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LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
INTRODUCTION OF LBW
 Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who
are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounce...
INTRODUCTION OF LBW
 Premature birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) and
fetal growth restriction are the most common caus...
According to “ Parul Datta”
Low birth weight is a term
used to describe babies who
are born weighing less than 5
pounds, 8...
According to “ Jawed
Ansari”
Infant low birth weight
(LBW) happens when
babies weigh less than 5
pounds and 8 ounces at
bi...
INCIDENCE
Neo-natal mortality is defined as death during
the first 28 days of life. And India reports the
highest numbers ...
TYPES OF LOW BIRTH
WEIGHT
• The LBW are classifient into
three major types :-
I. Malnourished
II. Hypoplastic Babies
III. ...
Malnourished
• Apart from prematurity,
intrauterine growth retardation
(IUGR) may also result in LBW.
This growth retardat...
Hypoplastic Babies
• A hypoplastic uterus is a uterus
that is very small in size from
birth. A hypoplastic uterus is the
r...
Mixed Type Babies
• These babies have
above both type of
physical charec
teristics and mental
charecteristics. In
these ba...
CAUSES OF LBW
Maternal Histroy
Maternal health is the health
of women
during pregnancy, childbirth,
and the postpartum per...
CAUSES OF LBW
Maternal Malnutrition
Maternal malnutrition
increases the risk of poor
pregnancy outcomes including
obstruct...
CAUSES OF LBW
Intra Uterine Infection
Intrauterine infection is
infection within the womb,
which, in the context of
pregna...
CAUSES OF LBW
Placental Dysfunction
Placental insufficiency (or
uteroplacental
vascular insufficiency) is a
complication o...
CAUSES OF LBW
Twin Pregnancy
After 35 weeks of gestation
mother is not capable to
provide adequate
nourishment to more tha...
CAUSES OF LBW
Maternal Disease
Maternal Illness – Birth Defect
Prevention for Expecting
Parents. Maternal illnesses
increa...
CAUSES OF LBW
Genetic Disorder
a woman is considered at high risk
because of the screening test. a
woman is considered at ...
 Low oxygen levels at birth
Pulse oximetry measures
a baby's pulse and how
much oxygen a baby has in his or
her blood (ca...
 Inability to maintain body
temperature
It is not uncommon for
mitochondrial disease patients to
have some abnormal regul...
 Difficulty feeding and
gaining weight
While much of the focus is on
women who gain too
much weight during
pregnancy, hea...
 Infection
 Babies born prematurely often
have a low birth weightand
certain infections can cause
complications during p...
 Weight LessThan 2500
gm.
The weight is compared with
the baby's gestational age and
recorded in the medical record.
A bi...
Head and are Large
Macrocephaly refers to an
overly large head in infants.
Not all cases of
macrocephaly are cause for
al...
• HISTORY TAKING
Taking a patient history:
the role of
the nurse. History
taking is a key
component of patient
assessment,...
• USG (Ultra Sono
Graphy)
• An ultrasound is a
more accurate method
of estimating fetal
size. Measurements
can be taken of...
• Blood Test
This could also help
exclude anemias from
nutritional deficiencies
such as iron, folate,
and vitamin B-
12 de...
• ABG TEST
The blood gas test can
determine how well your
lungs
are able to move oxygen
into the blood and remove
carbon d...
MANAGEMENT OF BURN
PATIENT
 MEDICAL MANGAGEMENT
 PHARMACOLOGICAL
MANAGEMENT
 NURSING MANAGEMENT
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LOW
BIRTH WEIGHT
•MONITORING VITAL SIGN
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LOW
BIRTH WEIGHT
• MONITER ABG AND ELECTROLYTE
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
• TOLERANCE OF FEED
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW
•PROVIDE IN UTERUS MELIEUS
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW
• AVOID EXCESSIVE LIGHT, SOUND AND PAINFUL
PROCEDURE
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW
•PHOTOTHERAPY
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW
•KANGARU MOTHER CARE
TAB – FOLIC ACIDE
400MG
TAB – VITAMIN D 250-
500 MG
TAB – ZINC 150 MG
 RISK FOR INFECTION RELATED TO LOSS OF
SKIN IMPAIRMENT IMMUNE RESPONSE AND
INVASIVE THE RAPIES.
 RISK FOR IMPAIRMENT GRO...
COMPLICATION
• Increased risk of infections
Children are more risk-prone
group of the population and low
birth weight (LBW...
COMPLICATION
• Sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS)
Sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS), also known
as cot death or crib de...
