2. •3D Printing has been used
for the past 20 years by
manufacturers in order to
produce models and
prototypes of products
before mass producing on
•The first 3D printer was invented by Charles Hull and his company 3D Systems
•The first 3D printers used a method of stereolithography. This method used a
laser the solidified an ultraviolet sensitive polymer material wherever the laser
3. •A 3D Printer uses digital instructions to
“print” an object out of plastic, ceramics, or
•It builds up one layer at a time by squirting
heated semi-liquid plastic that solidifies as
the printer head moves around to created
the outline of each layer of the object.
•Digital blueprints created using 3D
modeling software on a computer. It is used
to design anything you can imagine.
•This is the same software used to make the
blueprints for 3D printers to use in order to
5. •The first 3D printed gun was “The Liberator”,
designed by Defense Distributed. The
blueprints were released online on May 6th 2013
and were downloaded over 100,000 times within
48-hours. This prompted the US Department of
State to demand the takedown of the
downloadable file from the site. This plastic gun
is also undetectable by x-ray machines and
•The first 3D printed metal gun was made in
2013 by Solid Concepts. Unlike Defense
Distributed, Solid Concepts are licensed firearm
manufacturers. These 3D printed metal guns are
sold on their website, but blueprints are not
being shared open-source. DMLS (Direct Metal
Laser Sintering) and SLS (Selective Laser
Sintering) methods are used.
7. •Bioprinting is a process that uses a modified 3D printer using Bio-ink to
produce organic tissue, and eventually fully functional organs.
•Bio-ink is made up of multi-cellular building blocks from cells that will be used
to build the target tissues. Bio-inert hydrogel, which is mainly made of sugar, is
utilized as scaffolding while tissues are built up layer by layer. After the tissue is
finished, water simply dissolves the sugar scaffolding.
8. •A 3D printed portion of a 20-month
old boy’s airway. The boy was born
with Tracheobronchomalacia, and
was unable to breathe on his own
without being intubated and had to
be resuscitated on a daily basis.
•It was created with a 3D printer
based on a CT scan of his airways.
•A3D printed ear mold made with living
cells. The 3D mold is created my
making a 3D render of the intact ear of
the patient to create a new one. The
process takes 2 days to make the mold
and it is then allowed to grow for 3-
months on the back of a rat or mouse.
9. •A 14-month old child that was born
with many heart defects was in need
of surgical repair. The surgeon,
unsure of how to proceed, had a 3D
model of the child’s heart created in
order to see the details of the
defects. With the model, he was able
to eliminate much exploratory and
successfully completed the surgery
on February 10th 2014.
•In March 2013, a company
gained FDA approval for a skull
implant that can replace 75% of a
patient’s skull. This has opened
the door for many other patients
that could use bone replacement
in even less risky areas than close
to the brain.
10. •Research has been underway to
successfully create 3D printed breast
tissue for survivors of breast cancer.
The 3D printed tissue will allow for
the use of patient’s cells to implant
their own breast, nipple, and areola.
•As of now, liver tissue is being produced
with 3D printers to use in medical studies
and drug research. The liver tissues are
fully functional, the main issue holding
back live transplants is vascular supply of
blood and nutrients.