho futhi ukuthi yisifundo semithetho ecashile elawula ukusetshenziswa kolimi. • Kubalulekle ukwazi ukuthi ulimi olukhulunywayo lwakheka kanjani. Igama ngalinye lakheka kanjani? Ibinzana lamagama lakheka liphinde lixhumane noma lihlobane kanjani? Amagama ahlangana futhi ahlobana kanjani ukuze ache umusho ophelele oqukethe umqondo ophelele? Amagama alandelana kanjani ukuze ache umusho owamukelekile olimini olukhulumayo? 43
  44. 44. Kunemikhakha emine okuhlelwa ulimi ngaphansi kwayo. Le mikhakha nansi: • 1. ISemanthiksi • 2. IFonoloji • 3. IMofoloji • 4. ISintheksi 44
  45. 45. • ISemanthiksi wumkhakha wokuhlela ulimi ogxile encazelweni noma engqikithini yemiyalezo eyedluliswa yigama, idlanzana lamagama noma umusho ophelele. • Amagama ahlukahlukene athi uma elandelana ngandlela thize ehlelekile enze umusho ophelele onomqondo. Umkhakha wesifundo ogxile ekufundeni ngokuhlanganisa noma ukuhlela amagama alandelane ngendlela eyamukelekile ukuze kwakheke umusho ophelele, sibizwa ngokuthi yiSintheksi. • Njengoba ulimi lwakhiwa amagama, ibinzana lamagama kanye nomusho; konke lokhu sizokufunda sikubhekisise ngaphansi kweminxa emine yokuhlela ulimi ebalulwe ngenhla. 45
  46. 46. Ukuhlonzwa kwamagama • Kukhona izingqalabutho zosozilimi ekufundweni kwezilimi zaboMdabu base-Afrika. Igama eligqama kakhulu ezingqondweni zethu uma sicabanga ngendaba yokuhlelwa kwezilimi zesiNtu, nguSolwazi uClement Doke. Phakathi kwezinto ezibalulekile uDoke azishoyo ekuhlonzeni kwakhe amagama (word identification) wukuthi ubheka ukugcizelela (stress) elungeni elandulela elokugcina. • Agxekwa ngakho: Amagama esiZulu awanakho ukugcizelela elungeni elandulela elokugcina kodwa anokudonsa (length). Kanti kunohlobo lwamagama esiZulwini olubizwa ngokuthi yizenzukuthi. Lolu hlobo lwamagama alunakho ukudonsa okugqamile. • Omunye obambe iqhaza elikhulu ekuhlonzweni kwamagama nguVan Wyk. Ngokwakhe izakhi zegama zinendlela engaguquki ezilandelana ngayo. • Izibonelo: Basazodlala (Akuvumelekile: Zosabadlala); izitshalo (akuvumelekile: lotshazii) • Igama liyakwazi ukusuka endaweni ethile emshweni liye kwenye indawo (transposability): • - Umfana udlala ibhola. • - Udlala ibhola umfana. • - Umfana ibhola uyalidlala. • - Ibhola umfana uyalidlala. 46
  47. 47. • Separability: Igama liyehlukaniseka ngokufaka elinye phakathi kwamagama. • - USipho uthanda imicimbi./ USipho yena uthanda imicimbi. • - UShabalala akasafuni ukudlalela iChiefs./ UShabalala impela akasafuni ukudlalela iChiefs. / UShabalala akasafuni ngempela ukudlalela iChiefs. • Replaceability: Ungakwazi ukufaka igama esikhundleni selinye igama. (Isabizwana ngesinye sezibonelo sale ndlela yokuhlonza amagama). Ake sibheke nazi ezinye: • - Uma amakhiwane emahle kakhulu asuke esebolile. • - Uma amakhiwane eba mahle kakhulu asuke esebolile. • Isolatability: Igama liyakwazi ukuzimela gelekeqe ngaphandle kokuncika kwelinye. Nasi isibonelo: • - Ubaba ubehlabeni ngempelasonto? Inkukhu. 47
  48. 48. Ukugxekwa kwendlela kaDoke yokuqoqela ndawonye amagama ngokwezigaba 1. UDoke akasho ukuthi yimuphi umsebenzi kanye nesakhiwo (morphology) okumele kubhekisiswe uma kuhlonzwa amagama ehlukaniswa ngononina. 2. Akunasizathu esiphathekayo esenza ukuthi umsebenzi wegama kube yiwona awuqhakambisa ukwedlula igama. NGAMANYE AMAZWI AKANENDABA NESAKHIWO. Kule misho elandelayo ugcizelela ukuthi la magama adwetshelwe angasebenza njengenhloko, ukuthi akheke kanjani akakubheki. (a) Umfana ukhahlela ibhola. (b) Yena ukhahlela ibhola. (c) Lona ukhahlela ibhola. (Lona = umfana) 3. UDoke uthi isichasiso yigama elichaza usobizo. Kodwa imisho efana nalena yenza akushoyo kungabi nasisindo, kube nokuthandabuza: (a) Ngumfana omncane olimele. (b) Ngumfundi omubi obanga umsindo uthisha efundisa. (c) Yinja emhlophe edle amaqanda kagogo. (d) Yingane yakwabo lena elimele. 4. UDoke uchaza isenzukuthi njengengxenye yesandiso: Isib. Isandiso yigama elichaza isenzo: e.g Umfana wawa wathi mbo ngobuso. Le ncazelo kaDoke inamabala esingayibeka wona. Uma sibheka le misho elandelayo siyabonga ukuthi isenzukuthi asichazi isenzo nje njengokusho kukaDoke: (a) Gulukudu isigebengu. (b) Tibi! Ngofo! Yinyoka! 48
  49. 49. Ukuhlonza amagama ngokukaVan Wyk 1. UVany Wyk usebenzisa amazinga/imikhakha yokucwaningwa kwezilimi ukuhlonza amagama: Ifonoloji (umkhakha ogxile emisindweni), Imofoloji (umkhakha ogxile ekwakhiweni kwamagama), Isemanthiksi (umkhakha ogxile ekulandelaneni kwamagama/kwezakhi emshweni/egameni) kanye 2. UVan Wyk uwehlukanisa kanjena amagama: (a) Ibizo (noun): isitha, isitsha, umuntu (b) Isabizwana (pronoun): sona, zona, yena (c) Isandiso (adverb): kahle, ekuseni, kude (d) Isenzo (verb): dlala, thela, thinta (e) Isibabazo (interjection): halala! Hawu! Habe! (f) Isenzukuthi (ideophone): ngqi, khilikithi, mimiliti (g) Isibanjalo sokukhomba (copulative demonstrative): yilezi, ngulowo, yilona (h) Igama elingakwazi ukuzimela (particle word) i. Uma izinyawo zinkulu bayaphela osayizi. / Uma izinyawo ziba nkulu bayaphela osayizi ii. Uma umkhulu kakhulu izifo zisheshe zikungene. / Uma uba mkhulu kakhulu izifo zisheshe zikungene. [This occurs mainly with the verb be] Izibonelo zamagama angakwazi ukuzimela: yinja; nginamahloni, njenga-, nganga-, okwa- ngokukaVan Wyk isibanjalo, isiphawulo, isibaluli, inani kanye nongumnini akuwona amagama kodwa yiqoqo lamagama. Okuphawulekayo uVan Wyk ubuye afake isibanjalo sokukhomba kanje namagama angakwazi ukuzimela (particle words). 49
