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Future of Work (English)

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Future of Work (English)

  1. 1. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK FUTURE OF WORK Assessments and ideas to guide managers and HR through the digital transformation. Pour lire cette publication en français, c’est par ici.
  2. 2. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Who are we? haigo is a consulting firm known for it’s innovation. We help large groups such as AXA, Thales and the Société Générale to innovate and grow quickly thanks to our method - based on the identification of new users’ needs. With the analysis of emerging signals such as the ones exposed in this white paper, we accelerate the digital transformation of our clients. Inspired by Design Thinking, our multidisciplinary approach is applied to our projects developed with our clients and their partners. Currently, we train several hundreds of students from HEC, the Sorbonne University and the Ecole 42 with our approach. Contact us : hello@haigo.fr
  3. 3. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK SOMMAIRE p.4   p.20     p.39   : 10 key assessments : 3 work trails : 3 consulting programs
  4. 4. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Why this publication? Digital technologies have changed our relationship with the world. They’ve diminished monopolies, made exchanges flow better, go against established norms and influence our relationship with our work. The conference Next: Economy, organized in November in San Francisco by Tim O’Reilly aimed at questioning the impact of technologies within our society. We have summed up the trends tackled during the conference and offer you the insight to foresee these disruptions yourselves.
  5. 5. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK The speakers and the audience of the conference: On stage, over fifty participants of the evolution of work were present. Among others: •  Tim O’Reilly, founder of O’Reilly Media •  Reid Hoffman, founder of Linkedin •  Sébastien Thrun,  founder & CEO of Udacity •  Leah Busque, founder & CEO of TaskRabbit •  Stéphane Kasriel, CEO of UpWork •  Chad Dickerson, CEO of Etsy •  Mark Hatch, founder of Techshop •  Limor Fried, founder of Adafruit •  Satya Nadella, CEO of Microsoft •  Jeff Immelt, CEO of General Electric 400 people attended the event, mainly from the USA.
  6. 6. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK How to read this report? The different ideas which were explored have been classified into themes. Involving partners Corporate culture, redefining its perimeters when new types of partners with different temporal and spatial relations are being integrated. Developing potentials Jobs are changing, involving new skills, training is therefore a continuous process and a selling point when recruiting. Understanding the right profiles New opportunities appear, new skills (ready to be used) available to companies. RECRUITMENT TRAINING ENGAGEMENT
  7. 7. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 10 KEY-ASSESSMENTS presented during the conference to recruit, train and engage tomorrow’s partners
  8. 8. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK The presented assessments are going to be completed afterwards with examples allowing managers to ask themselves the right questions: •  What are tomorrow’s talents expecting? •  Who are the operators who can help us set up a new deal? •  How can I open up my company to innovation? FOREWORD
  9. 9. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 1.  From job to task, the scale of work is changing. 2.  Upon request, workforce is immediately accessible. 3.  Flexibility or instability? What is the best for partners? 4.  The polarization of unskilled and highly-skilled workers. 5.  The freelance worker is surrounded and works with a multidisciplinary team. 6.  Decentralization, the company is now an ecosystem. 7.  Data and algorithms, moving towards the ultra-quantification of labour. 8.  Education is not a stash but a flow. 9.  Completed projects are even more important than diplomas. 10. Increased working: technology is everywhere. Training & retention Recruitment Corporate cultureThe 10 key-assessments of the conference:
  10. 10. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 1_ From job to task, the scale of work is changing Technology allows for the flexibility of employment and the figure of the worker is no longer the “full-time employee”: the scale of work is changing and individuals can have several employers for whom they work on specific projects. New technologies (and especially new on-line platforms) allow people to be hired directly and on a specific task. New operators can connect more and more targeted talent for a travel, a home-service or a market-study. Among those companies, we can find of course Uber, but also TaskRabbit which allows small jobs to be done by people living close to you (Jobbing) as well as HourlyNerd which connects the best business profiles for market-studies. Recruitment Corporate culture On Upwork, you can buy services charged per minute. In this example, the inclusion of an on-line signature costs 4 minutes, that is a few dollars.
