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SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension
(P.G.SCHOLAR FINAL YR)
“The Role of women in the development of society is of utmost
importance. In fact, it is the only thing that determines whether a
society is strong and harmonious, or otherwise. Women are the
backbone of society”.
Sri Sri Ravi Shankar
Components of Women Empowerment
Current status of women in India
Role of women in various fields
Advantages of women empowerment
Process/ways to empower women
Problems in women empowerment
Women empowerment initiatives of
•The spelling of woman in English has progressed over
the past millennium from wīfmann
to wīmmann to wumman, and finally, the modern
•A woman is a female human that is, of the
species Homosapiens. The term woman is
usually reserved for an adult.
• wīfmann": Bosworth & Toller, Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Oxford, 1898-1921) p. 1219. The spelling "wifman" also
occurs: C. T. Onions, Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (Oxford, 1966) p. 1011
•Webster's New World Dictionary, Second College Edition, entry for
Sex refers to biological differences;
chromosomes, hormonal profiles, internal and
external sex organs.
Gender describes the characteristics that a
society or culture delineates as masculine or
According to British
give (someone) the
authority or power to
stronger and more
confident, especially in
controlling their life
and claiming their
refers to increasing the
gender, or economic
strength of individuals
strengthening the social,
educational powers of
It refers to an
environment where there
is no gender bias and
have equal rights in
community, society and
1. Sense of self-worth.
2. Right to have and to
3. Right to have access to
4. Right to have the power to
control their own lives,
both within and outside the
5. Ability to influence the
direction of social change
to create a more just
social and economic
order, nationally and
According to UN Definition
WOMEN ARE DEPRIVED OF:
Decision Making Power
Freedom of Movement
Access to Education
Access to Employment
Exposure to Media
Population of India in 2011 - 1,313,354,719
Sex Ratio M/F 2011
945 females per 1,000 males
Females Population in India 2011 635,138,342
* Current Population of India Based on 17 CENSUS2011
The major cause of the decrease of the female birth ratio in India is considered
to be the violent treatments meted out to the girl child at the time of the birth.
The Sex Ratio in India was almost normal during the phase of the years of
independence, but thereafter it started showing gradual signs of decrease.
Lack of education and poverty in rural areas.
A common belief in Indian society is dominated by preference for
a male child.
According to Census of India, the child sex ratio (0-6 years) in
India is one of the poorest, last recorded at 918 girls for every
1000 boys in 2011
Kerala with 1084 females for every 1000 males has the highest
sex ratio according to Census of India.
Punjab has witnessed a growth rate of +48 from 798 (2001) to
846 (2011) in its child sex ratio.
In Union Territories of India, Daman and Diu has the lowest
female sex ratio while Pondicherry has the highest female sex
ratio in India.
Some interesting facts and figures about
Sex Ratio in India.
It appears that Indian woman is still not treated at par with man in social and
family life. The educated women even today though earning, are in
acquiescence with the doctrine of the male domination. The education may
have made them economically independent, but they still lack the needed
However, in our times, her role has changed. Society has started recognizing
her contribution. There is need for complete equality among men and
women. She has all the rights to command equal status with men.
The women now work in offices both as clerks and as officers. They
participate at Assemblies and Parliaments as the people’s representatives
1 to 3% of executive positions only occupied by women
9 % of women in execute bodies of political parties
3 % of women as Supreme Court Judges
7 % of women in civil services
6 % women in trade unions
In rural India, agriculture and allied industrial sectors employ as much as 89.5% of the
total female labour
Only 22% of women in rural India were recorded as workers
Only 32% of the female labour force of the total labour force is accounted.
India also had highest rate of violence during pregnancy - 50 percent were kicked,
beaten or hit when pregnant
74.8 percent of women who reported violence have attempted to commit suicide
Highest rate of sexual violence were among highly educated men
A rape occurs every 34 minutes
Every 42 minutes, an incident of sexual harassment takes place
Every 43 minutes, a woman is kidnapped
Every 93 minutes, a woman is killed
Every 102 minutes, a dowry death
Data taken by openspace.org
Status of Women
Among the women who braved the odds and came in the limelight were professionals in
Kiran Bedi had become
the country’s first IPS
officer. She stayed in
the limelight by taking
up reforms wherever
The first woman
President of the
In literature, Mahasweta Devi and
Arundhati Roy touched new
heights. As whole tribe of women
writers became famous for their
works in the 1990’s.
became the first
to go in space
became the first
women pilot to fly
sorties during the
first woman police
officer to lead a
force that guards
borders. Prior to
Agnes Sjoberg was the world’s first
Dr. Sakkubhai Ramachandran the
first woman Vet of India.
