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Food Adulteration

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Food Adulteration

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Food Adulteration

  1. 1. FOOD ADULTERATION • It refers to the intentional addition of some unwanted substances to food or the removal of valuable substance from food. • Economic adulteration implies that food is adulterated by dilution (adding water to milk), removal (removing 11% fat from food and using 2% fat), or using substitutes (using Equal for sugar). • "Adulteration" is a legal term meaning that a food product fails to meet federal or state standards.
  2. 2. MAJOR INCIDENT In 2012, a study in India conducted by the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) across 33 states found that milk in India is adulterated with detergent, fat and even urea, as well diluted with water. Of the 1791 random samples from 33 states, just 31.5% of the samples tested (565) conformed to the FSSAI standards while the rest 1226 (68.4%) failed the test.
  3. 3. Indian Veterinary Research Institute discovered in a survey in 2013 that 28 per cent of the eggs sampled in Bareilly, Izzatnagar (Uttar Pradesh) and Dehradun(Uttarakhand) were contaminated with E.coli.
  4. 4. Different Types of Food Adulteration Intentional food adulteration: • Sand, marble chips, stones, mud, other filth, talc , chalk powder, water, mineral oil
  5. 5. Incidental food adulteration Pesticide residues tin from can, droppings of rodents, larvae in foods.
  6. 6. METALLIC FOOD ADULTERATION Arsenic from pesticides, lead from water, mercury from effluent, from chemical industries, tins from cans.
  7. 7. • Packaging Hazards Polyethylene , polyvinyl chloride and allied compounds are used to produce flexible packaging material.
  8. 8. DALS AND PULSES Detection : • It can be separated by visual examination Adulterant: Khesari Dal • Health hazard: highly carcinogenic, stomach disorders.
  9. 9. GREEN CHILLIES, GREEN PEAS &OTHER VEGETABLES • Adulterant : Malachite Green, • Health hazard: carcinogenic if consumed over a long period of time Detection Take a small part of the sample and place it on a piece of moistened white blotting paper. The impression of colour on the paper indicates the use of malachite green, or any other low priced artificial colour.
  10. 10. MILK • Adulterant : water,starch Detection: • The presence of water can be analyzed by putting a drop of milk on a polished slanting surface. • The drop of pure milk flow slowly leaving a white mark behind it. • Adulterated milk flow immediately without leaving a mark. • 2 ml of milk is taken in a test tube • Add few drops of iodine solution .Formation of blue colour indicates the presence of starch.
  11. 11. DETECTION OF DETERGENT IN MILK 1.TAKE 5-10 ML OF SAMPLES WITH AN EQUAL AMOUNT OF WATER. 2.SHAKE THE CONTENTS THOROUGHLY. 3.IF MILK IS ADULTERATED WITH DETERGENT ,IT FORMS DENSE LATHER. 4.PURE MILK WILL FORM VERY THIN FOAM LAYER DUE TO AGITATION.
  12. 12. MUSTARD SEEDS AND MUSTARD OIL Detection • Take small quality of mustard seeds in glass plate. • Examine visually for the argemone seeds. • Mustard seeds have smooth and when pressed,inside it is yellow colour. • Argemone seeds have grainy, rough surface and black in colour. When pressed, inside it is white in colour. • Adulterant : Argemone seeds, •Health hazard: epidemic dropsy and severe glaucoma
  13. 13. REASONS FOR ADULTERATION • To get more profit. • High demand. • To increase the weight. • To increase volume of trade by showing lower prices. • Lack of proper food laws. • Outdated processing techniques. • Lack of government initiatives. • Not aware of its effects.
  14. 14. ICE CREAM • Adulterant: Pepperonil, Ethylacetate,Butraldehyde, Nitrate, Washing powder etc • Health hazard: Pepperonil is used as a pesticide and ethyl acetate causes diseases affecting lungs, kidneys and heart.
  15. 15. COFFEE POWDER • Detection : • Pure coffee will always float on the water. • If there are powdered tamarind seeds, they will sink to bottom • Adulterant : Tamarind seeds, • Health hazard: diarrohea, stomach disorders, giddiness and severe joint pains
  16. 16. GHEE • Adulterant: vanaspathi Detection • One teaspoonful of melted sample is taken and added equal quantity of conc.HCl to it. Added a pinch of sugar ,shaken for one minute and kept aside for 5 minutes. Appearance of crimson colour indicates the presence of vanaspati or margarine.
  17. 17. SUGAR • Adulterant :urea, chalk powder Detection: • If Urea is present it gives the smell of ammonia when dissolved in water. • 10g of sample is dissolved in a 50 ml of water allowed for settling, chalk will settle down at the bottom.
  18. 18. CORIANDER POWDER Adulterant: Saw Dust • Take a little amount (a half of tea-spoon) of the sample. • Sprinkle it on water in a bowl. Spice powder gets sedimented at the bottom and saw-dust floats on the surface.
  19. 19. HONEY • Adulterant: sugar solution Detection: • Cotton wick is dipped in honey and burnt over flame. • The presence of water will not allow honey to burn and it will produces cracking sound.
  20. 20. JAGGARY • Adulterant :washing soda Detection: • Small amount of Jaggary solution is taken and added few drops of conc.HCl. • Formation of effervescence shows the presence of washing soda.
  21. 21. TEA • Adulterant :iron flakes Detection • Small quantity of the sample is spread over a paper, • A magnet was drawn over it, if iron flakes are present clings to the magnet.
  22. 22. CHILLY POWDER • Adulterant: bricks powder Detection: • Add teaspoon of chilli powder to a glass of plain water. • It may turn reddish-brown due to presence of brick powder. • Pure red chilli powder does not really dissolve in water.
  23. 23. BLACK PEPPER • Adulterant : papaya seeds Detection • Papaya seeds easily floating on water surface • But, black pepper deposited at the bottom
  24. 24. IODIZED SALT • Adulterant :common salt Detection : • A piece of potato is taken and added salt to it, after a minute • Two drops of lime juice is added, In case of iodized salt blue colour will develop. • In case of common salt there will be no coloration.
