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Global Sustainable Energy: Current trends and Future Prospects

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An overview of the current trends and recent statistics of our progress towards sustainable clean energy coming from solar power and biomass.

Publié dans : Environnement
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Global Sustainable Energy: Current trends and Future Prospects

  1. 1. Global Sustainable Energy: Current trends and Future Prospects Hashem AL-ghaili Jacobs University Bremen
  2. 2. Exploiting natural resources 7/26/2014 2 400,000-year-old shelter from Terra Amata, France
  3. 3. Industrial revolution 1700 7/26/2014 3
  4. 4. Technological explosion 7/26/2014 4
  5. 5. Current technological revolution 7/26/2014 5
  6. 6. The impact of industrial revolution on our climate 7/26/2014 6Image: http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/CIS/houghton/images/fig4.jpg By the year 2100, carbon dioxide concentrations will rise to 600 - 700 parts per million.
  7. 7. Switching towards clean energy 7/26/2014 7 Wind Power Hydropower Solar power Biomass energy Geothermal energy Nuclear power
  8. 8. General overview 7/26/2014 8 Biomass energy Solar Power
  9. 9. Switching towards clean energy 7/26/2014 9 Wind Power Hydropower Solar power Biomass energy Geothermal energy Nuclear power
  10. 10. Global public support for energy sources 7/26/2014 10Image via: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Global_public_support_for_energy_sources_%28Ipsos_2011%29.png
  11. 11. Global status with solar power 7/26/2014 11Image via: http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2013/12/global-solar-energy- generation-2012-infographic.jpg
  12. 12. 7/26/2014 12 Germany has a goal of producing 100% of electricity from renewable sources by 2050. http://thinkprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Germany-renewables-638x566.png Status of Germany
  13. 13. Status of Germany with solar power 7/26/2014 13 June 6th (1pm and 2pm) June 9th (National holiday) 24.24 GWh of electricity http://www.thelocal.de/20140619/germany-produces-half-of-electricity-needs-with-solar-power
  14. 14. The potential of solar power 7/26/2014 14Visualization via: Nadine May Data provided by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Total surface area required to fuel the world with solar power Europe (EU-25) Germany (De)
  15. 15. The potential of solar energy in reducing CO2 emissions 7/26/2014 15 The Agua Caliente Solar Project Capacity: 290 MWh CO2 Reduction: 324,000 tons Arizona, United States Solnova Solar Power Station Capacity: 200 MWh CO2 Reduction: 185,000 tons Sanlúcar la Mayor, Spain Welspun Solar MP Project Capacity: 150 MWh CO2 Reduction: 216,372 tons Neemuch, India Shams Solar Power Station Capacity: 100 MWh CO2 Reduction: 175,000 tons Abu Dhabi, UAE Ivanpah Solar Power Facility Capacity: 354 MWh CO2 Reduction: 400,000 tons California, United States Genesis Solar Energy Project Capacity: 250 MWh CO2 Reduction: 393,000 tons California, United States
  16. 16. Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, U.S. 7/26/2014 16 • Ivanpah Solar Power Facility • Location: California, United States • Commission date: Feb, 2014 • Capacity: 354 megawatts (MWh) • Generates power for 140,000 homes The Ivanpah installation reduces carbon dioxide emissions by over 400,000 tons annually.
  17. 17. Canal Solar Power Project, India 7/26/2014 17
  18. 18. A touch of innovation 7/26/2014 18
  19. 19. Solar energy trends over the past 3 years 7/26/2014 19 • More efficient. • Minimized environmental risks. • Cheaper. • Smaller. • Flexible. • Transparent.
  20. 20. Cost problem 7/26/2014 20Image : http://greenecon.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/cost_kwh2.jpg
  21. 21. Past prices 7/26/2014 21Image: http://www.midlandsolarapplications.com/about-solar.html
  22. 22. Long-term storage of solar energy 7/26/2014 22Images : http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/icimages?p_imgid=130329 http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110929/images/news564-i2b.0.jpg Artificial leaf
