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Agri insurance enam mnarega

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Agri insurance enam mnarega

  1. 1. AGENDA E- National Agri Market MNREGA: 10 years Agricultural Insurance in India NRLM Extention to IAP Districts Doubling Farmers Income by 2022?? 1 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  2. 2. BACKGROUND Farming: Free Enterprise, Risky Enterprise. Farmers at Disadvantage at Factor as well as Product Market. Technology resistance Constraint on Cash Availability Stressors: WTO, GM Crops, Truant Rainfall, Semi-feudal structure of farming society etc leads to Suicide. 2 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  5. 5. BUDGET ANNOUNCEMENTS  Budget announcements of 2014 and 2015 on setting up an “Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund” and on ‘Unified National Agriculture Market’.  The Department of Agriculture & Cooperation has formulated the Central Sector scheme for Promotion of National Agriculture Market through Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund (ATIF) through provision of the common e-platform. /Harveersir HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  6. 6. Agricultural Marketing SFAC AGRICULTU RE APMC 6500 Agriculture is a “State Subject” under the Constitution of India. Union Govt supplements the efforts of State Govt. All States Except Bihar and Kerala, have their respective APMC (Agricultural Produce and Marketing Committees” Act to regulate agricultural Produce sale. There are 6,500 Agricultural Mandis across the country. The Number symbolizes Agri-Market fragmentation impacting mobility and Prices. Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) is operating the NAM
  7. 7. 2003 CENTRAL MODEL ACT Aim was to attract private investment in constructing market yards and creating the post-harvest value chain comprising cold stores, warehouses and logistics infrastructure. Act provides for  Private markets,  Direct deals between the growers and end- users of agro-commodities  Legalisation of contract farming /Harveersir HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  8. 8. GOAL AND MILESTONE TIMELINE (3 PHASES) 585 Mandis by MARCH 2018. 12 States Joined in starting (14th April 2016) 400 Mandis will be integrated by March 2017 Remaining 185 by March 2018 8 HAR VEE RSIR for GSS COR E
  9. 9. FEW MORE FACTS  Material flow (agriculture produce) continue to happen through mandis, an online market reduces transaction costs and information asymmetry.  Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers’ Welfare (DAC&FW) is meeting expenses on software and its customisation for the States and is providing it free of cost.  DAC&FW is also giving a grant as one time fixed cost subject to the ceiling of Rs.30.00 lakhs per Mandi /Harveersir HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  10. 10. COMPONENTS OF NAM  Harmonisation of quality standards of agricultural produce and provision for assaying (quality testing) infrastructure in every market to enable informed bidding by buyers.  Common tradable parameters have so far been developed for 25 commodities.  Single point levy of market fees, i.e on the first wholesale purchase from the farmer.  Provision of Soil Testing Laboratories in/ or near the selected mandi to facilitate visiting farmers to access this facility in the mandi itself. /Harveersir HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  11. 11. 1 2 3 A single license to be valid across the State Single point levy of market fee provision for electronic auction as a mode for price discovery State’s Obligation 11 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  12. 12. BENEFITS OF NAM  For farmers, NAM promises more options for selling their produce and competitive returns.  For local traders, NAM will provide access to larger national market for secondary trading.  For bulk buyers, processers, exporters, NAM will enable direct participation in the local mandi trade, reducing intermediation cost.  Stable prices and availability to consumer. /Harveersir HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  13. 13. BENEFITS OF NAM Monitoring and regulation of traders and commission agents; Completely transparent system Improvement in the market fee collection Reduction in manpower requirements as tendering / /Harveersir HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  14. 14. IT DOES NOT INCLUDE  Direct sale by farmers to processors, or, contract marketing without bringing produce to mandi;  Even under e-NAM, market committee will continue to hold its monopoly power in terms of offering a platform for sale/purchase;  Removal of legal barriers to entry of orgnised and modern capital and investments into agricultural marketing.  Rationalisation of market fee, commission charges, cess and taxes and development charges 14 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  16. 16. 10 YEARS OF MNAREGA By: Harveer Singh harveersinh@gmail.com Facebook.com/harveersir
  17. 17. Year Milestone 2005 President Kalam gives assent to NREGA, a program for livelihood security. Unskilled 100 days of compulsory work to one adult member of the family in rural India. 2006 Launched in Anantpur District (AP). First Phase 200 District covered. 2007 Program extended to 130 additional district and J&K 2008 Remaining areas covered under it. Social Audit starts. Post Office and Bank Account Payment. 17 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  18. 18. 2008 Name changed to MGNREGA 2011 Wages linked to Inflation 2012 Budget reduced to 33,000 crore (from 40,000 crore in previous year) Flood Management, Livestock, Fisheries, Sanitation added to Activities. 2014 Govt thought of restricting it to 200 Needy districts only. Drops the idea. 2015 100 to 150 days in Draught hit areas. Budget increased to 34,699 Crore. Assures 5000 more crores if needed. 2016 Happy 10th Years completion. 18 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  19. 19. It is world’s largest public Works program. It is demand driven so (additional employment and income) Local implementation is the key. 19 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  20. 20. SOME FACTS ABOUT MNAREGA  India has spent Rs.3.1 trillion on the implementation of MGNAREGA.  created 19.8 billion work days for people  It largely led to a reduction of distress.  Also helped in increase in rural incomes in the decade.  created assets: small check dams and other water conservation projects, afforestation and land development projects are of a quality that will stand the test of time 20 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  21. 21. SOME FACTS ABOUT MNAREGA 44% of all wage payments are being made on time More than half of those who demanded work were women MNREGA decreased short-term migration by 10% and had no effect on long-term migration. 