Dr. Sulochana eminent virologist,
was the first women veterinarian in
India to hold the position of dean in
Dr. Annamma Kurian was the first
women Director of Animal
Husbandry Department. Agnes Sjoberg
S.No. Characteristics Percentage
1 Feeding & Watering
Taking animals for grazing 82.5
Fodder collection 80.83
Chaffing the fodder 75
Mixing green fodder with roughage 67.5
Feeding the animals 86.66
Storage of feed & fodder 77.5
Watering the animals 85
Construction of animal sheds 75.83
Cleaning of animal sheds 89.16
Washing & grooming of animals 70.83
Disposal of cow dung 86.66
Maintaining farm & dairy records 52.5
Taking animals for Artificial Insemination 78.33
Taking animals for natural service 69.13
Taking animals for pregnancy diagnosis 90.83
Arranging materials during parturition 67.5
Calling veterinarian during dystocia 73.33
Contribution of women on the basis of their
Participation in Animal Husbandry Practices
This data is based on
study of ROLE OF
RURAL WOMEN IN
DAIRY FARMING OF
J. B. Kathiriya1, D. M.
Damasia, B. B. Kabaria
S.No. Characteristics Percentage
4 Health Care
Care of sick animals 86.66
Care of pregnant animals 91.66
Taking animals for treatment 82.5
5 Processing & Marketing
Processing of livestock products 68.33
Sale of milk and milk products 76.66
Sale & purchase of animals 59.16
Purchase of feeds and fodder 63.33
Getting loans/credit from
India is one of the few countries where the
rate of participation of women in the
workforce has drastically declined in the last
It fell from 33.7% in 1991 to 27% in 2012,
according to UN gender statistics.
Next generation will be empowered because
If women will be empowered she will not be a
burden on anyone
Financial burden of man can be shared with
Family can be more strong because of both
When financial problems will be shared than
result of conflict.
Changes in women's mobility and social
Changes in women's labour patterns.
Changes in women's access to and control
Changes in women's control over decision-
HOW TO EMPOWER WOMEN
By 1930, women had
gained the right to vote.
Women’s participation in the
national movement for the
freedom of the country
benefited them to gain
some political and civil
Govt. also encouraging the
women to vote in the
In spite of all these steps
taken by govt. Still there are
very few women in national
The Women's Reservation Bill in the Constitution of India to reserve 33% of all
seats in the Lower house of Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, and in all state
legislative assemblies for women.
The Women's Reservation Bill
(108th Amendment) Bill, 2008
Women representation in the
present 16th Lok Sabha has 61
women members, the highest
Speaker of present Lok Sabha
is again a woman, Sumitra
Present Rajya Sabha has 29
women members. The seven
women ministers in the 46-
member Council of Ministers
have reinforced the new
government’s agenda of
Govt. provide money to girl at the time of their
Govt. give loan to women to start their own business
at very low interest.
There is a scheme known as Indira Awas Yojna
through which govt. gives money to women to make
In spite of all these schemes the social & economic
status of women is not improved at desired extent.
Indian government has made
many laws and act to protect
The payment of a dowry has
been prohibited under the “1961
dowry prohibition act” in
Indian civil law.
Women are protected from
domestic violence under the law
“protection of women from
domestic violence act 2005”.
For protecting women from
sexual violence govt. Passed
“criminal law act 2013”.
•Lack of Education
•Low ability to bear risk
•Low need for achievement
•Absence of ambition for the
•Workforce participation: Even
though a lot of women are
working in India they are not
paid properly. Their salaries
cannot be compared with that of
Barriers ofWomen Empowerment
Land and property rights: Mostly
in India women do not own land and
do not get the opportunity to buy it.
The laws supporting women are few
and not even these laws are well
implemented. Women are not even
given proper share in parent’s
property. Some laws speak against
women so they cannot even fight
Crimes against women: In India
there a lot of cases of crimes in
which women are the victims. The
National Crime Records Bureau
made a report in 1998 that by the
year 2010 the rate of crimes in India
against women was more than the
rate at which population is growing.
Usually the cases of rape are not
reported because it would result in
the woman not having any respect in
society. Nowadays the reporting of
such cases has increased in number.
•One of the major aspects of
women empowerment in India is
to change the attitude of society
towards women. The problem in
India is that the society never
worked on the premise of
gender equality from a long-
•Dowry and Bride burning:
It is another problem
generally faced by women of
low or middle class family
during or after the marriage.
Parents of boys demands a
lot of money from the bride’s
family to be rich in one time.
Groom’s family perform bride
burning in case of lack of
fulfilled dowry demand.
1. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
2. One Stop Centre Scheme
3. Women Helpline Scheme
4. UJJAWALA: A Comprehensive Scheme for
Prevention of trafficking and Rescue,
Rehabilitation and Re-integration of Victims
of Trafficking and Commercial Sexual
5. SWADHAR GREH: (A Scheme for Women in
6.Support to Training and Employment
Program for Women (STEP)
7.NARI SHAKTI PURASKAR
8.Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog
Yojana (IGMSY) - A Conditional
Maternity Benefit Scheme
10.Mahila police Volunteers
यत्र नाययस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवतााः ।
यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सवायस्तत्राफलााः क्रियााः
Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) was established by the
Government of India in March, 1993 as an
autonomous body under the Ministry of Women &
Child Development. It was registered under the
Societies Registration Act 1860.
To provide Micro Finance to women Self Help
Groups (SHGs) belonging to the target group & it
was launched on 2nd October, 1993 with the
objective of empowering the rural women through
building thrift habit, self-reliance and confidence.
MAHILA SAMRIDDHI YOJANA
(Micro Finance Scheme for women)
Rashtriya Mahila Kosh
New Scheme for a Girl Child in
India Reinforcing this idea,
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Samriddhi Account Scheme', a
small savings scheme as a part
of the 'Beti Bachao Beti Padhao'
campaign.Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
This (BBBP) Scheme was
introduced in October,
2014 to address the issue
of declining child sex ratio
The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
In a path-breaking
of Women and Child
“Mahila e-Haat”, an
platform for women in
today. Mahila e-
Haat is a unique
online platform where
display their products.
The National Commission for
Women (NCW) is a statutory
body of the Government of
India, generally concerned with
advising the government on all
affecting women. It was
established in January 1992
under the provisions of the
Indian Constitution, as defined
in the 1990 National
Commission for Women Act.
Just a few years after
Independence, the Govt. set
up the Central Social
Welfare Board, an apex body
of the voluntary sector that
aids more than 10,000
NGOs across the country,
helping women stand on
their own through socio-
vocational trainings and
other similar programmes.
Mahila Seva Samiti
Nari Seva Sangha
Women Coordinating Council
Nari Raksha Samiti
These bodies are working to help women for different
problems and also protest for women’s right.
The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.
The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.
The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.
The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.
The Medical termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971.
The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987.
The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006.
The Pre-Conception & Pre-Natal Diagnostic
Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse)
The Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place
(Prevention, Protection and) Act, 2013.
Article 14 ensures to women the right to
Article 15(1) specifically prohibits
discrimination on the basis of sex.
Article 15(3) empowers the State to take
affirmative actions in favour of women.
Article 16 provides for equality of opportunity
for all citizens in matters relating to
employment or appointment to any office.
In 2007, women made up about 41 percent of
total employment in agriculture globally.
FAO’s projections through 2010 indicate that of
the percentage of economically active women in
least developed countries, more than 70 percent
work in agriculture.
In developing countries, most women’s work is
devoted to agriculture. Women are involved in
every stage of food production.
A recent FAO survey found that female farmers
receive only 5 percent of all agricultural extension
FAO fact snapshots
stories in field of
Lijjat is a highly popular pappad brand in India. While
many may remember the buck toothed bunny that
appeared in their TV commercials, many may not be
aware of the fact that it’s the power of rural women and
their self-employment initiative, ‘Shri Mahila Griha
Its turnover from Rs 6,196 in the first year went upto Rs
300 crore in the next four decades
40,000 women on its revolutionary march.
The story which reads almost like a fairy-tale chronicles
the growth of an exclusive women's organization
Jaywanti ben Popat, one of the women involved with this
phenomenal spirit, was honored last year at the ET
Awards for her outstanding achievements
The Lijjat Papad story is an inspirational one
In India, it was in 1948, Madras Veterinary College
at Vepery, Chennai , opened its portal for admission to
girls for the Bachelor of Veterinary Science course. Dr.
Sakkubhai Ramachandran the first woman Vet of India
graduated in 1952 and later assumed many prestigious
posts and retired as Scientist from IVRI, Bangalore in
1971. Following her foot steps, Dr. Pushpa Ranaparkhe,
Dr. Amritha Patel and many stalwart lady vets have
shown the way to the youngsters and at present there
has been an increase in the number of girls preferring
this profession and it is estimated that there are more
than 3000 lady vets in the country registered with
different State Veterinary councils of India.
One such village in southern
Rajasthan's Rajsamand district is
quietly practicing its own,
homegrown brand of Ecofeminism
and achieving spectacular results.
