Contenu connexe


Plus de Habib Ullah Qamar(20)


Lecture 7 organization structure- chapter 1 jamed a hall

  1. Habib Ullah Qamar Govt. college of Commerce Gujranwala 2/22/2016
  2.  Accounting information Systems  Introduction  Evolution  Acquisition
  3.  Business Segmentation  Functional Segmentation  Accounting Function  The IT Function 2/22/2016
  4.  The structure of an organization reflects the distribution of responsibility, authority, and accountability throughout the organization.  These flows are illustrated in Figure 1-7. Firms achieve their overall objectives by establishing measurable financial goals for their operational units.  Understanding the distribution pattern of responsibility, authority, and accountability is essential for assessing user information needs.
  5.  Firms organize into segments to promote internal efficiencies through the specialization of labor and cost- effective resource allocations.  Managers within a segment can focus their attention on narrow areas of responsibility to achieve higher levels of operating efficiency.  Geographic : different locations  Product line : separate divisions  Business Function: on basis of tasks
  6.  Segmentation by business function is the most common method of organizing.  Assume a manufacturing firm that uses these resources: materials, labor, financial capital, and information.  A public utility may have little in the way of a marketing function compared to an automobile manufacturer. A service organization may have no formal production function and little in the way of inventory to manage. One firm may call its labor resource personnel, whereas another uses the term human resources.
  7.  Manages Financial information resource of the firm. Plays two important roles in transaction processing.  First, accounting captures and records the financial effects of the firm’s transactions.  These include events such as the movement of raw materials from the warehouse into production, shipments of the finished products to customers, cash flows into the firm and deposits in the bank, the acquisition of inventory, and the discharge of financial obligations.
  8.  Second, the accounting function distributes transaction information to operations personnel to coordinate many of their key tasks.  Accounting activities that contribute directly to business operations include inventory control, cost accounting, payroll, accounts payable, accounts receivable, billing, fixed asset accounting, and the general ledger. We deal with each of these specifically in later chapters.
  9.  The Value of Information : reliability  relevance, accuracy, completeness, summarization, and timeliness  Accounting Independence  Information reliability rests heavily on the concept of accounting independence. Simply stated, accounting activities must be separate and independent of the functional areas that maintain custody of physical resources.
  10.  Centralized Data Processing  Under the centralized data processing model, all data processing is performed by one or more large computers housed at a central site that serve users throughout the organization.  Database Administration  Data Processing  Systems Development and Maintenance
  11.  End users compete for these resources on the basis of need.  The IT function is usually treated as a cost center whose operating costs are charged back to the end users.  These include database administration, data processing, and systems development and maintenance
  12.  Centrally organized companies maintain their data resources in a central location that is shared by all end users.  In this shared data arrangement, a special independent group—database administration—headed by the database administrator is responsible for the security and integrity of the database.
  13.  The data processing group manages the computer resources used to perform the day-to-day processing of transactions.  Data control, data conversion, computer operations, and the data library.  Data control groups have all but disappeared from modern organizations.  Traditionally, this function was responsible for receiving batches of transaction documents for processing from end users and then distributing computer output (documents and reports) back to the users.  Today this function is usually automated and distributed back to the end users.
  14.  The data conversion function changes transaction data from source to digital format suitable for computer processing by the central computer.  Accounting applications are usually run according to a strict schedule that is controlled by  The data library is a room often adjacent to the computer center that provides safe storage for the offline data files, such as magnetic tapes and removable disk packs.
  15.  The information needs of users are met these two related functions  Analyze user needs and for design new systems to satisfy those needs.  Systems professionals include systems analysts, database designers, and programmers who design and build the system.  End users are those for whom the system is built. (workers to managers)  Stakeholders are individuals inside or outside the firm who have an interest in the system but are not end users.
  16.  DDP involves reorganizing the IT function into small information processing units (IPUs)that are distributed to end users and placed under their control.  IPUs may be distributed according to business function, geographic location, or both.  Central IT function has been eliminated from the organization structure.  Individual operational areas now perform this role. In recent years.  DDP has become an economic and operational feasibility that has revolutionized business operations
  17.  Cost reductions : In the past, achieving economies of scale was the principal justification for the centralized approach. The economics of data processing favored large, expensive, powerful computers.  Powerful, inexpensive ,and small scale computers which can cost-effectively perform specialized functions have changed the economics of data processing dramatically.
  18.  By entering and editing data at the IPU data conversion and control cost reduces  By dividing a system into IPUs reduces application complexity and has decreased system development and maintenance costs  Improved cost control responsibility :Managers assume the responsibility for the financial success of their operations. This requires that they be properly empowered with the  Authority to make decisions about resources has been shifted to IPU manager
  19.  Improved user satisfaction : by getting hold of resources as CDP, by getting system professionals at each IPU, by getting actively involved in system development and implementation  Backup :The final argument in favor of DDP is the ability to back up computing facilities to protect against potential disasters such as fires, floods, sabotage, and earthquakes. One solution is to build excess capacity into each IPU.
  20.  Mismanagement of organization-wide resources  Some argue that when organization-wide resources exceed a threshold amount, say 5 percent of the total operations budget, they should be controlled and monitored centrally.  Hardware and software incompatibility  uncoordinated and poorly conceived decisions and Working independently can lead to dissimilar and incompatible operating systems, technology platforms, spreadsheet programs, word processors, and database packages.
  21.  Redundant tasks. Autonomous systems development activities distributed throughout the firm can result in each user area reinventing the wheel.  For example, application programs created by one user, which could be used with little or no change by others, will be redesigned from scratch rather than shared.  Consolidating incompatible activities: The distribution of the IT function to individual user areas results in the creation of many very small units that may not permit the necessary separation of incompatible functions.
  22.  Important considerations of economic benefit and operational feasibility.  Some organizations have made the move to DDP without fully considering whether the distributed organizational structure will better achieve their business objectives.  Some DDP initiatives have proven ineffective, and even counterproductive, because decision makers saw in these systems virtues that were more symbolic than real.  Before taking such an aggressive step, decision makers should assess the true merits of DDP for their organization. Accountants have an opportunity and an obligation to play an important role in this analysis.
  23. See you again in sha ALLAH 2/22/2016