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Mixing department
Report Submitted to:
Mr. Hamid Iftikhar (Manager)
Mr. Kamran (Production engineer)
Report submitted by:
...
Faculty:
Supervisor (Mehdi shah sahib)
Foreman = 7
Workers: 140 to 150
Materials used:
Rubbers:
1) Natural rubber( obtaine...
 PBR (orange yellow rubber) poly-butadiene rubber
(made in iran)
 EPDM ( eyhylene propylene diene monomer)
Compounds in ...
Fillers ( mechanical holding strength increases):
Reinforcing fillers:
1) Carbon black
 N-220
 N-330
 N-339
 N550
 N-...
Accelerators:
1) TMTD
2) MBTS
3) MBT
4) CBS
5) TBBS
6) DPG
Resins (increase tackiness):
1) Koresin
2) Phenolic resin
3) Hy...
Products formed:
TB400 for butyl tubes
B100 for bead (natural rubber)
T100 for MC tyre tread
T600 for tractor front tr...
Types of compound:
1) Green compound
(Tests are done by plastimeter , viscometer, rheometer)
2) Cure compound
Weighing mec...
Processes:
1) Master to final
2) Direct final
1) Master to final :
Master:
Temp range: 140 t0 150 degree centigrade
Speed:...
Banbury mixers:
Banbury was named after Fernley H. Banbury.
Banbury Mixer 1:
Model: F270
Speed: 49 rpm constant
Product: o...
Ingredients:
Butyl slab (each 30 kg)
Carbon
Reclaim butyl
TB400 chemical
White oil
Total batch weight = 240 to 245 Kg.
Ope...
 Powder and water dryer
 Then collected in folds 400 to 450 kg on pallet.
 After cooling temp is 35 degree centigrade.
...
Buttons:
Red green close drop door, red green (opposite) open close door
Black rotating switch timer reset.
Green button c...
Banbury mixer 4:
Model: XM270
Product: Used to form tread of all kind.
Temperature:
Temperature dependent procedure is fol...
Components:
Main motor:
The banbury is provided with a main motor. Its speed and
temperature is controlled by sensors. The...
Standby station:
Below the weighing station there is a standby station in which
carbon is added after weighing.
Opening fo...
Weighing of products:
Weighing is done on the weighing conveyer. A procedure of
screen changing is present. When the thing...
 C.B weight
 Oil tank 1 temp
 Oil tank 2 temp
 Temp of the mixer
 Sensors
Display unit:
A display unit is present whi...
Final batch:
 Rubber +chemical feed
 Close feed door
 Ram down( 30 s)
 Ram up
 Ram down
 Check for time and temperat...
Compound identification:
The compound formed is identified by different methods:
 Every palate has a name written on it b...
Laboratory:
Rheometer:
Two rheometers are present to check the properties of
compounds in mixing and afterwards.
Different...
Mooney required range:
Friction: 38 to 52.
Tyre: 55 to 60.
Tube: 60 to 65
Mixing grader:
It is out of order these days.
Di...
Specific gravity meter:
Specific gravity of only solid compounds is measured on it.cut
specimen and weight in air. Then we...