  50. 50. Nawa amagama angakwazi ukuzimela esiZulwini: (a) U-na oyisakhi sokuhlobanisa/igama elingakwazi ukuzimela elikhomba ukuhlobanisa i. Nginamahloni. ii. Kuneqatha elilodwa elisele ebhodweni. (b) Izakhi zesifaniso/zokuqhathanisa: i. BangangoZulu eya eMakheni. ii. Liqine njengetshe ikhanda lakhe. iii. Bamlahlise okwenyongo yenyathi. (c) Isakhi esikhombisa ukuthi into yenziwa ngani: i. Ushaya ingede ngoju. ii. Inkomo ihlatshwe ngommese. (d) Isakhi esikhomba ubunikazi/ubumnini i. Isango lenyuvesi ii. Usuku lwakhe lokuzalwa. (e) Isakhi sikandaweni i. Kwaninalume eDududu ii. Ngisaya kubaba. (f) Isakhi/igama elikhomba ukuyalela (hortative) i. Ake niyeke umsindo ii. Ake sithi shelele. (g) Isakhi sesibanjalo i. Uyinsizwa njalo. ii. Kuyintonjana nakho bo! iii. Bangabafana Nakuba-ke silandela ukuhlonzwa kwamagama ngendlela kaVan Wyk, sizofaka izihlanganiso njengefama elizimele. Nazi izibonelo zezihlanganiso: kodwa, futhi, ngoba 50
  51. 51. Module 2, Section 2 Ibizo 2. NgokweSemanthiksi: Ibizo yigama lento embambekayo (concrete) noma engabonakali (abstract): itshe, indlebe (concrete); ububi, ubuthongo (abstract) 3.NgokweSintsheksi: Amabizo angasebenza njengenhloko/njengomenzi futhi abuye asebenze njengomenziwa emshweni. Angabuye asebenze ehambisana namagama angakwazi ukuzimela. Ake sibheke nazi izibonelo ezilandelayo: (a) Izingane zidlala ingqathu. (inhloko/umenzi) (b) Uthisha ushaya izingane. (umenziwa) (c) Badlala ngezingane labo thisha. (igama elingakwazi ukuzimela) 51
  52. 52. Izinhlobo Zamabizo 1. Ibizo loqobo/Ibizoqho • umuthi, umuzi, isihlahla, uthi 1. Amabizo angondaweni • ekhaya, ezulwini, esikoleni 1. Amabizo asesigabeni sikandaweni • phandle, phezulu, kude, phansi, phakathi 1. Amabizo ayiziphawulo • Itshe elincane 1. Amabizo ayizibaluli • Indoda eqotho; Insizwa eqatha 52
  53. 53. Izinhlobo zesabizwana 1. Isabizwana soqobo: • bona, yena, lona 1. Isabizwana sokukhomba: • le nto, lesiya sitsha, leyo mbiza 1. Isabizwana sokubala esiqoqayo: • Sonke sizobhala isivivinyo 1. Isabizwana sokubala esehlukanisayo: • bodwa, zodwa, nodwa 1. Isabizwana esikhomba ubumnini: • yami, lakhe, zabo, lakho, yenu • 53
  54. 54. Izinhlobo zezenzo 1. Izenzo ezizimele (main verb) 2. dlala, khahlela, dlula, khala, hleka 3. Insizasenzo (auxiliary verb) 4. Uke ufike kanti nawe ezinkambeni?; Uhlezi ethule nje. 5. Isenzo esiyisibanjalo (copulative verb) 6. Angiyona insangu mina! 7. Umama wami muhle. 8. Isenzo esisabizo 9. ukudla, ukuya 10. Isenzo esiyisibaluli (qualificative verb) 11. Umfundi odakwayo; Imali eshisiwe efunekayo; Abafundi abaphumelele babili. 12. Izenzo eziphundulekile (defective) 13. azi, ithi, isho 14. 54
  55. 55. Izinhlobo zesandiso 1. Isandiso sesimo (adverb of manner) • kahle, kabi, masinyane, kamnandi, kalula, kanzima, kakhulu, kancane 1. Isandiso senkathi (adverb of time) • kuthangi, izolo, manje, ngo-5, namuhla, kusasa, njalo, ngomhlomunye, emandulo 1. Isandiso sendawo (adverb of place) • esikoleni, esangweni, ehholo, eThekwini, kude, phezulu, phansi, phandle • 55
  56. 56. Amagama angakwazi ukuzimela 1. Elesichasiso: ezinhle, elimanzi 2. Eliyisibanjalo: USimangele muhle. 3. Isibanjalo esiphikayo: UZodwa akamuhle. 4. Elikhomba ukuhlobana: unamahloni, unozwela 5. Isibanjalo esihlungayo: UMandla uyinsizwa; Laba bafana bangamagwala 6. Igama elingakwazi ukuzimela lokuhlanganisa: Nami ngizobe ngikhona kulowo mcimbi 7. Elingundaweni: kuVusi, kubaba, kuwe 8. Elikandaweni okhomba ubumnini: Bathunywe kwaSibiya. 9. Elokuqhathanisa: ngangezihlabathi zolwandle, njengamatshe, uhlaba okwameva 10. Elokuphathelana: Bakhuluma ngami laba abezayo 11. Eliyalelayo: Ake ningisikele iqatha nami bo! 12. Elikhomba ukuthi into yenziwa ngani: Bamgwaze ngomkhonto waphelela khona lapho. 13. Elikhomba ubumnini: lami, yethu 56
  57. 57. Izibanjalo zokukhomba 1.Esikhomba eduze: nazi, naba, yilezi 2.Esikhomba buqamama: nazo, nabo, yilezo 3.Esikhomba kude: naziya, nabaya, yileziya • 57
  58. 58. Izinhlobo zezibabazo • Izibabazo zikhombisa imizwa eyahlukene. Nansi eminye yemizwa eziyikhombisayo: 1. Ukucasuka: Mameshane! Dadewethu kababa! 2. Ukujabula: Ngcingci! Halala! 3. Ukujabha: Nkosi yami! Wohhe! 4. Ukuqhoshelana: Wushi mame! 5. Ukwethuka: Hawu! Maye babo! 6. Ukudumisa noma ukukhonza: Haleluya! Ameni! 7. Ukulwa: Awungizwe! Awuzwa! Ivume! Maluju! Shwele! Yobe! • 58
  59. 59. UKULANDELANA KWAMAGAMA OKUVAMILE EMUSHWENI 1. S V O (Inhloko/Umenzi Isenzo umenziwa [N S M]) • Lena yindlela ejwayelekile yokulandelana kwamagama emshweni • Uma kukhona nesandiso kulandelana kanjena: • Inhloko – isenzo – umenziwa – isandiso • Uma kunezandiso ezimbili noma ngaphezulu izandiso ziliandelana kanjena ngokujwayelekile: esesimo, esendawo, kugcine esenkathi. Isibonelo: • Amaphoyisa abambe isigebengu kalula ehlathini ekuseni. • 59
  60. 60. Ukulandelana kwamagama okwejwayelekile emshweni kungaguquka phansi kwezimo ezithile. Ake sithi janti kule misho: (a)Umfana ubhala incwadi. (SVO/NSM) (b)Ubhala incwadi umfana. (VOS/SMN) (c)Umfana incwadi uyayibhala. (OSV/MNS) (d)Uyayibhala umfana incwadi. (VSO/SNM) • Okuphawulekayo wukuthi kubonakala kuyisenzo esilawula ukulandelana kwamagama. Umenziwa indawo yakhe ejwayelekile ingemuva kwesenzo. Ngaphandle kokuthi umenziwa avvumelane nesenzo, uhlala elandela isenzo ngaso sonke isikhathi. 60