  11. 11. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 2_ Upon request, workforce is immediately accessible These services and tasks can now be done in real time and are mobile. The selection cycle is thus shortened because those platforms are working with reputation systems: the individual offering his/her services is responsible for his/her on-line identity (with recommendations for instance). The American platform Upwork is a very good example: more than 10 million freelancers are registered and evaluated through their completed projects. It is based on three parameters: the interest of the project, the capacity of an individual to do it and his/her availability. The economic model of the platform is the commission; the interest is paired with the one of the people that the platform helps to find a job. Being completely on-line, it limits tensions and abolishes geographic boundaries while at the same time offering a way to integrate new talents using specialized tools. Recruitment The immediacy of a request is shown here with an app that allows an Uber driver to answer a request immediately.
  12. 12. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 3_ Flexibility or instability? What is the best for the partner? For independent workers (53 million in the USA according to a study by Upwork), now is not the time for just freelancing but rather for several activities. It is not that uncommon to have a “main work” and complete it with side jobs on-demand. The protection of the independent worker has been largely talked about during the conference: •  The certification of “on-demand” companies with the label “Good Work Code”, composed of 8 independent standards guaranteeing the worker’s stability as well as his/her referencing. •  Portable Benefits. It is a simple idea: establishing proportional rights from each employer and getting rid of the concept of the single company. This theme is currently debated in politics. •  Minimum wage of $15 per hour. Training & retention The $15/hour movement is increasing in the USA and is being debated in the context of the presidential election.
  13. 13. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 4_ The polarization of unskilled and highly-skilled workers The increasing flexibility of the work force is driving apart two types of population from the “traditional” vision (that is what we know from the 1950s): •  A group of people who reject this model by choice and who can afford to be independent. The stake of the HR is to hire these talents but also to win their loyalty. It is necessary to develop more individualized services that require a specific skill set. •  A group of people having difficulties entering the “traditional” job market,who are hired on-demand. It is necessary to have a replaceable standard procedure. This vision is simplified, but what was depicted during the conference shows life choices as well as a grave risk of casualization that everyone needs to be aware of. Recruitment Corporate culture “Freelance by choice”, he works as a data scientist for several clients at the same time.
  14. 14. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 5_ The freelancer is surrounded and works with a multidisciplinary team Far from being lonely and isolated people, independent workers are organized, working together and defending themselves. In the work context, they can apply as a group for projects on platforms such as Upwork (which keeps a record of their collaboration) and are united in networks. On the creative platform Etsy for example, the most active dealers are now teaming up. This team-working is also physical, for instance in co-working spaces. When complimentary profiles are mixed, expertise and multidisciplinary projects often result. In politics, new unions are appearing and defending the interests of those operators. In the USA as in Europe, exchanges are growing. Training & retention Corporate culture Co-working space in San Francisco besides renting offices spaces per day, is putting freelancers in touch on projects, offering training, managing health-insurance…
  15. 15. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 6_ Decentralized, the company is now an ecosystem The companies’ needs are evolving, the yearnings of the required talents too. Companies are less and less monolithic structures but they have to learn how to seek talents from where they lie and make them loyal. With ultra-specialized freelancers and the outsourcing of certain jobs, organizations are becoming ecosystems of concentric circles and are gathering more projects as global companies. Their activity is now gathering several circles depending on the projects and the partners involved. Naturally new elements are at stake around corporate culture, knowledge management, confidentiality and other issues. Recruitment Training & retention Corporate culture Extracts from accounts on the website Upwork connecting freelancers and companies.
