• Punishment or sentence for an offence against the Union
• Punishment or sentence by Court Martial
• Death Sentence.
Art 72- Pardoning Powers
The President can pardon the following
• Reduced time period of sentence due to some special fact, like,
disability of the convict or the pregnancy of a female convict
• Mostly focused on women & children
• Stay on execution of the sentence for a temporary period
(especially death sentences).
• Its main purpose is to allow the convict to have time to seek mercy
from the President.
• The duration & degree of the sentence remains the same, the execution
is just put on hold for a temporary period
• The pardoning powers of the President are exercised on the advice
of Union Cabinet.
• The pardoning powers of President are independent of Judiciary
but are subject to Judicial review (only if deemed discriminatory)
• If one mercy petition of a convict has been rejected, he cannot
file another petition.
Art 111- Veto Powers
• A bill which is passed by the Parliament can become an act
only if it receives the assent of the President.
• The President has the veto power over the bills passed by the
Parliament, i.e., he can withhold his assent to the bills
• The two main objectives of
President's veto power are-
1. to prevent hasty and ill
considered legislation by the
2. to prevent a legislation which
may be unconstitutional.
• The President withholds the assent i.e. says
• The bill ends and doesn't become an act
• The President returns the bill for reconsideration
• However, if the bill is passed again by the
with or without amendments, the President has to
give his assent his assent
• Suspensive veto is overridden by
the re-passage ofthe bill by ordinary
• The President cannot exercise
suspensive veto in caseof Money Bill.
• The President neither gives assent
nor rejects norreturns the bill
• The President, simply keeps the bill pending for an
• The President can exercise
this veto power as the
constitution doesn't prescribe
any time-limit within which he
has to take the decision with
respect to a bill presentedto
him for his assent