For the last several years, Piplantri
village panchayat has been saving
girl children and increasing the
green cover in and around it at the
same time. Here, villagers plant
111 trees every time a girl is born
and the community ensures these
trees survive, attaining fruition as
the girls grow up.
Imagine a village, an entire village that did not
have a single toilet that even its women
could hide behind. Not a make-shift toilet,
not even a curtained area with a hole in the
ground that could be disguised and used as a
private area Nayak was appalled when she
reached her husband’s home - neither her in-
laws’ house nor the entire village had a
Nayak tried hard, even knocking on the doors of
government departments but in vain.Finally
in 2011, Nayak — who had lost neither the
strength nor her grit — came in contact with
United Artists Association (UAA), a
voluntary organisation that had partnered
with non-governmental organisation Water
Aid India for a project to curb open
defecation in Puri district
Now there are 116 toilets in the village.
Every single house now boasts of its
own toilet. It is a remarkable
achievement — with 98% of toilet
Today, she is the Sarpanch (elected
head of the Village Council) in Soda
village, Tonk district, Rajasthan and, is
the first woman Sarpanch in India with
an MBA degree.
She has to her credit improving the dwindling
education and sex ratio levels of her villages.
But she is more popular for the "unveiling" of
her 'ghunghat'."With the backing of her
mother-in-law and husband, she went
against the grain and lifted her ghunghat
amid 2,000 people from 25 neighbouring
Reita was the first Indian beauty to win
the coveted Miss World title in 1966.
She is a true epitome of beauty with
brains who bought many laurels for
our country. On winning the title, she
was flooded with many Bollywood
and modelling offers, but she
decided to do what she had set her
eyes on. She successfully completed
her MBBS and eventually became a
doctor. It was her childhood dream to
help people and a career in medicine
helped her fulfil this dream.
Savitribai Phule was married at the age
of nine, and when she moved to
Pune, she took with her a book that
was given to her by a Christian
missionary. After learning to read
and write from her new husband
Jotirao Phule, she changed the face
of education in India forever.
After taking up training at Ms.
Farar’s Institution at Ahmednagar
and in Ms. Mitchell’s school in Pune,
she became the first Indian woman
to become a teacher, and opened up
the first school for girls in India in
Naidu, who was an activist and
a poet, was the first
governor of the United
Provinces of Agra and Oudh
for two years, and was also
the first woman governor of
an Indian state. Adding to
that, she was the first Indian
woman to become the
president of the Indian
National Congress, a major
political party in India. She
was also one of the only
women to take part in
the Satyagraha movement,
and participated in the
Round table conference with
Mahatma Gandhi and
Madan Mohan Malaviya.
Since then she has set a strong example by completing 15,000 hours of television
content. Followed by the success of many serials & hit movies, this power
woman ranks among the top business tycoons of India.
After the immediate success of a show in 2000, Ekta expanded wings and Balaji
became public limited company and merged with Nine Network Entertainment
India Pvt. Ltd. Today Balaji owns three more subsidiaries- Motion Pictures,
ALT Entertainment & BOLT Media Limited and has net income of US$1.6
The queen of Indian television industry,
this woman specializes in wearing many
hats in one life, director, producer &
capitalist. She is a businesswoman who
added new heights to Indian television,
that too at a very young age. Ekta started
her entrepreneurial journey with Balaji in
November 1994 when she was just 19.
She became the first
woman Prime Minister
of India and served from
1966 to 1977. Indira
Gandhi was named as
the "Woman of the
Millennium" in a poll
which was organised by
BBC in 1999. In 1971,
she became the first
woman to receive the
Bharat Ratna award.
“Every Indian mother”
While there are several women who go on to
perform well in their chosen fields outside their
homes, there are many who sit at home and
still own the world. The last, but definitely not
the least, every Indian mother is an achiever
we just cannot leave out.
YearofWomen’s Empowerment (Swashakti)
*Data collected by observant from US Nations
Day’s For Women
The role of women outside the home has become an important feature of the
social and economic life of the country and in the years to come this will
become still more significant. From this point of view, greater attention will
have to be paid to the problems of training and development of women.
The education of girls, therefore, should be emphasized not only on grounds
of social justice but also because it accelerates social transformation.
Promoting women education is a challenging task and it required
multipronged efforts for a solution.
This burning issue is being aggravated by socio-economic, psychological and
other factors most of which are age-old and deep-rooted in our society. Since
the practice dies hard, social ethos and superstitions are emotionally
surcharged, it is very difficult to tackle these problems easily. But with a
strong determination, commitment, and involvement of people and
organizations with philanthropic motive and a rational outlook, this problem
can be solved and hurdled be overcome for promoting national rejuvenation