  16. 16. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 7_ Data and algorithms, towards the ultra-quantification of labor The companies’ needs are more and more assessed, analyzed and maximized, sometimes automatically. The employee (or the on-demand worker) is used on very precise time slots sometimes defined by maximized algorithms (yield management). Tools such as StaffJoy synchronize the needs for companies and the flexibility of workers. On these platforms, it is the same for the beginning and end of contracts. A driver has bad reviews? He will not be warned by a manager, instead he will be “deactivated” (as Sébastien Thrun recalled on stage). This over-maximization is criticized as a source of casualization and instability for workers: more than 40% of such workers do not know their schedule more than a week in advance. Recruitment Training & retention Corporate culture Map of the density of trips made by Uber drivers showing the catchment areas to the minute.
  17. 17. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 8_ Education is not a stash but a flow In-service training is a key-element in companies constantly and rapidly changing and totally impacted with digital technology. The model “Studies-Work” seems to be ending for an increasing part of jobs: individuals have to develop a training culture throughout their lives and be aware that their job could change instantly. They become their own training operators and can be more involved with HR in their company. Defended by entrepreneurs such as Sébastien Thrun; the founder of Udacity (a platform of on-line courses dedicated to IT), the concept of nanodegree (a one year training programme in an operational technological field) can be an answer to the automatization of certain tasks and aspects of one’s job. The system of badges developed by LinkedIn was a precursor of this trend. Recruitment Training & retention Corporate culture
  18. 18. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 9_ Completed projects are becoming more important than diplomas Recruiting is no longer based solely on higher education but rather on the skills acquired in constantly evolving companies. As Reid Hoffman, the co-founder of LinkedIn, explained, the new signs of education have to be taken into account. For example, boot-camps, accelerated training for people interested in an operational update in a technological field. Besides, new jobs are appearing when old ones are being redefined with the automatization of certain tasks. LinkedIn is offering an essential monitoring device to match skills and new processes, and is associated with the foundation Markle but also EdX (an on-line course platform) and Arizona State University (famous for teaching innovation) to guide career changes using the program Rework America Connected. Recruitment Training & retention Corporate culture Sidlee has created an intensive training program:  the boot camp. It is also a relevant tool for recruiting.
  19. 19. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 10_ Increase work(er): technology is everywhere As recalled by the McKinsey Global Institute, automatization does not jeopardize jobs per se but a part of their tasks. It is more about the increasing digitalization of these jobs rather than just simplly automating. Presented both as a partner (the ideal personal assistant for instance) and as a set of tools, artificial intelligence makes work efficient and gives more time for tasks with added value. It also creates new jobs (like artificial intelligence trainer) on a smaller scale. Technology also includes physical tools such as the Daqri helmet, one of the sponsors of the conference. It allows users to add information with an augmented reality - answering to increasing numbers of technical tasks. Training & retention Corporate culture Interface presenting the augmented vision of a viewer thanks to the Daqri helmet.
  20. 20. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK 3 WORK TRAILS Allowing for a smooth transition between digital and HR.
  21. 21. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK RECRUITMENT and retention of the best. 1
  22. 22. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK CONTEXT As the scale of work is changing and one can move from position to a task bought on-line, companies can seek a precise partnership instead of just a partner. These expertise can be found on platforms that are increasingly specific though less formal routes are accessible to partners. It is also possible to proceed gradually in the context of recruitment and to look for the best talents by starting work with them on short projects. In France, one can think about Studyka which offers students concrete cases while evaluating their capacity to manage projects and work as a team. 1
  23. 23. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Recruitment & retention Concepts The new “signals” New forms of training are offered to applicants. Besides MOOCs, boot camps (very operational intensive trainings) and qualified training programmes are developed by companies (such as Udacity and Google). Working on platforms Independent workers are not looking for full time and permanent positions but can be hired on specialized platforms such as Upwork. Multidisciplinary teams can be hired and managed by such platforms. Udacity offers qualified training and nanodegrees adapted to new digital jobs.
  24. 24. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Recruitment & retention The operators setting up a new deal: Some operators are taking part in this change: HourlyNerd Directly connected to graduates from forty of the best business schools worldwide, this platform meets the issues of market analysis at a global scale. Managed by Q Cette entreprise externalise entièrement la gestion des bureaux, qui se pilote désormais d’une application.