  61. 61. Isivumelwano sikamenzi kanye nesikamenziwa nendawo ezitholakala kuyo esenzweni (a) Isivumelwano sikamenzi/senhloko siba ngesokuqala. (b) Isivumelwano sikamenziwa sandulela isiqu sesenzo. (c) Uma kukhona izakhi zenkathi /ya, zo, yo/, lezi zakhi zingena phakathi kwalezi zivumelwano zombili. • Nazi izibonelo ezicacisa la maphuzu abalulwe ngenhla: i. Umfana uphuza utshwala. (isivumelwano sikamenzi) ii. Umfana uyabuphuza utshwala. (isiv. sikamenziwa) iii. Angikubizanga, uyaphi pho? (isiv. sikamenzi nesikamenziwa ngokulandelana kwazo) iv. Asinithatheli phansi njalo. v. Awungifuni ngempela? vi. Anisiphakeli kodwa siyizihlobo. 61
  62. 62. Isintsheksi Yebizo: (a) Ibizo lingasebenza njengenhloko emshweni. (Izingane zidlala umacashelana.) (b) Ibizo lingasebenza njengomenziwa emshweni. (Umfana ucupha izinyoni.) (c) Ibizo lingasebenza ukusekela igama elingakwazi ukuzimela. (UTshatha mubi njengonina.) • Kuyenzeka isenzo sibe nomenziwa ababili, oqondile kanye nongaqondile. • Oqondile yilowo ovamise ukuba kude nesenzo kanti umenziwa • ongaqondile yilowo oseduze kwesenzo. • Oqondile uhambisana nesenzo esijwayelekile (noma semvelo) bese • kuthi ongaqondile ahambisane nesenzo sokuvela (esisuselwe kwesinye): (a) Umama uhlabela umfundisi inkukhu. (umenziwa oqondile: inkukhu; umenziwa ongaqondile: umfundisi. Umenziwa oqondile uhambisana nesenzo /-hlaba/ kanti umenziwa ongaqondile uhambisana nesenzo /- hlabela/.) (b) Uthisha ubhalisa abafundi isivivinyo. (umenziwa oqondile: isivivinyo; umenziwa ongaqondile: abafundi. Umenziwa oqondile uhambisana nesenzo /-bhala/ kanti umenziwa ongaqondile uhambisana nesenzo /- bhalisa/.) • 62
  63. 63. Isintsheksi Yesenzo (a) Isenzo sisebenza njengesilandiso (predicate) - Amantombazane adlala ingqathu. (a) Isenzo singasebenza ukusekela igama elingakwazi ukuzimela - Ukugqoma imigwaqo akufani nokuhlala ekhaya. (a) Singasebenza kanye nensizasenzo - Isela lide lijeqeza amaphoyisa. - Le nsizwa ihlale igijima njalo ekuseni. (a) Isenzo singabuye sisebenze njengesichasiso. - Umfundi okhuthele uhlala efunda izincwadi. • • Sike sakuphawula ukuthi isenzo yisona esiphethe umusho. Okokuqala sithi akulungile ukuthi umenzi angabi nasivumelwano naso. Okwesibili isenzo sithi umenziwa kumele alandele ngemuva kwaso. Okwesithathu, uma umenziw ezosuka endaweni yakhe kumele kube nesivumelwano phakathi kukamenziwa kanye nesenzo. Okwesine, Isenzo siyakwazi ukuthi silawule okusilandelayo. Isib. Kunezenzo ezingamdingi umenziwa, ezifana nalezi: hlala, ndiza, lala. Okulandela la mabizo kufanele kube yisandiso sendawo noma kanjani. • Kukhona futhi nezenzo ezidinga omenziwa ababili. Lokhu kuvamise ukwenzeka ezenzweni ezisempambosini noma ezisuselwe kwezinye izenzo: (a) Uthisha ubhalisa abafundi isivivinyo. (b) Ubaba uhlabela umndeni imvu. 63
  64. 64. Izandiso ziyizinhlobo ezintathu esiZulwini. Kukhona isandiso sesimo, esendawo kanye nesenkathi. • Izandiso (a)Isandiso sesimo: • kahle, kabi, kamnandi, masinyane, kalula, kakhulu, kancane, njll (a)Isandiso sendawo: • phakathi, phansi, phezulu, phandle, endlini, ngakwesokudla, njll (a)Isandiso senkathi: • namuhla, kusasa, ngomhlomunye, kudala, emandulo, manje, njalo, kuthangi, izolo, njll 64
  65. 65. Izabizwana Nezivumelwano Zokhulumayo Kanye Nokukhulunywa Naye Okhulumayo: mina (ubunye); thina (ubuningi) Isiv. ngi- (umenzi nomenziwa); si- (umenzi nomenziwa) Okukhulunywa naye: wena (ubunye); nina (ubuningi) Isiv. u- (umenzi), ku- (umenziwa) ni- (umenzi nomenziwa) Bheka idocument enegama elithi: Module 2-4 ukuthola ngezivumelwano endleleni evumayo kanye nephikayo. 65
  66. 66. ISIGABA 1 NO-1 • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele: /umu-/ • Isiqalo esigcwele sivame ukuhambisana namabizo aneziqu ezilungalinye, isib. umuntu, umufo, umufi. • Uma isiqu sebizo sinamalunga amabili nangaphezulu, u-/u-/ wokugcina wesiqalo esigcwele /umu-/ uyalahleka kusale /um-/, isib. umfana, umfowethu, umzali, umngani. • Uma isiqu sebizo siqala ngonkamisa, lowo nkamisa ungena esikhundleni sika-/u/ olahliwe: um- umakhi, umenzi • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele: /aba-/ • Isiqalo esejwayelekile /aba-/ sisebenza emabizweni amaningi. Isiqalo esehlukile ngu-/abe-/. Isiqalo esehlukile sisebenza emabizweni athile kuphela: abeSuluthu, abeNguni, abeLungu. Uma isiqu sebizo siqala ngonkamisa unkamisa wokugcina wesiqalo esiphelele /aba/ uyalahleka bese sisala nesinye isiqalo esiwumehluko /ab-/. Emabizweni anesiqu esiqala ngonkamisa afana nalawa: /abakhi/, /abenzi/, /aboni/, /abelusi/ kusebenza isiqalo esiwumehluko /ab-/. Wonke la magama asuselwe ezenzweni eziqala ngonkamisa okuyilezi: /-akha/, /-enza/, /-ona/. • NgokweSemanthiksi (umkhakha ogxile kuncazelo): Izigaba 1 no-2 zinamabizo aphathelene nabantu. • Izigaba 1a no-2a zinamabizo abantu abahlobene ngandlela thize noma abaluhlobo oluthile, isibonelo: • Ubuhlobo bokuzalana: ugogo – ogogo; ubaba – obaba; udade – odade; umalume – omalume • Amagama abantu: uNtuli – oNtuli; uSamkelo – oSamkelo; uShaka – oShaka • Amagama abolekiwe akhomba imisebenzi ethile: udokotela – odokotela; uthisha – othisha • Amanye amagizo asesigabeni 2a awubuningi bamabizo esigaba 3a. Nazi izibonelo: otamatisi, oshizi, onogwaja. • 66