  25. 25. TURMERIC POWDER • Adulterant: saw dust, lead chromate • Small amount of sample is taken in a test tube, added few drops of conc.HCl. • The pink color is observed, Indicates saw dust. • The sample is dissolved in dil. HCl. Then H2S gas is passed into the solution. • Black precipitate indicates the presence of Lead chromate.
  26. 26. COCONUT OIL • Adulterant :other oils Detection • A small bottle of oil is placed in a refrigerator. • Coconut oil solidifies leaving the adulterant as a separate layer.
  27. 27. RICE ADULTERANT: PLASTIC RICE
  28. 28. BAN ON MAGGI • • It all started with the sampling and testing of Maggi by the office of Commissioner of Food Safety, Uttar Pradesh The FSSAI then advised the Commissioners of Food Safety in various states to draw samples of Maggi and get the same tested from authorized laboratories.
  29. 29. Three major violations have been noted by the FSSAI • Presence of Lead detected in the product in excess of the maximum permissible levels of 2.5 ppm • Misleading labelling information on the package reading “No added MSG” • Release of a non-standardised food product in the market, viz. “Maggi Oats Masala Noodles with Tastemaker” without risk assessment and grant of product approval.
  30. 30. MSG: THE NOTORIOUS TASTE ENHANCER • It is normally known as Ajinomoto, the secret ingredient is actually called Monosodium Glutamate (MSG). • It interacts with the other flavuors (mainly salty and sour) and enhances the taste by triggering the receptors of your taste buds. • Excessive MSG consumption causes headache, flushing, sweating, facial pressure, numbness, chest pain, nausea and weakness. • it also cause brain damage and eye problems for children.
  31. 31. The Indian Parliament has recently passed the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 that overrides all other food related laws. 1.Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 2.Fruit Products Order,1955 3.Meat Food Products Order ,1973; 4.Vegetable Oil Products (Control) Order, 1947 5.Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order 1988 6.Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992.
  32. 32. PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION ACT,1954 • It came into existence on 1954 • The act concerns about public health and safety • It mainly deals with the following aspects 1. To protect the public from poisonous and harmful foods. 2.To prevent the sale of substandard foods. 3.To protect the interests of the consumers by eliminating fraudulent practices. 4.The act says that the ministry of health and family welfare is responsible for ensuring safe food to the consumers.
  33. 33. FRUIT PRODUCTS ORDER, 1955 Requirements and quality standards  Sanitary and hygienic conditions of premises.  Personnel hygiene.  Portability of water .  Quality control facility and technical staff  Product standards.  Limits for preservatives and other additives.
  34. 34. MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS ORDER, 1973 • The order makes it mandatory for all entities engaged in the business of manufacturing ,packing, repacking, re-labelling meat food products for sale to be licensed. • But, excluded for those who manufacture products for consumption on the spot, such as restaurants, hotels and so on. • Production of meat is governed by local laws. • Slaughtering is a state subject, so slaughterhouses are controlled by local health authorities.
  35. 35. FOOD SAFETY & STANDARDS ACT, 2006
  36. 36. • Criteria for selection of food • Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life. • It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm/ppb level. • Label declaration on packed food is very important for knowing the ingredients and nutritional value . • The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place.
  37. 37. CONTROL APPROACHES • Proper understanding of the adulteration issues. • By knowing the difference between the natural and aesthetic attributes [texture, appearance & taste] of foods • Develop validated simple, quick and authentic test procedures to scan the ingredients, additives & processing aids for positive clearance. • Make practically feasible rules, requirements and regulations on the adulterants and updating them at regular intervals. • Update of information regarding outbreaks of food safety issues pertaining to adulteration.
  38. 38. FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS AUTHORITY OF INDIA (FSSAI) • It was started in 2011,located in New Delhi. • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards Act,2006 • • • FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food • To regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
  39. 39. BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS) The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India, resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning Standardization, Certification and Quality Main Activities • Harmonious development of standardization ,marketing and quality certification. • To provide new thrust to standardization and quality control. • To evolve a national strategy for according recognition to standards and integrating them with growth and development of production and exports.
  40. 40. AGMARK The Directorate of Marketing and Inspection enforces the Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937. Under this Act Grade standards are prescribed for agricultural and allied products. • Quality Certification Mark . • It ensures quality and purity of a product. • It acts as a Third Party Guarantee to Quality Certified. • Quality standards for agricultural commodities are framed based on their intrinsic quality.
  41. 41. CFTRI,MYSORE
  42. 42. PENALTIES
  43. 43. REFERANCE • Food chemistry by Alex V Ramani. MJP Publishers Chennai. • Food Processing Industries by Suresh Chand. Small Industry Research Institute Delhi. • Wikipedia.

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