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mixing report final

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mixing report final

  1. 1. Mixing department Report Submitted to: Mr. Hamid Iftikhar (Manager) Mr. Kamran (Production engineer) Report submitted by: Hassan Bilal (MTO) Factory code: 01848
  2. 2. Faculty: Supervisor (Mehdi shah sahib) Foreman = 7 Workers: 140 to 150 Materials used: Rubbers: 1) Natural rubber( obtained from hevea tree)  RSS ribbed smoke sheet ( RSS 4 is used )  SIR ( standard Indonesian rubber) 1260 kg palate with 36 bags. 35 khg/ bag  SMR( standard Malaysian rubber) 1260 kg palate with 36 bags. 35 khg/ bag 2) Synthetic rubber  Butyl rubber ( import from russia) 30 kg each bale.  SBR 1502 (light yellow) styrene-butadiene rubber (Mostly used in bead wire compound)  SBR 1712 (oil extended rubber) (Import from Korea Used in tred and ply compound)
  3. 3.  PBR (orange yellow rubber) poly-butadiene rubber (made in iran)  EPDM ( eyhylene propylene diene monomer) Compounds in which load (strength) is requirement SBR is used and if load and speed both is required PBR is used. 3) Reclaim rubber ( vulcanized rubber) :  Butyl reclaim ( import from india)  Natural reclaim (50 kg each bag)  Natural and butyl rubber cannot be mixed so their setup is separate. Bale cutters and mixers are also separate.  To increase the heat resistance of natural rubber it is blend with SBR  Strength of 1502 is greater than 1712  Butyl rubbers are used to make tubes.  Butyl colours are used to stick on compounds  Hexane is used to separate rubber which stick to each other
  4. 4. Fillers ( mechanical holding strength increases): Reinforcing fillers: 1) Carbon black  N-220  N-330  N-339  N550  N-660 Particle size of N330 < N660 55 bags in each palate each of 25 kg. Non- reinforcing fillers: (cost reducing) 1) CaCO3 2) China clay 3) Crumb( recycled rubber from tyre scrap) Activators: 1) ZnO 2) Stearic acid Plasticizers (increase fluidity): 1) Aromatic oil (thick oil green in colour, highly viscous) 2) Paraffin oil (white oil) 3) Napthenic oil (colourless) Retarders (anti scorching): 1) PVI/CTP ( pre vulcanization inhibitor)
  5. 5. Accelerators: 1) TMTD 2) MBTS 3) MBT 4) CBS 5) TBBS 6) DPG Resins (increase tackiness): 1) Koresin 2) Phenolic resin 3) Hydrocarbon resin 4) Rosin china Peptizers (decrease viscosity): 1) Struktol A-91 2) Struktol A-86 3) Peptizol -7 Homogenizer: 1)Struktol MS-40 Anti-oxidants: 1) 6PPD 2) TMQ 3) Wax ( not used in ply ) 4) PBN Curatives: 1) Resin 1045 2) Sulfur 3) DCP
  6. 6. Products formed: TB400 for butyl tubes B100 for bead (natural rubber) T100 for MC tyre tread T600 for tractor front tread T610 for tractor rear tread T614 for light truck tread F100 for MC tyre ply F110 for rickshaw ply F614 for LT ply F1260 for tractor ply T110 for rickshaw tread I900 for inner liner C614 cushion product for rickshaw, tractor C900 cement solution AB900 air bag RP900 rim putty I900 inner liner
  7. 7. Types of compound: 1) Green compound (Tests are done by plastimeter , viscometer, rheometer) 2) Cure compound Weighing mechanism: Weighing scales are used to weight every material that is used. After weighing put in plastic bags. Carbon portion is separate. Carbon is also weighed on lever scales. Identification criteria of chemicals: The chemicals are weighed on the weighing scale and then are put in plastic bags. Then each chemical is given its product name like F100, TB 400. After this naming the mixer number is written below in which this chemical is to be used like mixer 1 or mixer 3 etc.
  8. 8. Processes: 1) Master to final 2) Direct final 1) Master to final : Master: Temp range: 140 t0 150 degree centigrade Speed: 40 rpm Final: Temp range: 100 t0 110degree centigrade Speed: 22 rpm Master to final is a long process. It is used for making tread. After master final is made after 12 to 24 hours. Their timing in mixers is master (5min) and final (3min) Master + Final = 8 min Master to final process is done only in mixer 4 due to temperature issues. Final product not stored for long due to sulfur reaction.sulfur blooming can occur. Master can be stored. 2) Direct final : In this process direct final compound is made in a continuous process (done on mixer 1 and 3).