  67. 67. ISIGABA 3 • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele: /umu-/ • Isiqalo /umu-/ sisebenza emagameni anesiqu esilungalinye, isibonelo: umunwe, umuthi, umuzi, umusa • Amagama anesiqu esinelunga elingaphezu kwelilodwa asebenzisa isiqalo esiwumehluko /um-/. Njengasesigabeni sokuqala unkamisa /u/ wokugcina wesiqalo uyalahleka. Nawa amabizo ayizibonelo: umfula, umsila, umsindo. • Amabizo anesiqu esiqala ngonkamisa asebenzisa isiqalo esiwumehluko u-/um-/: umendo, umona, umeqo • NgokweSemanthiksi: amabizo akulesi sigaba avamise ukukhomba iziinto eziyimvelo (umfula, umhlaba, umuthi, umvuthwamini, umtholo); angakhomba izitho zomzimba kumuntu nasezilwaneni (umzimba, umlomo, umunwe, umsila, umlenze, umkhono); angabuye akhombe izinto ezingabonakali (umoya, umusa, umona, umkhokha) • 67
  68. 68. • ISIGABA4 1. Isiqalo esijwayelekile/ senkambiso esiphelele: /imi-/ 2. Amabizo akulesi sigaba awubuningi bamabizo akusigaba 3. 3. U-/imi-/ uba ngu-/im-/ emabizweni anesiqu esiqala ngonkamisa: imendo, imeno. 4. Ngokwencazelo (Semantics) – Ngaphandle kwalokhu okubalulwe ngenhla amabizo akulezi zigaba angabuye akhombise lokhu: indawo, isib. umgodi, umbhede, umnyango, umthunzi, umgwaqo; okunye: umshini, umthetho • • Isigaba 3a • Iziqalo zala mabizo ziyafana nezamabizo esigaba 1a. Iziqalo zala mabizo: /u-/ • Kodwa okubalulekile wukuthi izivumelwano zala magama zihambelana nezamabizo esigaba 3, yingakho sithi ayisigaba 3a. • Nanka amanye amabizo akulesi sigaba: ushizi, utamatisi, unogwaja, ufezela • Ubuningi bala mabizo bungena ngaphansi kwesigaba 2a • NgokweSemathiksi – Lapha kulesi sigaba sithola amabizo ezinto eziphilayo kodwa ezingebona abantu: ubhejane, unogwaja, ufezela. Kungabuye kube ngamabizo ayimifakela ikakhulukazi amabizo ezinto ezisetshenziswa endlini njengokudla: utamatisi, ushizi, ujamu, ushukela, umentshisi, usikilidi • 68
  69. 69. ISIGABA 5 + 6 • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele/esiphelele: /ili-/ (5) no-/ama-. (6) • Akujwayelekile ukuthi lesi siqalo sisebenze sigcwele emabizweni. Isiqalo esifinyeziwe u-/i-/ yisona esisebenzayo isikhathi esiningi. • Ubuningi bala mabizo busesigabeni 6 • Nazi izibonelo zamagama akulesi sigaba: i(li)gama > amagama; i(li)zwe > amazwe; i(li)khaya > amakhaya. • Kunamabizo athile ambalwa angasebenzisi u-/ama-/ kodwa asebenzinsa isiqalo esehlukile u-/ame-/ isib. ameva, amehlo • Ngokwencazelo (Semantics): i. Iningi lamabizo akulezi zigaba akhomba izinto eziwuketshezi. Ake sibheke isigaba sesithupha esinala mabizo: amazolo, amafutha, amanzi, amasi, amathe, amahewu. ii. Izinto eziyimvelo: ilanga, ifu, izulu iii. Izitho zomzimba: ikhanda, ithambo, ihlombe, ikhala, idolo, iqupha iv. Izinto ezisetshenziswayo uma kusetshenzwa: ipiki, ifosholo, igeja, ihhala v. Izizwe ezahlukene: amaBhunu, amaZulu, amaXhosa, amaNgisi, amaNdebele vi. Abantu abaseminyakeni ethile yobudala kanye nabanezici ezithile: ikhehla, ixhegu, ibhungu, amabhungu, ivila vii. Amagama ezinto ezingabonakali: amandla, amakhaza, amanga, amahloni viii. Amagama ayimifakela: itiye/amatiye, itafula/amatafula, ibhola/amabhola, ibhulukwe/amabhulukwe. ix. Akhona-ke namanye amabizo okungelula ukuwaqoqela ngaphansi kwesihloko esithile: ikhaya/amakhaya; iqanda/amaqanda, izwi/amazwi 69
  70. 70. ISIGABA 7 + 8 • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso sesigaba 7. Isiqalo esehlukile u-/is-/ sisebenza kuphela namabizo aneziqu eziqala ngonkamisa. • Isiqalo esiphelele sesigaba 8 u-/izi-/. Isiqalo esehlukile u-/iz-/ sisebenza namabizo aneziqu eziqala ngonkamisa. • Izibonelo zamabizo esigaba 7 asebenzisa u-/isi-/: isicathulo, isinkwa, isifo, isikhathi; asebenzisa isiqalo esehlukile /is-/: isando, isenzo, isono, isangoma, isandla; awesigaba 8 asebenzisa isiqalo esiphelele /izi /: izinkwa, izicathulo, izifo, izikhathi; kanti asebenzisa isiqalo esehlukile /iz-/ nanka: izando, izenzo, izono, izangoma, izandla • Ngokwencanzelo: i. Izilimi kanye namasiko: isiZulu, isiXhosa, isiSuthu, isiNgisi ii. Izinto zokusebenza: isando/izando, isibhamu/izibhamu, isihluthulelo/izihluthulelo, isipeletu/izipeletu iii. Amabizo ayimifakela: isikole/izikole, isitofu/izitofu, isitolo/izitolo iv. Abantu abanezici ezithile: isigebengu, isidawudawu, isidlakudla, isigelekeqe, isilima, isidlova v. Izinto eziqoqelwe ndawonye, ikakhulukazi ukudla/izitshalo/izinto ezingaphili: isiqhoqho, isivivane, isibhanana, isimoba, isikhiwane vi. Okunye: isilwane/izilwane, isicathulo/izicathulo, isibuko/izibuko • 70