  25. 25. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Taking up challenges 1 SHORT-TERM CHALLENGES What are the new needs in terms of skills linked to the development of new jobs? •  What are the recruitment standards for constantly evolving positions, existing sometimes without prior education training? •  How to make “juniors” and “seniors” evolve together? (see reverse monitoring) TOMORROW’S CHALLENGES? How to train flexible partners in the new ways of working loyal? •  How to be competitive regarding networks campaigning for HR accountability (ex: Glassdoor)? •  How to proceed to a “gradual recruitment” (and suggest a shift from outsourcing to part-time recruitment)? • 
  26. 26. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK “60% of CEOs say they can't find the talent they need. It's becoming a real issue for growth.” Gary SWART Entrepreneur, Venture Capitalist, General Partner of Polaris Partners, ex-CEO of oDesk
  27. 27. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK TRAINING How to change today’s companies into tomorrow’s schools? 2
  28. 28. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK CONTEXT In the world of disruption, it might be tempting to introduce projects relating to digital technology so that companies can show they can adapt to the market. Short-term technological projects override soft skills, but the digital revolution is also about habits and uses. For companies, it is important to understand the changes of their business sector, while handing partners the key-methods to grasp this change easily. For partners, it is important to go back and forth between their company and their training. They need to have the capacity to spot the signals of change and to be guided and improved. 2
  29. 29. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK In-house training Concepts Lifelong Learning: Debates over the 21st century’s school are questioning the place of school as a simple step in the learning process of each citizen. Companies are taking over for partners. “Nano-degree”: used by Sébastien Thrun to define courses offered on his platform, nanodegrees are an example of the necessary connection between the business world and the training world. It is certified and developed by professionals guaranteeing students employability. Companies are the new schools: according to a study by PwC, the main reason to enter a company is training, learning and experince.
  30. 30. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK In-house training Operators setting up a new deal: Some operators are taking part in this change: LinkedIn and the acquisition of Lynda The American heavyweight company with more than 350 million resumes has the capacity of selecting the necessary trainings to make a career evolve. A great tool for HR… or which can be used by partners directly? Stanford and its concept of Open Loop Still under consideration, the great university of Stanford is thinking about an open model connecting training to the business world. Each student has 6 years to complete a degree. Udacity for technical profiles Created by potential employers and teachers, its training is highly professional and is used as a way to pre-recruit. Diagram showing the future degrees at Stanford University. The school becomes a place to develop long-term skills.
  31. 31. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK TAKING UP CHALLENGES SHORT-TERM CHALLENGES •  Do you have the metrics to evaluate your training suitability? •  Do you offer training that your employees are looking or asking for? •  How to develop part of your training with your partners (peer-to-peer learning)? TOMORROW’S CHALLENGES? •  How to create training programs inside your company and use them as competitive benefits to attract talent? •  The types of relationship to create between schools and alternative training organizations? •  How to encourage training for employees within the company? 2
  32. 32. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK “Actual company values are the behaviors and skills that are valued in fellow employees” Reed Hastings CEO of Netflix
  33. 33. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK CORPORATE CULTURE What type of companies’ project to associate partners with? 3
  34. 34. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK CONTEXT The different points which were discussed during this conference show that corporate culture might be a key-issue of these transformations. From long-term compliance to companies, partners can start short-term projects with them as well as with a new set of partners: •  How to handle the collaboration between long-term and short-term employees? •  How to keep a record of exchanges to use as wealth on which companies can capitalize? •  Types of tools required to have access to the knowledge of companies? •  How to keep track of tools they are using and the information that is being developed? •  What the relationship between confidentiality and private life? 3
  35. 35. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Corporate culture Predicting the employees’ expectations There are multiple expectations at stake: Decentralization Companies are no longer a sole place of time, action and space. The work sphere is more precisely defined in the presented projects. Subsequently, how to make the smoothest collaboration between the different parts of a project? Reception From the welcoming of one or several “temporary” partners, the process of acculturation has to to be simple and understandable. HR have a key-part to play in this sphere and are guaranteeing the companies’ values. Flexibility of tools Performing tools are being developed to meet the stakes of tomorrow’s jobs. The best way to avoid being overstepped is not to dwell on the past and trust these opportunities. Welcome pack given to new employees at Ogilvy. Corporate culture for freelancers is still an issue.
