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Imperial War museum
To hold objects for
around the world.
Very careful packing
skills are needed
This makes flat
things flatter, like
old letters that
have got damp
Lots goes on behind the scenes
at IWM. The conservation team
make sure that objects in the
museum can tell their stories for
many years to come.
There are dangers
lurking in the IWM stores.
Old medical kits sometimes
contain dangerous drugs; paint
used on radio dials can be radioactive;
cancer-causing asbestos can be found
hiding in First World War gas masks. The
conservation team make everything safe.
THE CONSERVATION LAB
IWM_Guide_MASTER.indd 28 26/05/2016
G27 RYA Instructor Handbook
8 RYA Yachtmaster Scheme Instructor Handbook
RYA EQUALITY POLICY
‣ To make boating an activity that is genuinely open to anyone who wishes to take part.
‣ To provide the framework for everyone to enjoy the sport, in whatever capacity and to
whatever level the individual desires.
‣ To ensure that the RYA’s services, including training schemes, are accessible to all,
including those who have been under-represented in the past.
2.2 POLICY STATEMENT
The Royal Yachting Association is committed to the principle of equality of opportunity and
aims to ensure that all present and potential participants, members, Instructors, coaches,
competitors, officials, volunteers and employees are treated fairly and on an equal basis,
irrespective of sex, age, disability, race, religion or belief, sexual orientation, pregnancy and
maternity, marriage and civil partnership, gender reassignment or social status.
RYA EQUALITY POLICY
RYA Yachtmaster Scheme Instructor Handbook
‣ The RYA encourages its affiliated clubs and organisations and its recognised training
centres to adopt a similar policy, so that they are seen as friendly, welcoming and
open to all.
‣ Appointments to voluntary or paid positions with the RYA will be made on the basis of an
individual’s knowledge, skills and experience and the competences required for the role.
‣ The RYA will relax regulations in relation to RYA training schemes which may inhibit the
performance of candidates with special needs, provided that the standard, quality and
integrity of schemes and assessments are not compromised.
‣ The RYA reserves the right to discipline any of its members or employees who practise
any form of discrimination in breach of this policy.
The effectiveness of this policy will be monitored and evaluated on an ongoing basis.
Way to Go
Module // 4
Unit // 2 Lesson // 2
Lesson 2 » Do I Control my Expenses?
1. Look at the graph and complete the sentences with the Useful Expressions.
1. Girls have been spending most of their money on
clothing; but boys have been spending theirs on food.
2. Boys girls have been spending
less money on books than other things.
3. boys have been spending 23%
of their money on technology, girls have only been
4. buying shoes, boys have been
spending their money on eating food.
5. The money boys have been spending on going out is
2. Complete the graph to show what you spend your money on.
3. Use your graph from exercise
2 and the Useful Expressions
from exercise 1 to write about
how you spend money.
How do boys and girls spend their money?
How do I spend my money?
as well as
module 4 // Unit 2
Lesson 3 » Things that Money Can’t Buy
1. Read the brochure promoting experiences and complete the sentences.
BUYING EXPERIENCES vs. BUYING THINGS
Do you ever think, ‘If I save my money I will be able to buy a new iPhone’, or ‘If I buy a new
car I will be so happy’? Sure, having a new car, fashionable clothes or the latest technology
all sounds great, but can these material items really bring you the happiness you deserve?
From a young age, we learn to like having new things. If our friend has a new games console,
we want a new games console. If our neighbour has a swimming pool in their house, we want a
swimming pool too. The idea that buying and consuming makes us happy is an illusion. Recent
research has shown if people spend their money on experiences, they will be happier and
more satisfied with their lives. Experiences might be travelling to new places, eating at a new
restaurant, trying a new sport or simply going for a walk in the mountains or along the beach.
Still sceptical? Below are 5 reasons why people who
spend their money on experiences are happier than
those who waste their money on material items.
1. Experiences give you unforgettable memories
2. Experiences teach you things.
3. Experiences offer exciting challenges.
4. Experiences open your mind.
5. Experiences are great value for money.
So, isn’t it time to stop buying things and start
2. Read the sentences about spending and experiences. Write if you agree or disagree and explain why.
1. Holidays are very expensive. I prefer to buy lots of smaller things for myself.
2. Why should I spend money on a windsurfing course? I don’t live near the sea.
3. I love going to new restaurants. It’s exciting to try a new dish for the first time.
3. Write about the best experience you have had.
One of the best experiences I have had is
I really enjoyed the experience because
sceptical: to have doubt
1. If you buy experiences,
2. If you buy experiences,
3. If you buy experiences,
4. If you buy experiences,
5. If you buy experiences,
you will have unforgettable memories
The world around us
3A Our cultural heritage
The world around us
Vocabulary development 1
† COURSEBOOK pages 36–37
Cities and culture
1a Look at the diagram and choose the adjective
which collocates with the noun.
fairytale / industrial
run-down / wonderful
present-day / ugly
gloomy / architectural
live / riverside ofﬁces
rewarding / dilapidated
restored / thriving
popular / prosperous
b Read the advertisement and check your answers to
Exercise 1a. Ignore the gaps at this stage.
c Now complete the advertisement with the
adjectives in Exercise 1a which you did not choose.
