1. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS :
A project management process is the management process of
planning and controlling the performance or execution of a
Project management process is a system of management that
decide the practices , technology ,skill, experience that is
necessary to successfully manage the project. A software
project management is the important activity of planning to
directing, motivating and coordinating. It is the responsibility
of project manager to
implement this activity.
Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMI) defines project
management as "the application of knowledge, skills, tools and
techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the
requirements of a particular project."
2. The process of directing and controlling a project from start to
finish may be further divided into five basic phases:
1. Project conception and initiation
An idea for a project will be carefully examined to determine
whether or not it benefits the organization. During this phase,
a decision making team will identify if the project can
realistically be completed.
2. Project definition and planning
A project plan, project charter and/or project scope may be
put in writing, outlining the work to be performed. During this
phase, a team should prioritize the project, calculate a budget
and schedule, and determine what resources are needed.
3. 3. Project launch or execution
Resources tasks are distributed and teams are informed of
responsibilities. This is a good time to bring up important project
4. Project performance and control
Project managers will compare project status and progress to
the actual plan, as resources perform the scheduled work.
During this phase, project managers may need to adjust
schedules or do what is necessary to keep the project on track.
5. Project close
After project tasks are completed and the client has approved
the outcome, an evaluation is necessary to highlight project
success and/or learn from project history. Projects and project
management processes vary from industry to industry; however,
these are more traditional elements of a project. The overarching
goal is typically to offer a product, change a process or to solve a
problem in order to benefit the organization
4. Responsibilities of a project manager
The specific duties of a project manager vary from industry to
industry, company to company, and sometimes even from
project to project.
But there are some key duties and responsibilities that,
if performed well, will help you successfully complete your
Planning is an essential duty of a project manager.
Determining what needs to be done, who is going to do it, and
when it needs to be done are all part of the planning process.
Some key planning duties include:
• Define and clarify project scope
• Develop the project plan
• Develop the project schedule
• Develop policies and procedures to support the achievement
of the project objectives
Organizing is about setting up the project team's structure.A
major driver in this aspect is the company's existing structure.
Companies are usually set up as functional, matrix, or
• Determine the organizational structure of the project team
• Identify roles and positions
• Identify services to be provided by external companies
• Staff project positions
Leading refers to carrying out the project plan in order to
achieve the project objectives. Leading the project is one of
the more challenging aspects for new project managers
because it involves a lot of "soft skills." Skills such as
communicating clearly, team motivation, and conflict
Setting team direction :
• Coordinating activities across different organizational
•Motivating team members
• Assigning work
Controlling is all about keeping the project on track. Project
control can be performed using a three-step process.
• Measuring: Checking project progress toward meeting its
• Evaluating: Determining the cause of deviations from the plan
• Correcting: Taking corrective actions to address Deviations
9. Software project planning:-
• Project planning is essential part of project management. It is
the process to identify the scope of project, the work involved
and create a schedule.
• Project planning is the process of defining clear, discrete
activities and the need to complete each activity.
• The purpose of project planning is to create project plan that
project manager can use to track the progress of his team.
• Project planning begins with the requirements that define
software to be developed. Project planning tools like CPM and
PTM helps plan and schedule.
• Planning is managerial process of deciding in advance what is
to be done and how is to be done. Its primary
purpose is to provide the guidelines necessary for decision
making. Planning process use information from internal and
10. Components of project planning:-
Different types of project have different component according
to their working and implementation. Following are some
common and powerful components of project planning for all
1. Project scope:-In project planning, every project has wide
2. Project schedule:-Every project has particular time limit
within which the project must be completed.
3. Project team organization: - Every project has an
organized way under a project leader having a team to
complete the project.
4. Technical description of proposed system:-Every project
has strong technical description so that project can be easily
11. Activities in project planning:-
Project planning includes various aspects of project. It involves
activities that describe following steps.-
1.Project scope definition and scope planning:-In this step
we document the project work that describe scope of project
,project goals or objective, constraints(rules), requirements
and everything for final product requirement.
2.Quality planning:- This is an important aspect of project
planning. Based on inputs captured in previous stage such as
project scope, requirement etc. various factors influence the
quality of final product. The processes required to deliver the
product as user requirement and as per standards are defined.
3. Project activity definition and activity sequencing:- In
this step we define all activities to deliver the product. Project
activity sequencing identifies the interdependence of all
12. 4. Time, effort and resource estimation:-This step clearly
estimate and document required to complete each activity.
Effort can be calculated using many techniques such as
function points, lines of code etc.
5. Risk factors identification:- It is important to identify and
document the risk factors associated with project based on
requirements, assumptions, constraints etc.
6. Schedule development:- The time schedule for the project
based on the activities and effort required to complete the
activity. Schedule may influence cost estimation. Popular
tools can be used for creating and reporting the schedules.
Project scheduling is most essential task of project planning.
7. Cost estimation and budgeting:- Based on the
information collected on previous steps it is possible to
estimate the cost involved in executing and implementing the
•With cost estimation, budgeting is done for the project.
13. 8. Organization and resource planning:- The primary goal
is to ensure that project is running efficiently. This can be
achieved by keeping all the resources are fully utilized. The
success depend on predicting the resource demand for the
•There are various types of resources equipment, personnel,
facility and money, etc.
9. Risk management planning:- Risk management is a
process of identifying, analyzing and responding to a risk.
Based on risk factors identified a risk resolution plan is
created. Plan analysis each of risk factors and their impact on
project. The responses for each of them can be planned.
Throughout the life time of the project risk factors are
monitored acting upon as necessary.
10. Project plan development and execution:- Project plan
development use inputs gathered from planning processes
such as scope, planning quality, planning etc.
14. 11. Performance reporting: - Progress of each tasks/activities
described in project plan. The progress is compared with schedule
and time limit document in the project plan. Various techniques
are used to measure and report the project performance such as
EVM (Earned Value Management)
12. Planning change management:- The request for changes in
project need to be analyzed carefully. Its impact on project should
be studied. Considering the project plan may be modified to
accommodate the change request. Change management is also
necessary to accommodate the implementation of project
currently under development in production environment.
13. Project rollout planning:-The success of the project depends
on the success of its rollout and implementation. Whenever
project is rollout it may effect on technical system and the way
when business system is run. For the successfully implementation
of the project not only depend on technical system but also how
the user use it efficiently..