  71. 71. IZIGABA 9 NO-10 1. Iziqalo zenkambiso zala mabizo: isigaba 9 = in(i), isigaba 10 = izin(i) 2. Kawasekho amabizo esiZulwini esikhulunywa namuhla anesiqalo esiphelele u-/in(i)/, yingakho u-/i/ efakwa kubakaki. 3. Isiqalo /in-/ sisebenza nazo zonke iziqu zamabizo ngaphandle kwalezo ziqu eziqala ngodebembili noma ondebezinyo. 4. Izibonelo zamabizo alezi zigaba nazi: • Inja > izinja • Indlovu > izindlovu • Intombi > izintombi 1. Iningi lamabizo asesigabeni 9 anobuningi obungena esigabeni 10. Bheka izibonelo eziku-4 ngenhla. Nokho kukhona amabizo asesigabeni 9 kodwa ubuningi bawo obungekho esigabeni 10, kodwa obusesigabeni 6. Izibonelo: indoda > amadoda; intombazane > amantombazane. 2. Uma isiqalo /in-/ sandulela isiqu esingundebembili noma undebezinyo, umankankane ongunsinini /-n-/ uyaguquka abe ngumankankane ongundebembili u-/-m-/. Nazi izibonelo: • in + buzi = imbuzi > izimbuzi • in + phuzi = impunzi > izimpunzi • in + vula = imvula > izimvula • in + fene = imfene > izimfene 1. NgokweSemanthiksi: • Iningi lamagama akulezi zigaba ngamagama ezilwane: inkomo/izinkomo; ingwe/izingwe; inja/izinja; inkukhu/izinkukhu; inyoka/izinyoka; imfene/izimfene; imbuzi/izimbuzi; impunzi/izimpunzi • Izitho zomzimba: inhloko/izinhloko; intamo/izintamo; ingalo/izingalo; indololwane/izindololwane; inhliziyo/inhliziyo • Amagumbi amane omhlaba: iMpumalanga; iNingizimu; iNyakatho; iNtshonalanga • Abantu: intombi/izintombi; induna/izinduna; ingane/izingane • Imifakela: ingadi/izingadi; imfaduko/izimfaduko; imayini/izimayini; imoto/izimoto • Amanye amabizo: indaba/izindaba; indlu/izindlu; intaba/izintaba; indlela/izindlela • 71
  72. 72. IZIGABA 11 NO-10 1. Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele sesigaba 11: /ulu-/ 2. Kulesi sigaba imvamisa asisebenzisi isiqalo esiphelele, sisebenzisa esifinyeziwe /u/: uluthi/uthi; ulusinga/usinga; uludonga/udonga; uluphondo/uphondo 3. Kuyenzeka kwamanye amabizo asebenzise isiqalo esehlukile: /ulw-/ > ulwanga; ulwandle; ulwembu; ulwazi 4. Amabizo esigaba 11 ubuningi bawo bungena ngaphansi kwesigaba 10: i. uthi > izinti; uthuli > izintuli 1. Njengoba besike sasho ukuthi u-/in-/ no-/izin-/ uma andulela isiqu sebizo esiqala ngondebembili noma undebezinyo, u-/n-/ uguquka abe ngumankankane ongundebembili u-/-m-/: u(lu)fudu > izimfudu; u(lu)bambo > izimbambo; uphondo > izimpondo. Exceptions: uhambo > izinkambo i. Uma ngabe isiqu siqala ngohlamvu olungumpheshethwa, lolo hlamvu alube lusaba ngumpheshethwa. Nazi izibonelo zalokhu: u(lu)khuni > izinkuni; u(lu)thuli > izintuli; u(lu)khamba > izinkamba; u(lu)phondo > izimpondo 1. NgokweSemanthiksi lezi zigaba zinamabizo aqukethe lo mqondo: • Izinto ezinde nezelulekile: u(lu)cingo, u(lu)donga, u(lu)hla, u(lu)nwele, u(lu)khalo • Izinto ezingabonakali noma ongeke uzithinte: u(lu)kholo, u(lu)lozolo; u(lu)laka, u(lu)singa, u(lu)gqozi, u(lu)sizi, u(lu)thando, u(lu)lwazi • Izilwane, izinambuzane nezitho zomzimba: u(lu)fudu, u(lu)nwabu, u(lu)khozi, u(lu)vemvane, u(lu)phondo, u(lu)phaphe • Izimila: u(lu)khula, u(lu)thathe • Abantu abanezici ezithile: u(lu)hlanya, u(lu)shikishi, u(lu)ququva • Amanye nje-ke amabizo: u(lu)cezu > izingcezu; u(lu)qweqwe > izingqweqwe; u(lu)hlamvu > izinhlamvu; u(lu)hlanga > izinhlanga 72
  73. 73. ISIGABA 14 1. Isiqalo esejwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele ssesigaba 14: /ubu-/ 2. Amabizo akulesi sigaba awakhombisi ubunye noma ubuningi. Bheka lezi zibonelo: ubuso, ububende, ubusuku, ubuntu 3. Iningi lamabizo akulesi sigaba ngamabizo aletha umqondo wezinto ongeke uzithinte: ubukhulu, ubuhlungu, ububi, ubuntu 4. Iningi lamabizo akulesi sigaba lisebenzisa isiqalo senkambiso esigcwele /ubu-/ ngaphandle kwamabizo aneziqo eziqala ngonkamisa, asebenzisa isiqalo esehlukile /ub-/ • ubuthongo • ubutha • ubusuku • uboya • ubomi 1. Esinye isiqalo esehlukile u-/utsh-/ no-/utshw-/, ziyatholakala emabizweni ambalwa esiZulwini: • utshani ( < ubu + ani > ubwani > utshani) • utshwala ( < ubu + ala > ubwala > utshwala) 1. NgokweSemanthiksi (Incazelo): • Amabizo ezinto ongeke uzithinte: ubuhle, ububi, ubukhulu, ubuncane, ubutha, ubuvila, ubuvaka • Amabizo ezinto ezingabo ubuningi: bheka izibonelo ezingenhla • Amanye amabizo: ubuso, uboya, ubulongwe, utshani, utshwala • 73
  74. 74. ISIGABA 15 • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele: /uku/ • Lesi sigaba saziwa njengesamabizo asazenzo. • Amabizo akulesi sigaba awanabunye nabuningi: ukudla, ukufunda • Uma isiqu sebizo siqala ngonkamisa /e/ noma /a/ isiqalo esisebenzayo ngesehlukile /ukw-/: ukwenza; ukwakha. Uma ngabe isiqu sebizo siqala ngonkamisa /o-/, kusebenza isiqalo /uk-/: ukosa; ukoma, ukonda, ukondla • Ngokwencazelo: • Wonke amabizo esigaba se-15 angasebenza njengamabizo noma njengesenzo: • Ngifuna ukuhamba manje • UNdlovu uthanda ukudla amasi. • Ngizama ukufunda isiZulu. • Ukuhamba kuzala induna. • Ukungazi kufana nokungaboni. 74
  75. 75. ISIGABA SE-16 • • Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esiphelele: /pha/ • Lesi yisigaba esaziwa ngokuthi ngesamabizo angondaweni. Isib: phandle, phakathi • Amabizo akulesi sigaba awanabunye nabuningi: phandle, phakathi, phansi • Lesi sigaba sinamabizo ambalwa anesiqalo esehlukile: /phe/; /phesheya/; /phezulu/. • La mabizo awavamisile ukusetshenziswa njengomenzi noma umenziwa emshweni. Avame ukusebenza njengesandiso sendawo. Uma kwenzekile asebenza njengenhloko yomusho athatha isivumelwano sesigaba se-17 emshweni oqondile, okungu-/ku-/: • Phandle kuyabanda. • Phansi kungcolile. • Phezulu kuhlala izicukuthwane. • NgokweSemanthiksi: (a) Amabizo akulesi sigaba akhomba indawo • Izingane zidlala phandle. • Abafundi abafuna ukuqondisisa isifundo bahlala phambili. • Umalume uhlezi phansi. (a) Amabizo akulesi sigaba avamise ukusebenza njengezandiso, hhayi njengenhloko noma umenziwa emshweni. • 75