COMPLICATION
• Breathing problems and immature
lungs (infant respiratory distress
syndrome)
Because a baby's lungs mature ...
COMPLICATION
• Developmental delay
the condition of a child
being less developed
mentally or physically than
is normal for...
HEALTH EDUCATION
THANK YOU….
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Low Birth Weight LBW - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid

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Subject - Child Health Nursing , Topic LBW, Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid, Basic B.Sc Nursing 3rd Year in Florence College Of Nursing

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Low Birth Weight LBW - Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid

  1. 1. LOW BIRTH WEIGHT
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION OF LBW  Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams).  An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds.  A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth-weight baby can also have many serious health problems.  Some low-birthweight babies are healthy, but others have serious health problems that need treatment.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION OF LBW  Premature birth (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) and fetal growth restriction are the most common causes of low birthweight.  A baby with low birthweight may have trouble eating, gaining weight and fighting off infections.  Low-birth-weight and very low birth weight infants are particularly susceptible to infection b ecause their immunologicsystem is deficient.
  4. 4. According to “ Parul Datta” Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds. A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth- weight baby can also have many serious health problems.
  5. 5. According to “ Jawed Ansari” Infant low birth weight (LBW) happens when babies weigh less than 5 pounds and 8 ounces at birth. LBW often occurs in babies who are born prematurely, before 37 weeks of gestation. It’s also common in multiple birth situations, such as cases of twins or triplets..
  6. 6. INCIDENCE Neo-natal mortality is defined as death during the first 28 days of life. And India reports the highest numbers in the world: As many as 700,000 newborns die in India each year–29 per 1,000 births. In 2013, nearly 22 million newborns—an estimated 16 per cent of all babies born globally that year—had low birthweight.
  7. 7. TYPES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT • The LBW are classifient into three major types :- I. Malnourished II. Hypoplastic Babies III. Mixed type Babies
  8. 8. Malnourished • Apart from prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) may also result in LBW. This growth retardation has two strong predictors - maternal infection and low nutrient consumption. Infection not only reduces appetite and dietary intake but affects maternal absorption of nutrient as well. There may be metabolic stress, resulting in higher requirement of nutrients.
  9. 9. Hypoplastic Babies • A hypoplastic uterus is a uterus that is very small in size from birth. A hypoplastic uterus is the result of incomplete development of the uterus during birth. • These babies are small in all parameters including the head size. Cell number is reduced post natal physical and mental growth is poor. Risk of occuring congenital malformation is high.
  10. 10. Mixed Type Babies • These babies have above both type of physical charec teristics and mental charecteristics. In these babies there is reduction in cell numnber and in the cell size both.
  11. 11. CAUSES OF LBW Maternal Histroy Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses the health caredimensions of family planning, preconception, pre natal, and postnatal care in order to ensure a positive and fulfilling experience in most cases and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in other cases.[1]
  12. 12. CAUSES OF LBW Maternal Malnutrition Maternal malnutrition increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes including obstructed labour, premature or low-birth-weight babies and postpartum haemorrhage. Severe anaemia during pregnancy is linked to increased mortality at labour. Low-birth- weight is a significant contributor to infant mortality.
  13. 13. CAUSES OF LBW Intra Uterine Infection Intrauterine infection is infection within the womb, which, in the context of pregnancy, usually means infection of: the membranes that surround the baby. the umbilical cord. and/or the amniotic fluid.
  14. 14. CAUSES OF LBW Placental Dysfunction Placental insufficiency (or uteroplacental vascular insufficiency) is a complication of pregnancy when the placenta is unable to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, and, thus, cannot fully support the developing baby.
  15. 15. CAUSES OF LBW Twin Pregnancy After 35 weeks of gestation mother is not capable to provide adequate nourishment to more than one fetus.
  16. 16. CAUSES OF LBW Maternal Disease Maternal Illness – Birth Defect Prevention for Expecting Parents. Maternal illnesses increase the chance that your baby will be born with a birth defect or have a chronic health problem. Diabetes, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis and Strep B are just a few of the illnesses that can cause an adverse outcome to pregnancy.
  17. 17. CAUSES OF LBW Genetic Disorder a woman is considered at high risk because of the screening test. a woman is considered at high risk because she has previously had a pregnancyaffected by a chromosomal or genetic disorder. an ultrasound examination has detected features or abnormalities indicating an increased risk of a chromosome abnormality
  18. 18.  Low oxygen levels at birth Pulse oximetry measures a baby's pulse and how much oxygen a baby has in his or her blood (called oxygen saturation). Babies who have low oxygen levels in their blood may have a CCHD, but they may also have a different cause for low oxygen saturation that is not a CCHD.