21 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  23. 23. NEED FOR concurrent social audits and community monitoring will be undertaken to ensure that assets created under the programme are durable and long-lasting. sustainable individual assets to benefit the poor and vulnerable households (Farm Ponds, Vermi Compost) 23 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  24. 24. Generation of employment has seen a sharp decline from the peak of 2,840 million person-days in 2009-10 to 1,550 million person-days last year. (45%. Reduction) 24 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  25. 25. IS MNREGA HARMFUL TO THE INTERESTS OF FARMERS ?  The most prominent accusation is that MNREGA has led to a shortage of workers available for farm work, and hence, increased agricultural wages.  It is alleged that this has resulted in an increased production costs, and has made farming difficult and unviable (Murthy and Mishra 2012). BUT  MNREGA participation is higher in villages where there are fewer landless households.  A major part of asset creation under MNREGA has been for the benefit of small and marginal farm holdings, particularly Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ ST) 25 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  26. 26. STANDING COMMITTEEON RURAL DEVELOPMENT  Ensuring livelihood for people in rural areas.  Large scale participation of women, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs/STs) and other traditionally marginalised sections of society. SCs/STs account for 51% of the total person-days generated and women account for 47% of the total person-days generated.  Increasing the wage rate in rural areas and strengthening the rural economy through the creation of infrastructure assets.  Facilitating sustainable development, and  Strengthening PRIs by involving them in the planning and monitoring of the scheme. 26 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE Source: PRS INDIA
  27. 27. ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHEME: STANDING COMMITTEE  Fabrication of job cards: While as many as 12.5 crore households have been issued job cards out of an estimated 13.8 crore rural households ( as per the 2001 census), there are several issues related to existence of fake job cards, inclusion of fictitious names, missing entries and delays in making entries in job cards.  Delay in payment of wages: Most states have failed to disburse wages within 15 days as mandated by MGNREGA. In addition, workers are not compensated for a delay in payment of wages.  Non payment of unemployment allowances: Most states do not pay an unemployment allowance when work is not given on demand. The non-issuance of dated receipts of demanded work prevents workers from claiming an unemployment allowance.  Large number of incomplete works: There has been a delay in the completion of works under MGNREGA and inspection of projects has been irregular. Implementing agencies were able to complete only 98 lakh works out of 296 lakh works. As Table 2 shows, a large percentage of works remain incomplete under MGNREGA and the work completion rate appears to be decreasing in recent years. 27 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  28. 28. CONCLUDING REMARKS  Indian agriculture is about seasonality: Lean/Slack season. MNAREGA works as the supplementary income tool.  Social Equity.  Creation of Productive Assets.  Bargaining Powers to Rural Workers.  Rise of Real rural wages in India: has the impact of rural distress. 28 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  30. 30. COMPREHENSIVE AGRI INSURANCE IN INDIA Harveer Singh harveersinh@gmail.com
  31. 31. WHY INSURANCE?  Monsoon is Truant and Unpredictable. The global warming and El Nino type events are already adding to its unpredictability.  Significant Population derives its livelihood from Agriculture.  Overall impact on the economy due to worsening of rural demands.  Farmer’s Suicides. 31HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  32. 32. # AGRI- INSURANCE Threshold Yield: Average yield of the preceding 7 or 3 years Actuarial Basis: Forecasted Loss Reference Weather Station Reference Unit Area 32HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  33. 33. CHALLENGES FOR AGRI INSURANCE INDIA 17-27% losses are post harvest losses Low Awareness Different Premiums and High Premiums Assessment and conflict of Claims 3 Year yield level Less finance allocation 33 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE
  34. 34. (NAIS) or RKBY Modified NAIS 1999 Covers Loanee and Non- Loanee Premium=1.5-3% of Sum Assured. Implemented at District Level (Widespread and Local Calamities) 2010-11 The unit area of insurance is village panchayat level. CROP YIELD coverage of Post harvest losses due to coastal cyclone Private sector insurers apart from Agriculture Insurance Company (AIC) of India, are also permitted to implement the scheme 34HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  35. 35. 35HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  36. 36. THE INSURANCE PENETRATION According to Census 2011, India had 95.8 million farmers. But in the six farming seasons covering 2011 to 2013, only an average of 12.7 million took crop insurance. That’s one in about eight farmers 36HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  37. 37. THE FAILURE  Along with the unawareness and lack of penetration. 37HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  38. 38. Agri insurance related PROBLEMS PMKBY Solution 17-27% losses are post harvest losses Low Awareness Different Premiums and High Premiums Assessment and conflict of Claims 3 Year yield level Less finance allocation •Post harvest losses covered. •25% upfront payment •Low Premiums= Rabi and Kharib Premiums •Revenue officer assessment is final •7000 crore allocation •Insurance Inclusion •village level assessment •Use of technology/ Remote Sensing etc 38HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  39. 39. OTHER DETAILS uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for all Kharif crops and 1.5% for all Rabi crops. In case of annual commercial and horticultural crops, the premium to be paid by farmers will be only 5%. 39HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  40. 40. There is no upper limit on Government subsidy. Even if balance premium is 90%, it will be borne by the Government. farmers will get claim against full sum insured without any reduction. 40HARVEERSIR for GSSCORE
  42. 42. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING AGRICULTURE Pension for farmers Kisan Consultation centres Reducing Risks: Insurance etc Land Consolidation Agri-based Industries/ Food Processing Industries Use of Technology 42 HARVEERSIRforGSSCORE