  76. 76. ISIGABA 17 1. Isiqalo esijwayelekile/senkambiso esigcwele: /uku-/ 2. Njengesigaba se-16, isigaba se-17 saziwa njengesigaba sikandaweni. 3. Amabizo akulesi sigaba awanabuningi nabunye. Nazi izibonelo: ukunxele, ukunene (womabili la mabizo akhombisa indawo futhi awanabunye nabuningi) 4. Kulesi sigaba kubuye kube namabizo athatha isiqalo esehlukile: /ukw-/ = ukwindla 5. Amanye amabizo akulesi sigaba asebenzisa esinye isiqalo esehlukile u-/ku-/: kude, kudala, kusasa, kuthangi 6. NgokweSemanthiksi/Ngokwencazelo: • Amabizo akulesi sigaba akhomba indawo: ukunxele, ukunene • Amanye amabizo akulesi sigaba akhomba isikhathi: kusasa, kuthangi, kudala • La mabizo avamise ukusebenza njengesandiso senkathi emshweni: • Ubaba uhambe kuthangi. • Thina sivela kude. • UShaka wayebusa isizwe samaZulu kudala. • • QAPHELA: Thina asinazo lezi zigaba: 12 kanye no-13. Izilimi ezifana neShona nesiKikuyu zinazo lezi zigaba. IsiSuthu asinaso isigaba se-11 kodwa isiZulu sinaso. Okwenza ukuthi lezi zigaba zingabibikho esiZulwini wukuthi ngenkathi kwenziwa uhlelo lwezigaba zamabizo kwakungabhekwa isiZulu kuphela kodwa kwakuqhathaniswa izilimi zesintu eziningi zaseNingizimu Afrika kanye nakwamanye amazwe ase-Afrika. 76
  77. 77. Module 3, Section 2 • • Ukusebenza kwebizo njengomenzi: • Uyini umenzi/inhloko emshweni? • Yinto noma umuntu owenza okubalulwa noma okushiwo yisenzo. • Inhloko yomusho iba nesivumelwano nesenzo emshweni. Lesi sivumelwano siyimpoqo. Lesi sivumelwano sibizwa ngokuthi yisivumelwano senhloko noma sikamenzi. • Imvamisa inhloko iba sekuqaleni komusho. Umusho ojwayelekile noma oyisisekelo unamagama alandelana kanjena: inhloko/umenzi – isenzo – umenziwa (NSM). • Umfana ugeza ubuso. (SVO/NSM) • Ugeza ubuso umfana. (VOS/SMN) • Umfana ubuso uyabugeza. (SOV/NMS) • Umfana ubuso uyabugeza. (OSV/MNS) • Ubuso uyabugeza umfana. (OVS/MSN) • Uyabugeza umfana ubuso. (VSO/SNM) • 77
  78. 78. Isivumelwano senhloko/sikamenzi – ukuvuma 1. Isivumelwano sikamenzi/senhloko sisuselwa kusiqalo-ngqo sesigaba sesigaba ibizo elingaphansi kwaso. Isitsha sifile; I(li)kati lilele eziko; Abafana badla iphaphu. 2. Kuphoqelekile ukuthi emshweni oyisitatimende noma umbuzo isenzo siqukathe isivumelwano senhloko/sikamenzi. (a) Izinja zixosha inyamazane. (Izinja xosha inyamazane.* – Awamukelekile umusho onjena esiZulwini ngoba awunasivumelwano.) (b) Ngabe ikati lidla amagundane na? (Ngabe ikati dla amagundane na?* – Awamukelekile lo musho esiZulwini.) 1. Izibonelo zemisho ezilandelayo zikhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi isigaba ngasinye sinezivumelwano zaso. Ukuthi inhloko/umenzi yibizo lesigaba esithile kwenza ukuthi izivumelwano ezikulowo musho zihambelane nenhloko/nomenzi: (a) Izinja lezi yizona ezisivusa ebusuku ngomsindo wazo. (b) Ikati leli yilona elisivusa ebusuku ngomsindo walo. • • Ake sithi ukubheka kabanzana ukuthi isivumelwano senhloko sakheka kanjani. Sakheka kanjani-ke? • Isivumelwano senhloko sakhiwa ngokuthatha isiqalo-ngqo sebizo bese ususa umankankane (uma ekhona). isibonelo: Inkomo i-; Isitsha si-; Abafundi ba-; Amatshe a-; • Isigaba 1a, 2a no-3a zisusela izivumelwano zikamenzi eziqalweni-ngqo zezigaba ezinkulu ezingaphansi kwazo. • Izibonelo: Ogogo bahola impesheni. • Utamatisi ubolile. • Umalume uhlala eMthwalume. • Ngisho namabizo anesiqalo esehlukile asusela izivumelwano zawo kusiqalo-ngqo sesiqalo senkambiso saleso sigaba. Sithi: AbeLungu bahlala edolobheni. Asithi: AbeLungu behlala edolobheni.* Sithi: Abenzi bokubi baboshiwe. Asisho ukuthi: Abenzi bokubi beboshiwe.* 78
  79. 79. Ake sithi ukubheka kabanzana ukuthi isivumelwano senhloko sakheka kanjani. Sakheka kanjani-ke? • Isivumelwano senhloko sakhiwa ngokuthatha isiqalo-ngqo sebizo bese ususa umankankane (uma ekhona). isibonelo: Inkomo i-; Isitsha si-; Abafundi ba-; Amatshe a-; • Isigaba 1a, 2a no-3a zisusela izivumelwano zikamenzi eziqalweni-ngqo zezigaba ezinkulu ezingaphansi kwazo. • Izibonelo: Ogogo bahola impesheni. • Utamatisi ubolile. • Umalume uhlala eMthwalume. • Ngisho namabizo anesiqalo esehlukile asusela izivumelwano zawo kusiqalo-ngqo sesiqalo senkambiso saleso sigaba. Sithi: AbeLungu bahlala edolobheni. Asithi: AbeLungu behlala edolobheni.* Sithi: Abenzi bokubi baboshiwe. Asisho ukuthi: Abenzi bokubi beboshiwe.* 79
  80. 80. ISINTHEKSI YESENZO • Izenzo zakheke kanjani? Izenzo ngokujwayelekile zakheke kanjena (inkathi yamanje – ukuvuma): isivumelwano sikamenzi + umsuka wesenzo + unkamisa ogcinile (ukuvuma) (a)Umama ushaya ingane. (u- + -shay- + -a): /u-/ = isivumelwano sikamenzi; /-shay-/ = umsuka wenzo; /- a/ = unkamisa ogcinile wesenzo (ukuvuma). (b)Inja ibamba inyamazane. (i- + -bamb- + -a) • 80
  81. 81. Inkathi yamanje eqhubekayo (ukuvuma): Isenzo Isivumelwano senhloko Isakhi senkathi yamanje Umsuka wesenzo Unkamisa ogcinile bayadla ba- -ya- -dl- -a ziyahleba zi- -ya- -hleb- -a iyakhala i- -ya- -khal- -a Inkathi yamanje (ukuphika): Isenzo Isakhi sokuphika Isivumelwano senhloko Umsuka wesenzo Unkamisa ogcinile (ukuphika) abadli a- ba- -dl- -i azihlebi a- zi- -hleb- -i ayikhali a- i- -khal- -i 81
  82. 82. • Izivumelwano zikamenzi ezikhomba ukuphika eziqabeni ezineziqalo ezinomankankane (m, n), ziyehluka kulezo ezivumayo ngoba kuzona kusuka kulandelane onkamisa (ngenxa yokuthi siyamlahla umankankane uma sakha izivumelwano): (a)Umhlaba uyathuthuka. (ukuvuma) Umhlaba awuthuthuki. (a- + -u- + -thuthuk- + -i) (ukuphika) (b)Inkomo iphuza amanzi. (ukuvuma) Inkomo ayiphuzi amanzi. (a- + -i- + -phuz- + -i) (ukuphika) (c)Amadoda ayaxoxa. (ukuvuma) Amadoda awaxoxi. (a- + -a- + -xox- + -i) 82