  23. 23. Biomass Energy 7/26/2014 23Image: http://www.williamsrenewables.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/diagram.gif Terrestrial biomes Industrial waste Marine biomass
  24. 24. Second-largest source of renewable electricity generation 7/26/2014 24Graph: Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Energy Outlook 2009. Biomass is the fastest growing, going from 11% of the total in 2007, to more than 41% in 2030.
  25. 25. 7/26/2014 25 Miscanthus Switchgrass Hemp Bamboo Maize Sugarcane Oil palm Rice Terrestrial biomes used for energy production • Thermal conversion • Chemical conversion • Biochemical conversion Ethanol – Bioalcohols - Biodiesel - Biofuel gasoline - Bioethers - Biogas
  26. 26. Advantages of terrestrial biomes 7/26/2014 26 Advantages • Clean and eco-friendly energy source. • Products that are used in biomass are easily available. • The material for biomass will surely never run out.
  27. 27. 7/26/2014 27 Disadvantages of terrestrial biomes • Costly sometimes (depending on the substrate). • The clearance of large areas including forests. • Releases methane into the air (lesser than fossil fuels). • Sustainable under certain conditions only. • Consumption of fresh water. • Competition for arable land. • Food-fuel debate.
  28. 28. 7/26/2014 28 Second-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass • 40 million tonnes/year • Rich substrate of glucose • An abundant source of biomass Corn stoverWood shavingsWoody remains
  29. 29. Environmental impact of second-generation biofuels 7/26/2014 29Graph: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/images/GHG-emissions-transportation-fuels.jpg Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types Michael Wang et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024001
  30. 30. 7/26/2014 30 Problem with lignocellulosic biomass Lignin
  31. 31. 7/26/2014 31 The search for novel cellulolytic enzymes continues Graphic by: Lignocellulose: A chewy problem, Katharine Sanderson - Nature The gribble (Limnoria quadripunctata) Termites feed on dead plant material with the help of their intestinal bacteria Fungus Trichoderma reesii (Hypocrea jecorina)
  32. 32. 7/26/2014 32 In practice • The world's largest cellulosic ethanol plant • 50 million liters of cellulosic ethanol a year • Location: Crescentino, Italy
  33. 33. 7/26/2014 33 Marine macroalgae Image: http://innovatedevelopment.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/seaweed_biofuel.gif
  34. 34. 7/26/2014 34 Advantages of macroalgae as a biomass for energy production • No fresh water required. • Very abundant. • Plays an important role in carbon capture and CO2 storage (0.7 million tons/year). • Nitrogen and phosphorus are provided by fish. • Can be collected from industrial waste.
  35. 35. 7/26/2014 35 Marine macroalgae as a biomass for the production of biofuels Image: http://innovatedevelopment.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/seaweed_biofuel.gif
  36. 36. 7/26/2014 36 Productivity of Biofuels by Different Plants Image: http://www.asiabiomass.jp/english/topics/images/1009_2_2.jpg Source: “Prospect of Biomass Energy of Sea Algae”, Prof. Shin Watanabe, Tsukuba University 50-60 % carbohydrates 1–3 % lipids 7–38 % minerals 10–47 % proteins
  37. 37. 7/26/2014 37 Simulation models and prediction of growth conditions Maps: NASA’s Earth Observatory / Hughes et al.
  38. 38. 7/26/2014 38 Natural distribution of shallow water macroalgae across the globe The potential coastal areas to culture macroalgae for biogas are indicated in red line. Map: NASA’s Earth Observatory
  39. 39. 7/26/2014 39 Production cost of ethanol obtained from different sources of biomass Graph : http://www.algenol.com/sites/default/files/production_graph.png Algae Biofuel Process by Algenol Yields 8000 Gallons per Acre at $1.27 per Gallon Aims to produce 20 billion gallons per year of low cost ethanol by 2033 1 gallon = 3.78541 liters
  40. 40. 7/26/2014 40 Summary Sustainability InnovationConsistency