  19. 19.  Inability to maintain body temperature It is not uncommon for mitochondrial disease patients to have some abnormal regulation of body temperature, resulting in either a lower or higher baseline body temperature (commonly 96-97 degreees) or a marked inability to tolerate heat or cold. In this way, abnormal sweating is another characteristic of dysautonomia
  20. 20.  Difficulty feeding and gaining weight While much of the focus is on women who gain too much weight during pregnancy, health officials estimate that about 20 percent of pregnant women don'tgain enough weight, which can lead to premature delivery, low birth weight and long-term health problems for the baby.
  21. 21.  Infection  Babies born prematurely often have a low birth weightand certain infections can cause complications during pregnancy. Other infections can also have a negative impact, especially urinary tract infections and guminfections. Both are associated with an increased prematurity risk
  22. 22.  Weight LessThan 2500 gm. The weight is compared with the baby's gestational age and recorded in the medical record. A birthweight less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) is diagnosed as low birthweight. Babies weighing le ss than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces) at birth are considered very low birthweight.
  23. 23. Head and are Large Macrocephaly refers to an overly large head in infants. Not all cases of macrocephaly are cause for alarm. However, it is often a sign of other complications or conditions in the brain.
  24. 24. • HISTORY TAKING Taking a patient history: the role of the nurse. History taking is a key component of patient assessment, enabling the delivery of high-quality care. Understanding the complexity and processes involved in history taking allows nurses to gain a better understanding of patients'
  25. 25. • USG (Ultra Sono Graphy) • An ultrasound is a more accurate method of estimating fetal size. Measurements can be taken of the fetus' head and abdomen and compared with a growth chart to estimate fetal weight.
  26. 26. • Blood Test This could also help exclude anemias from nutritional deficiencies such as iron, folate, and vitamin B- 12 deficiencies. Measures of protein nutritional status include serum albumin, retinol- binding protein, prealbumin, tra nsferrin, creatinine, and BUN levels.
  27. 27. • ABG TEST The blood gas test can determine how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. Imbalances in the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels of your blood can indicate the presence of certain medical conditions.
  28. 28. MANAGEMENT OF BURN PATIENT  MEDICAL MANGAGEMENT  PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT  NURSING MANAGEMENT
  29. 29. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT •MONITORING VITAL SIGN
  30. 30. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT • MONITER ABG AND ELECTROLYTE
  31. 31. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT • TOLERANCE OF FEED
  32. 32. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW •PROVIDE IN UTERUS MELIEUS
  33. 33. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW • AVOID EXCESSIVE LIGHT, SOUND AND PAINFUL PROCEDURE
  34. 34. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW •PHOTOTHERAPY
  35. 35. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF LBW •KANGARU MOTHER CARE
  36. 36. TAB – FOLIC ACIDE 400MG TAB – VITAMIN D 250- 500 MG TAB – ZINC 150 MG
  37. 37.  RISK FOR INFECTION RELATED TO LOSS OF SKIN IMPAIRMENT IMMUNE RESPONSE AND INVASIVE THE RAPIES.  RISK FOR IMPAIRMENT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT RELATED TO PREMATRURE BIRTH  DEFICIENT FLUID VOLUME RELATED TO POOR NUTRITION OR INTAKE WATER
  38. 38. COMPLICATION • Increased risk of infections Children are more risk-prone group of the population and low birth weight (LBW) is the leadingcause of newborns' mortality and morbidit y. LBW is defined as child's birth weight lower than 2500 g. Many maternal and fetal factors are determined as risk factors of LBW.
  39. 39. COMPLICATION • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of age
  40. 40. COMPLICATION • Breathing problems and immature lungs (infant respiratory distress syndrome) Because a baby's lungs mature in the later stages of pregnancy, babies born extremely or moderately premature may have immature lungs that lead tobreathing problems. ... indrawing, or powerful sucking in of the chest with eachbreath, exposing the ribs beneath the skin.
  41. 41. COMPLICATION • Developmental delay the condition of a child being less developed mentally or physically than is normal for its age.
  42. 42. HEALTH EDUCATION
  43. 43. THANK YOU….
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Subject - Child Health Nursing , Topic LBW, Presented By Mohammed Haroon Rashid, Basic B.Sc Nursing 3rd Year in Florence College Of Nursing

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