2 Complete the table.
Adjective Verb Noun Adjective Verb Noun
strong strengthen 1 achieved/
prosperous 2 3 9 — culture
optimistic — 4 10 — architecture
threatening 5 6 declining decline 11
7 economise economy solved/soluble solve 12
Forget Edinburgh. Come to
It may not have Edinburgh’s
fairytale castle but Glasgow is
a far more (1) place
to visit. You’ll find the people
are friendlier too!
Forget those images of gloomy
factories, ugly Victorian
buildings and abandoned
shipyards. Glasgow has
Some people say that Glasgow
still seems a little grey and
depressing when you first
arrive. You still find the occasional dilapidated building
in the city centre; there are still run-down slums on the
outskirts. But Glasgow is now a proud city – proud of
its (2) and shipbuilding past, proud of its
architectural heritage and proud of its (3) role
as a leading UK tourist destination.
Four million people visit Glasgow every year. They come as
much for the shopping as for the museums and art galleries.
There’s also a(n) (4) theatre scene and
(5) music events take place almost every night
of the week. Then there is the (6) architecture;
from the restored 18th-century warehouses of the Merchant
City to the prosperous mansions around George Square,
the (7) legacy of Glasgow is among the most
striking in the UK.
It’s not by accident that £500 million has recently been
invested in new riverside offices and housing. Or that the city
is one of the most (8) conference destinations in
Europe. Glasgow has something to offer everyone.
Come to Glasgow and see what it can offer you!
Exam practice: Word formation
(Paper 1 Part 3)
Language development 1
† COURSEBOOK pages 38–39, EXPERT GRAMMAR pages
Adjectives and adverbs
1 Complete the sentences with the words in italics.
1 good / well
a You don’t look very . Are you feeling OK?
b Ask Sue what this word means – her Italian is
2 steady / steadily
a Since 1990, there’s been a increase in
tourism to this town.
b Over the past 20 years, the quality of hotels has
3 late / lately
a There have been a lot of strikes at the airport
b The announcement said that the plane would
take off .
4 hard / hardly
a Sarah was so suntanned I could
b I worked extremely to pay for this
5 wide / widely
a Can you close the window? It’s open
at the moment.
b Mark travelled in Europe when he
was a student.
6 direct / directly
a We can ﬂy to Rome from this airport.
b If you lose your passport, you should go
to the police.
Adverbs of degree
2a Write the adjectives in the box in the correct column.
awful bleak decisive fantastic fast fragile
furious impressive lively marvellous powerful
romantic tremendous unique well-known
Read the whole text first to get the general meaning
before you try to do the task. Think about the type of
word that will fit in each gap.
Are the words you’ve written as answers
3 Do the task.
For questions 1–8, read the text below. Use the word
given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form
a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an
example at the beginning (0).
In the past, Krakov was a city of great
political (0) importance . It was
the ancient capital of Poland and
the official (1) of the
country’s kings. The city still has
(2) medieval architecture
and is listed by UNESCO as a world
heritage site because of its great
(3) as well as artistic
Krakov had the largest square in
medieval Europe and this is still the
(5) centre of the city and
the best place to begin your
(6) of the winding streets
of the old quarter. These streets were
home to Poland’s greatest artists,
writers and thinkers, many of whom
studied at the city’s famous university.
The area still has a (7)
atmosphere and it’s a pleasure just to
wander round. But there is also plenty
to do and see as a thriving
(8) life continues today.
1 A ‘resident’ is a person. You need to make a word that
refers to a place.
2 A person is impressed by a place. You need to make a
different adjective that describes the place.
3 You need to change one letter and add a suffix to this word.
EXPERT WORD CHECK
ancient medieval thriving wander winding
M03_EXPR_FSRB_0629_U03.indd 22-23 25.3.2015. 0:45:21
Rikers Island Prison costs $860m a year to run.
75% of its inmates will return within a year of release.