  9. 9. Banbury mixers: Banbury was named after Fernley H. Banbury. Banbury Mixer 1: Model: F270 Speed: 49 rpm constant Product: only butyl tubes are made on it Type of process: Only direct final process is done Temperature dependent process Operation is manual Type of rooters:  Tangential rooters are present Gap between rooters is known as nip. Capacity: Its capacity is 240 liters converted to Kg by specific gravity formula. Batch weight = capacity of mixer x fill factor x specific gravity Filler factor: Defined by manufacturer is 0.75 Time: Rubber (3min) +carbon, oil, chemical (4min) = 7 min total
  10. 10. Ingredients: Butyl slab (each 30 kg) Carbon Reclaim butyl TB400 chemical White oil Total batch weight = 240 to 245 Kg. Operation:  Put all the rubber on conveyor and feed it.  Ram down and start the timer (180 s)  Ram up and feed oil  Door close and ram down.  Ram up at 260 s  Ram down 300 s  Ring bell at 320 s  Ram up at approx. 340 s to control temp and also open the door  Ring bell at 400 s  Open drop door at 420s  When red light is on close drop door.  The mixture is dropped through hopper to reduce its speed.  Then the mixture is rolled over dump mill dimension 24x84 (accelerators are added )  After that rolled on stock blender mill (sulfur is added/temp is at 90 degree centigrade)  Then rolled on above roller
  11. 11.  Powder and water dryer  Then collected in folds 400 to 450 kg on pallet.  After cooling temp is 35 degree centigrade.  Batch off unit has the capacity of 4 to 5 batches storage.  K-type Thermometers are used to check temperature Banbury Mixer 3: Model: 11-A Capacity: 185 kg Speed: 19 rpm Time: 9 to 10 min Temp: 140 to 145 degree centigrade Ingredients: (Friction compounds are made) F100: SBR 1712 Reclaim natural SIR Oil(thick + white) Carbon N660 Chemical
  12. 12. Buttons: Red green close drop door, red green (opposite) open close door Black rotating switch timer reset. Green button conveyer, side red door open, side red ram up, upper + buttons door close and ramp down Wait 5 min after each dump. Process:  Close drop door and wait 5 min.  Feed rubber and ram down  Wait 180s( 3 min)  Ram up and feed oil and chemical  Ram down and door close  Up down ram 2 times (320 to 340s up ,340 to 440 down,440 to 540 up)  Bell at 520s  Dump at 540s  1 min door opening closing time  On rollers down 15 min are required for mixing that’s why after every dump we have to weight 5 min.  Dump mill is 22x 60 and the blending mill is 24 x 84.  Same rolling and cooling is done at end. Batch off unit has the capacity of storing 2 batches.
  13. 13. Banbury mixer 4: Model: XM270 Product: Used to form tread of all kind. Temperature: Temperature dependent procedure is followed Master: 145 degree centigrade with rpm 35 Final: 105 degree centigrade with rpm 21  Inter meshing rooters are in mixer 4(temp is increased due to greater friction but time is reduced) Procedure: The mixer is fully automatic but can be operated manually Master to final procedure is followed in this mixer. Time: Master (5min) + final (3 min) = total 8 min rpm: Master (min 36, max 40) Final (min 20, max 25) Capacity: 220 Kg.
  14. 14. Components: Main motor: The banbury is provided with a main motor. Its speed and temperature is controlled by sensors. The gears are used afterwards. The motor is D.C operated by a D.C drive. TCU: Temperature control unit is present for temperature control of the mixer. Three motors are present for drop door, rotors, body for temperature controlling. Oil cabinet: Oil cabinet is present for oil providing. Oil can also be heated in it by convection. Silos: 4 silos are present on the top floor for feeding carbon to the banbury. Each capacity is 1.5 ton. Oil tanks: Thick oil tank and white oil tank are present on top floor for feeding oil. Each can have 1000 liters of oil. Weighing station: The carbon from the silos is added to the weighing station for proper weighing.
  15. 15. Standby station: Below the weighing station there is a standby station in which carbon is added after weighing. Opening for extra carbon: Below the standby station there is an opening for the collection of extra carbon. Butterfly valve is present for the control of flow of carbon in the mixer or at the collector backside. Vibrator: A vibrator is present to make the carbon flow which settle in the mixer. Lubricating oil tank: A lubricating oil tank is present with the control room for the lubrication of various parts of the mixer. Dust collector: Dust collector unit is present on the sides of the silos it is used to collect the carbon and this carbon can be used again afterwards. Drop door: Drop door is operated by a lock the complete mechanism is operated on hydraulics. The pressure require to open it is 80 bar.