  83. 83. Okwenzekayo lapha yilokhu: 1. Sifaka usingankamisa /w/ phakathi kwesakhi sokuphika /a/ kanye nesivumelwano senhloko esigabeni 3 kanye nasesigabeni 3a u-/u-/. Umphumela walokhok yisivumelwano esikhomba ukuphika u-/wu/. 2. Sifaka usingankamisa /y/ phakathi kwesakhi sokphika /a/ kanye nesivumelwano senhloko ezigabeni /4/ no-/9/. Kwakheka isivumelwano sehloko esiphikayo /yi/. Izib. Imithi ayimili ekhaya. (Isigaba 4, ukuphika); Inkomazi kayise ayilukhiphi ubisi. (Isigaba 9, ukuphika) 3. Amabizweni esigaba 1 kanye no-1a: isivumelwano sikamenzi esivumayo /u/, siguquka sibe ngu-/ka/ ngaso sonke ukuze sikhombe ukuphika. 4. Sifaka usingankamisa /w/ noma ungwaqa /k/ phakathi kwesakhi sokuphika /a/ kanye nesivumelwano senhloko /i-/ ezigabeni 6 ukuze sithole isivumelwano esikhombisa ukuphika /awa-/; /aka-/: Amahlathi makhulu <> awamakhulu. 83
  84. 84. Isivumelwano senhloko ecashile (impersonal subject morpheme): Kuyabanda; Kuyaziwa lokho; Kuyafiwa. • Kuyenzeka izinhlokok zibe ngaphezu kwebizo elilodwa emshweni. Lokhu sithi yinhloko embaxa. Zihamba kanjani- ke izivumelwano kulesi simo? (a) Okhulumayo + nabanye = isiv. esalowo okhulumayo ubuningi [Mina, uThemba noSiphiwe sizocula ngosuku lomcimbi.] (b) Okukhulunywa naye nabanye = isiv esalowo okukhulunywa naye ubuningi [Wena, uZodwa, uSihle noThembi nizodla amasi ngoba inyama isiphelile.] (c) Umuntu kanye nokunye = isiv esomuntu. [UPhindile, uZakhele noPhumzile badle inyama bayiqeda.] (d) Izilwane kanye nezinye izilwane: kusebenza isivumelwano sezigaba sezilwane /zi/. Izibonelo: Izinkomo, amahhashi nezimbuzi ziphuza amanzi emfuleni. (e) Izinhloko eziyizinto ezihambisanayo kodwa ezingaphili: lapha kunokusebenza isivumelwano sebizo eliseduze nesenzo. Isib. Itafula nesitulo siphukile. NgesiZulu esejwayelekile, kulesi simo kusebenza isivumelwano senhloko ecashile noma sento engaphili (impersonal): /ku/. • Isib. Itafula nesitulo kuphukile. Imfologo nommese kudliwa ngakho etafuleni. (a) Umuntu + isilwane/into engaphili: Imvamisa lapha umuntu nguyena osebenza njengenhloko bese kuthi okunye okumele kube yingxenye yenhloko kulandele ngemuva kwesenzo: i. Umfana nenja yakhe uyazingela. ii. Umfana uzingela nenja yakhe. iii. UThulani nemali ubalekile.* [Lokhu akunambitheki kahle] Bheka lokhu: UThulani ubaleke nemali. iv. UVusi uhambe nemali. 84
  85. 85. UKUSEBENZA KWEZIVUMELWANO ZENHLOKO NEZIQU EZIQALA NGONKAMISA • EsiZulwini kukhona iziqu zezenzo eziqala ngonkamisa: e.g. akha, ehla, osa, otha, njll. • EsiZulwini onkamisa abalandelani. Uma kwenzekile balandelane kwenzeka okukodwa kulokhu okulandelayo: 1. Oyedwa unkamisa siyamhlahla. 2. Onkamisa bayalumbana, kuvele unkamisa omusha. 3. Unkamisa wokuqala uphenduka ungwaqa ongusingankamisa (semi-vowel): /w/ noma /y/ • Izibonelo: • Umakhi wakha izindlu. (< u + akha) • ba- -akha/ehla/osa > bakha/behla/bosa • a akha/ehla/osa > akha/ehla/osa • si- akha/ehla/osa > sakha/sehla/sosa i. akha/ehla/osa > yakha/yehla/yosa • lu- akha/ehla > lwakha/lwehla • lu- osa > losa • bu- akha/ehla/osa > bakha/behla/bosa • u- akha/ehla/osa > wakha/wehla/wosa 85
  86. 86. • Iziqu zezenzo eziqala ngonkamisa /i/ kuthiwa zinonkamisa ocashile. Lokhu kushiwo ngoba inguquko eyenzekayo kulezi ziqu yenzeka kuphela uma lezi ziqu zandulelwa unkamisa /a/. uma iziqu ezinonkamisa /i/ ocashile zandulelwa unkamisa omunye, uyalahlwa lo nkamisa ocashile: • Izibonelo: Abafundi bezwa umsindo wemoto. (< ba- + -izwa) • Umfana uzwa umsindo wemoto. (< u- + -izwa) 86
  87. 87. • Izivumelwano zikamenzi ezandulela iziqu zezenzo eziqala ngonkamisa: • Isigaba Isivumelwano 1. w- 2. b- • 1a w- • 2a- b- 1. w- 2. y- • 3a w- 1. l- 2. – 3. s- 4. z- 5. y- 6. z- 7. l-/lw- • 14 b- • 15 k/kw- • 16 k/kw- • 17 k/kw 87
  88. 88. Ukusebenza kwamabizo njengomenziwa emshweni: (a)Indawo ejwayelekile kamenziwa emshweni: ulandela isenzo eduze (b)Umenziwa usuka ngemuva kwesenzo uma ngabe kunesivumelwano sikamenziwa esenzweni. Ngale kwalokho uhlala esemuva kwesenzo njalo. Ezigabeni 3, 4, 6 & 9 lapho isiqalo-ngqo sinomankankane, isivumelwano sikamenziwa sisuselwa kusiqalo-ngqo bese kususwa umankankane. Kunkamisa osalayo uma sekusuke umankankane kugaxwa u-/w-/ noma u-/y-/ . Kugaxwa u-/-w-/ ngaphambi kwesiqalo-ngqo esingasenamankankane esino-/u-/ noma u-/a-/ kanti kugaxwa u-/-y-/ ngaphambi kuka/i-/. (c) Isivumelwano sikamenziwa izigaba 4 & 9: > /yi/ kanti isigaba 3 ngu-/wu/ bese kuthi isigaba 6 kube ngu-/wa/. Isigaba sokuqala sona asimlahli umankankane: -m-/-mu-. • 88
  89. 89. Isivumelwano sikamenziwa: (a)Isivumelwano sikamenziwa sandulela isiqu sesenzo. (b)Izakhi zilandelana kanjena esenzweni: isivumelwano sikamenzi + isakhi senkathi + isivumelwano sikamenziwa + umsuka wesenzo + unkamisa ogcinile (c)Uma sisebenza kanye nomenziwa emshweni siyagcizelela. (d)Uma sisebenza ngaphandle kukamenziwa sisebenza njengesabizwana soqobo. (e)Isivumelwano sikamenziwa siyafana nesiqalo-ngqo ezigabeni ezilandelayo: 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11 & 14 • 89