  36. 36. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Corporate culture The operators setting up a new deal: Some operators showing this search for simplification: Communication – Slack Acclaimed by startups, this tool for communication which aims at replacing emails by more opened thematic conversations has a direct impact on the knowledge of companies. It raises issues regarding Knowledge Management. Organization – Upwork A platform that connects freelancers and offers a management system for the people hired through the platform. One can therefore communicate simply inside the organization and keep a hand on the exchanges within the context of temporary missions (short or long-term). Slack allows in a simple manner the centralization of all the exchanges inside a company on the same space.
  37. 37. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK TAKING UP CHALLENGES SHORT-TERM CHALLENGES •  What type of documents would you hand to someone coming for a one-month mission so that he/she can understand your corporate culture? •  How to arrange time to meet physically in order to create new opportunities? •  How to source the tools used by your partners and be sure of their involvement? TOMORROW’S CHALLENGES? •  How to use your corporate culture to attract/retain the best talents? •  How to transform each employee into a potential recruitment consultant? •  What sort of coaching for ambassador employees? 3 To make your corporate culture evolve
  38. 38. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK “Silicon Valley doesn't get that people and culture are even more important in big companies than small ones.” Jeff Immelt CEO of General Electric
  39. 39. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK ARE YOU READY? 3 counseling programs to avoid missing the HR’s digital change
  40. 40. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Observing & identifying weak signals 3 COUNSELING PROGRAMS OF CHANGES Creating opportunities & prototypes Co-designing & leading changes Oeuil
  41. 41. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK OBSERVING & IDENTIFYING WEAK SIGNALS An achievable benchmark What ? We are relying on an international network of experts established directly in more than 10 countries allowing us to issue 3 types of analysis: 1. Identifying rising uses 2. Actionable publications suited for your actual needs 3. Connecting with startups and innovating operators Clients AXA, HEC, Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire…
  42. 42. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK CREATING OPPORTUNITIES & PROTOTYPES 2-day immersive workshops What ? A 2-day full-time workshop to identify the HR issues of your company, your opportunities, your strengths and your weaknesses. Goals: 1. Identifying the opportunities of change 2. Creating prototypes for the first solutions 3. Defining the roadmap to aim at the goals Clients Société Générale, Thales, Orange
  43. 43. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK CO-DESIGNING & LEADING CHANGES Personalized shaping What ? Our method is inspired by Design Thinking and relies on 10 years of expertise in extremely varied activity sectors. Together we can define a dedicated team made of employees and multidisciplinary innovative experts (designer, developer, strategist, anthropologist, growth- hacker…). The team is working on short sprints allowing them to create very fast testable prototypes and prepare these in a couple of weeks. Clients Société Générale, AXA, Thales…
  44. 44. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK THE WRITERS of the report
  45. 45. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Patrick MARUEJOULS THE WRITERS OF THE REPORT Strategy, Design & Training Founder of haigo, specialist of design innovation and of the influence of training on organizations. Speaker at HEC Paris, Sorbonne University, l’Ecole 42… Contact : patrick@haigo.fr Twitter : @maruejouls Margaux PELEN Strategy & Education Specialist of edtechs and researcher on the impact of technology on education (10 countries). Speaker at HEC Paris and at the CRI. Contact : margaux@haigo.fr Twitter : @mapelen
  46. 46. HAIGO – FUTURE OF WORK Patrick MARUEJOULS patrick@haigo.fr +33 (0) 675 488 013 We make good things happen !