  16. 16. Weighing of products: Weighing is done on the weighing conveyer. A procedure of screen changing is present. When the thing being weighed is up to the required quantity the screen changes and then the next thing is weighed. Screen is not changed until the required weight of the product is not present on the conveyer. Feeding conveyer: A feeding conveyer is present after the weighing conveyer for feeding the weighed product into the mixer. Control room: In the control room the operation can be done automatically or can be done manually. Buttons are present for manual control of each part. All the parts have separate option for manual or automatic control. A computer s present with the computer software to give commands to the mixer. It contains all the recipes of every compound. The temp, rpm, capacity, amount etc. etc. all are given as input by it. Number of badges are also given as an input. Meters: Meters are present on the panels for:  Rotor speed  Motor power  Motor current  Rubber temp  Ram pressure( 6 bar)
  17. 17.  C.B weight  Oil tank 1 temp  Oil tank 2 temp  Temp of the mixer  Sensors Display unit: A display unit is present which is operated with touch screen all the measures are shown own it. Procedure: Master batch:  Rubber + chemical feed  Close feed door  RAM down(20 s)  Ram up  Feed Carbon black(N330)  Ram down(30 s)  Ram up  Feed oil  Ram down(20 s)  Ram up and then ram down  Check temp till 145 degree centigrade  Ram up and drop door open  Ram down and then door close
  18. 18. Final batch:  Rubber +chemical feed  Close feed door  Ram down( 30 s)  Ram up  Ram down  Check for time and temperature to reach required limit( 30 s / 105 degree centigrade)  Ram up and open discharge door  Ram down and close discharge door  On the lower floor the roller mills are present for rolling  After that cooling and powdering is done. Batch weight: Batch weight = chamber volume x specific gravity x fill factor Mastication process: Mastication process is done for the natural rubber to decrease its viscosity so that it can be mixed with synthetic rubber. It is done on mills by rolling it again and again for 30 to35 minutes.105 kg (35 kg x 3 slabs are added) Peptizol-7 is also used to decrease viscosity.
  19. 19. Compound identification: The compound formed is identified by different methods:  Every palate has a name written on it by the laborer, compound type, shift name is also mentioned. A stamp is also made on it.  Master is given yellow or red colour but no card is attached to it  Final is painted no colour.  Mixing give cards to be placed on compound. Yellow is for natural rubber compound. Pink T610, purple T100, Red TB400, every card has its name printed.  Lab card are also given after tests. Blue card is for butyl, bluish green for friction ply, yellow for tred and other compounds.  After cards are placed on the palate. The lifter loads them and take them to the weight machine. After weighing take it to the store.  If a sample batch is made no cards are placed on them but a large paper is attached to it for its identification.
  20. 20. Laboratory: Rheometer: Two rheometers are present to check the properties of compounds in mixing and afterwards. Different parameters are checked on them: ML (minimum length/min torque) MH (maximum height/max torque) TS1 (1st scorching temp) TS2 (2nd scorching temp) TC10 (10 percent cure temp) TC50 (50 percent cure temp) TC 90 (90 percent cure temp)  Tyre is checked at 160 degree centigrade.  T610 checked at 155 degree centigrade  Tube is checked at 180 degrees centigrade.  Every test is temp dependent. Viscometer: Viscometer is used to check the viscosity of compound. Readings are plotted as graph between mooney and time. Rooter rotation: 2 rpm Pressure: 4 bar Pre heat time: 1 min. Test types: ML 1+4 for natural at 100 degree centigrade. ML 1+8 for butyl at 125 degree centigrade.
  21. 21. Mooney required range: Friction: 38 to 52. Tyre: 55 to 60. Tube: 60 to 65 Mixing grader: It is out of order these days. Dispersion of carbon black is checked on it. A magnified image of carbon can be see with the help of lens present in apparatus. Plastimeter: It is used to check softness and hardness and the flow of compound. Physical testing of finished product: Ageing oven: It is used to check the results and properties after ageing the temp maintained is 120 degrees. The component under testing is placed inside it at extreme conditions to check its results at them. Time is 72 hours to 90 hours depending upon the requirement. Abrasion tester: Abrasion test is done on it to check the properties of compound after constant contact with the roller. 2.5 N force is applied and before abrasion and after abrasion weight is measured. The difference is divided by specific gravity of substance to get abrasion.
  22. 22. Specific gravity meter: Specific gravity of only solid compounds is measured on it.cut specimen and weight in air. Then weight in water. Calculate its specific gravity using calculate button. Tensile machine: Tensile machine is used to check the tensile strength. The specimen is cut with the specimen cutter and placed in the clips. The specimen dimensions are entered in the software. Joint test: Joint test of the tube is made to check the force which break it. Body test: The body test of the tube is made by checking the force which can break it. Adhesion test: Adhesion test of tyre is also done and the maximum force is calculated. Max force x max width in cm= adhesion For cars and rikshaw standard adhesion is between 24 and 25. For Mc tyre the standard adhesion is 20. Hardness tester: Hardness of the material is checked by durometer. The thickness of the material must not be less than 6mm and the angle must be 90 degrees. Production: The average production is 70 to 80 ton in 20 hours. The record production of 113 ton is recorded.

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