Working in pairs, answer the following:
1 Give at least five words that you would use to describe victims of crime.
2 From those words, which social groups are likely to fit the description you
3 Suggest three situations where a victim of crime might be seen to have
brought their victimisation upon themselves.
4. From what you have studied in previous topics, suggest situations where
people who have been harmed may nevertheless not be officially defined
as victims of crime.
1 647 places
2 351 places
1 194 places
1 130 places
2 978 places
1 139 places
Area: 1.6 km2
Capacity: 17,000 inmates
It houses 10 of New York City’s
15 detention centres
Staff: 7,000 guards and 1,500 civilians
Rikers Island Bridge
After studying this Topic, you should:
l Understand and be able to evaluate a
range of crime prevention and control
l Understand and be able to evaluate
different perspectives on punishment
l Know the main trends in sentencing
and understand their significance.
l Know the main patterns of victimisation
and be able to evaluate sociological
perspectives on victimisation.
CONTROL, PUNISHMENT AND VICTIMS
Most of this chapter has focused on criminals and
criminalisation. By contrast, in this Topic, we turn our
attention first to what can be done to prevent crime, ranging
from changing the immediate situation where crime occurs,
to community programmes designed to tackle the root
causes of offending, as well as various forms of surveillance.
One view popular with politicians is that tougher
punishments are the best way to prevent crime. In this
Topic, we look at the nature and functions of punishment
from a number of perspectives, and we consider reasons for
the rapid growth in the prison population.
In previous Topics, we have seen how certain groups are
likely to be victims of crime. We conclude this Topic with
a closer look at victims and ‘victimology’, including which
groups are at greatest risk of victimisation.
Crime prevention and control
What makes people conform? And when they are tempted
not to do so, what can be done to prevent them deviating?
These questions raise the issue of social control – the
capacity of societies to regulate their members’ behaviour
– and crime prevention. This section examines different
approaches to these questions.
Situational crime prevention
Ron Clarke (1992) describes situational crime prevention
as ‘a pre-emptive approach that relies, not on improving
society or its institutions, but simply on reducing
opportunities for crime’. He identifies three features of
measures aimed at situational crime prevention:
l They are directed at specific crimes.
l They involve managing or altering the immediate
environment of the crime.
l They aim at increasing the effort and risks of committing
crime and reducing the rewards.
For example, ‘target hardening’ measures such as locking
doors and windows increase the effort a burglar needs to
make, while increased surveillance in shops via CCTV or
security guards increase the likelihood of shoplifters being
caught. Similarly, replacing coin-operated gas meters with
pre-payment cards reduces the burglar’s rewards.
Underlying situational crime prevention approaches is an
‘opportunity’ or rational choice theory of crime. This is the
view that criminals act rationally, weighing up the costs and
benefits of a crime opportunity before deciding whether to
commit it. (For more on rational choice theory, see Topic 4.)
This contrasts with theories of crime that stress ‘root
causes’ such as the criminal’s early socialisation or capitalist
exploitation. In the view of these theories, to deal with
crime, we would have to transform the socialisation of large
numbers of children or carry out a revolution. Clarke argues
that most theories offer no realistic solutions to crime. The
most obvious thing to do, he argues, is to focus on the
immediate crime situation, since this is where scope for
prevention is greatest. Most crime is opportunistic, so we
need to reduce the opportunities.
Marcus Felson (2002) gives an example of a situational
crime prevention strategy. The Port Authority Bus Terminal
in New York City was poorly designed and provided
opportunities for deviant conduct. For example, the toilets
were a setting for luggage thefts, rough sleeping, drug
dealing and homosexual liaisons. Re-shaping the physical
environment to ‘design crime out’ greatly reduced such
activity. For example, large sinks, in which homeless people
were bathing, were replaced by small hand basins.
What prevention measures (i) do you take personally to avoid
being a victim of crime in different situations; (ii) are taken in
the family home; (iii) have you seen elsewhere (e.g. school/
college, shops, transport) in the last few days?
One criticism of situational crime prevention measures is
that they do not reduce crime; they simply displace it. After
all, if criminals are acting rationally, presumably they will
respond to target hardening simply by moving to where
targets are softer. For example, Chaiken et al (1974) found
that a crackdown on subway robberies in New York merely
displaced them to the streets above.
Displacement can take several forms:
l Spatial – moving elsewhere to commit the crime.
l Temporal – committing it at a different time.
l Target – choosing a different victim.
l Tactical – using a different method.
l Functional – committing a different type of crime.
Perhaps the most striking example of the success of
situational measures is not about crime, but about suicide.
In the early 1960s, half of all suicides in Britain were the