  90. 90. ISIVUMELWANO SIKAMENZIWA UMA UMENZIWA EBUYE ABE NGUMENZI (a) Kuyenzeka umenzi nomenziwa kube yibizo elilodwa emshweni: • UThemba ugeza uThemba. (Asikusho lokhu.) > (Sithi:) UThemba uyazigeza. • Uhlanya ludabulela uhlanya izimpahla. (Asikusho lokhu.) > (Sithi:) Uhlanya luzidabulela izimpahla. • Wena ushaya wena ngendlebe etsheni. (Asikusho lokhu.) > (Sithi:) Wena uzishaya ngendlebe etsheni. • Isakhi u-/-zi-/ sisebenza njengesivumelwano sikamenziwa esingaguquki uma umenziwa abuye abe ngumenzi emshweni munye. Njengaso isivumelwano sikamenziwa, lesi sakhi siba seduze nesiqu sesenzo. Akwenzeki ukuthi sisebenze kanye nesivumelwano sikamenziwa esisuselwe esiqalweni-ngqo sebizo. • Ake sibheke nazi izibonelo: i. Ngiyazigeza. ii. Sizibona emanzini. iii. Izingane zizingcolisa ngenhlabathi. • • Isakhi u-/-zi-/ singaphinde sisebenze nezenzo ezisempambosini yokwenzela; lapho singakhomba into ezenzakalelayo noma eyenzeka kalula. Izib: (a) Abafundi bayaziculela. (b) Thina siyazihambela nje. (c) Ubaba uyazizingelela. 90
  91. 91. ISAKHIWO/IMOFOLOJI YESENZO • Isenzo esisabizo yisona esithathwa njengesenzo esinesakhiwo esiyisisekelo. Zonke izenzo zisuselwa kusenzo esisabizo. Isenzo esisabizo sibonakala ngesiqalo u-/uku-/. Isenzo kuthiwa ngesisabizo ngoba sisebenza njengesenzo sibuye sisebenze njengebizo: ukudla, ukubona, dukudlala. /u-/ = isiqalo-ngqa; /-ku-/ = isiqalo-ngqo; /-dl-/ = umsuka wesenzo; -a = unkamisa ogcinile wesenzo (ukuvuma) • Ukudla = u- + -ku- + -dl- + -a • Ukubona = u- + -ku- + -bon- + -a 91
  92. 92. Izinguquko Ezakhiweni Zesenzo (Morphological processes) • Kukhona izinguquko ezenzekayo esenzweni, kwengezwe nezakhi ezithile. Lezi zakhi ziphathelene nomkhakha wokwakhiwa kwamagama: imofoloji. 1. Ukuphongoza: Sifaka isakhi ngaphambi komsuka: Ngiyadlala > Angidlali 2. Ukugaxa – Sifaka isakhi phakathi kwezinye izakhi: Ngidlala > Ngiyadlala/Ngisadlala 3. Ukujobelela – Umama udlalisa ingane./ Isigebengu sibalekela amaphoyisa/ Abantu abahlanyayo banamandla kabi. • 92
  93. 93. Compounding – Ukuhlanganisa amagama ahlukene ayizingcezu zenkulumo ezahlukene ukwakha ibizo elithile (imvamisa kuba yisenzo nebizo): (a)Ingqibamasondo < in(i) + ukugqiba + amasondo (b)Isifikanamthwalo < isi + ukufika + na + umthwalo (c)Inswelaboya < in(i) + ukuswela + uboya 93
  94. 94. 1. Ukuguquka okwenzeka kusiqu: ukuhlala > uhlala (isenzo esiyisekelo uma kufakwa isivumelwano sikamenzi, kususwa isiqalo kufakwe isivumelwano sikamenzi = substitution). Ukuhlala > uhlezi phansi. Akuchazeki ukuthi u-/l-/ uguquka kanjani abe ngu-/-z-/ = morphological modification. 2. Morphological substitution – lena yinguquko lapho isakhiwo sifakwa endaweni yesinye. Isibonelo: amabizo asuselwa ezenzweni. Umsebenzi < umu + ukusebenza + i. Lapha sifaka u-/umu-/ esikhundleni sika-/uku-/, siphinde sifake u-/i-/ esikhundleni sika-/a-/. 3. Morphological reduction – Lokhu singathi wukususa isakhi esithile egameni elejwayelekile noma eliphelele: (a) Ukugijima >> gijima! (ezenzweni) (b) Umfana >> Mfana, thula umsindo! (c) Umzimba >> Guga mzimba, sala nhliziyo. 1. Morphological reduplication – Ukuphindaphinda ingxenye yesiqu sesenzo: (a) Ukuhlala >> ukuhlalahlala: Wathi ukuhlalahlala, wayeseyahamba. (b) Ukufunda >> Ufundafunda bese elala kanye nezinkukhu. (c) Ukulala >> Abafundi abazimisele balalalala isikhashana bavuke bahlale ezincwadini zabo. • Isenzo endleleni eqondile nejwayelekile (evumayo): • Isivumelwano sikamenzi + umsuka wesenzo + unkamisa ogcinile (ukuvuma) • u- + -sebenz- + -a > usebenza • u- + -hlal- + -a > uhlala • Isenzo endleleni eqondile nejwayelekile (ukuphika): • Isakhi sokuphika + isivumelwano sikamenzi + umsuka wesenzo + unkamisa ogcinile (ukuphika) a. + -ka- + -sebenz- + -i > akasebenzi b. + -ka- + -hlal- + -i > akahlali • 94
  95. 95. UBUDLELWANE BAMAGAMA ESIZULU EMSHWENI UMENZI │ ↓ ISENZO │ ↓ UMENZIWA │ ↓ ISANDISO │ sesimo ↓ ISANDISO │ sendawo ↓ ISANDISO │ sesikhathi ↓ 1 '(We) Siyabona see.' 2 Thina 'We siyabona. see.' 3 Thina 'We sibona see imoto. the car.' 4a Thina 'We sibona see imoto the car kahle. clearly.' 4b Thina 'We sibona see imoto the car ekhaya. at hm.' 4c Thina 'We sibona see imoto the car kahle clearly ekhaya at home ekuseni. in the morning.' 95
  96. 96. 3.1.1 THE POSITION OF THE SUBJECT IN THE SENTENCE The basic word order, as indicated above, may change. Even though the default position of the subject noun is thus in sentence initial position, the subject noun may appear in other positions in the sentence. If the subject is moved from sentence initial position this brings about a change in focus in the sentence. Let us illustrate the moving of the subject noun from its default position by referring to a simple sentence consisting of a subject, verb and object only. The basic word order (illustrated in example 1a) can be changed as is evident in examples 1b - 1f below. (S stands for subject; V stands for verb (predicate) and O stands for object.) 1. a. S V O ↓ ↓ ↓ Intombazane ifunda incwadi. 'The girl reads the letter.' 96
  97. 97. a. V O S ↓ ↓ ↓ Ifunda incwadi intombazane ‘She reads the letter the girl.’ b. S O V ↓ ↓ ↓ Intombazane incwadi iyayifunda. ‘The girl, the letter she reads it.’ c. O S V ↓ ↓ ↓ Incwadi intombazane iyayifunda. ‘The letter, the girl, she reads it.’ d. O V S ↓ ↓ ↓ Incwadi iyayifunda intombazane. ‘The letter, she reads it, the girl.’ e. V S O ↓ ↓ ↓ Iyayifunda intombazane incwadi. She reads it, the girl, the letter.’ 97

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