ALUMECO – 19-5-2015
Esben Øster
B.Sc.Chem. Eng.
Working whit surface treatment since 1999 at HAI
Horsens, Denmark.
10 Year...
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A/S HAI Horsens – 102 år Surface treatment ...
AGENDA
 Why surface treatment ?
 Anodizing – mechanism.
 Pre-treatment.
 After-treatment.
 How to specify.
 Alloy.
...
MOST COMMON USED
ALLOY
Cobber
containing
alloy.
Typical 4,0-
4,58 %
cobber.
2007
2011
2014
2017
2024
High strength.
Good f...
A
Rating for different anodizing proces:
WHY SURFACE
TREATMENT?
OVERVIEW
EFFECT OF PRE-
TREATMENT
VIBRATION TECHNIQUE
Roughness.
Gloss.
Remove sharp edges
GRINDING
Grinding – Brushing – Polishing
Band – Pads
BLASTING
• Uniform surface.
• Remove scratches.
• Decorative surface.
• Roughness.
Methods
• Glass
• Aluminium oxid
• stee...
CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT
Alkaline etch E6
Acid etch
Chemical brightning
Elektrolytic brightning
Dip or spray
EFFECT OF ETCHING
Treating time ?
ACID ETCH – DEOXIDING OR E0
ETCH
Minimum attach - 0,1 micron.
Keep tolerances.
No visuel effekt.
Example: diameter - 6 mm ...
CHEMICAL BRIGHTNING – SEMI
GLOSS
 Dip proces.
 Good for complex shape.
 Whitout current.
 Gloss up to ca. 100
 Good i...
CHEMICAL BRIGTNING – HIGH
GLOSS
 Dip proces.
 Good for complex shape.
 Whitout current.
 Gloss up to ca. 400.
 Good i...
ELECTROPOLISHING
 Whit current, 5 amp/dm2
 Gloss up to ca. 400-500
 Good in combination
whit blasting and
grinding.
 D...
ISO 7599 PRE-TREATMENT
ANODIZING
Aluksering
Rafbrynjun
Anodisering
Anodizing
Eloksering
Anodisieren
Anodischen oxidation
 Hård aluksering
 Hörd...
THE PROCESS
Dissoziation: 3 H2SO4 = 3 SO4
2-
+ 6 H+
Anodic reaction: 3 SO4
2-
- 6 e = 3/2 O2 + 3 SO3
3 Al + 3/2 O2 = Al2O3...
IN PRACTICE
Water
10 % sulfuric acid
Anode
katode
katode
ANODIC LAYER
LAYER GROWTH
 Type II ca. 1/3
 Type III ca. ½
 Vary from alloy – test.
THE ANODIC LAYER
Layer thickness
Density – coating veight
Elements
HARDANODIZING
 Lower temerature.
 Change electrolyte.
 Maybe additive to electrolyte.
 Longer treating time.
 Higher ...
PROPERTIES -
HARDANODIZING
 Hårdhed
 Abrasion resistance
 Corrosion resistance
 Elektrical insolation
 Layer thichnes...
CROMIC ACID ANODIZING
CAA
1-5 micron layer thichness, maximum.
Natural color: grey.
Different methods.
Adhesion properties...
PHOSPHORIC ACID
ANODIZING, PAA
Thin layer thichness.
Natural color: grey.
Adhesion properties, painting and bonding.
Aircr...
POROSITY
Number of porer, and size of the
porer, gives the porosity.
WHY CORROSION
RESISTANCE?
Compact surface.
Electrical insulation.
No bad intermediate layer.
Aluminium Aluminium
Anodic la...
AFTER-TREATMENT
COLORING
Electrolytic color.
UV resistance.
Few color.
Organic color
 Not UV resistance.
 Indoor applica...
AFTERTREATMENT
In Organic
UV stabile
Outdoor use
Less numbers of color
Organic pigment
 not UV stabile.
 Indoor
 Many c...
anodic produced
oxide layer
anodic produced
oxide layer
anodic produced
oxide layer
Integral Colouring:
Adsorptive Colouri...
MANY COLOR
• Dip proces
•Alloy
•Jigging
SEALING – CORROSION
RESISTANCE
 Dicromatsealing, not RoHS.
 Hot water sealing, Bøhmit.
 Cold sealing, Nickel and Cobalt...
RESISTANCE - CHEMICAL
 Corrosion resistance.
 Neutral pH (6-9).
 Organic coating can improve properties.
 pH resistens...
PTFE ON ANODIC LAYER
Extra corrosion resistance.
Non stick.
FDA approvel.
Chemical resistance
High temeratur.
Low friction...
Many different methods.
Also multi layer system
Navn Kemisk navn Kemisk struktur Temp.
max.°C
γc Smeltepunkt
°C
PTFE Polyt...
PRE-ANODIZING FOR
PAINTING
Pre-anodizing according to GSB.
STANDARD / CERTIFICATE
A lot of standards for……ask your supplier.
DIN 17611
MIL-A-8625F Type ?
ASTM B580
AMS-2468
ISO7599
...
CASE STUDY
Stainless steel, look - high gloss
Can we use Aluminium ?
No Pretreatment -
only anodizing for corrosion protec...
CASE STUDY
Let us develop new visuel surfaces.
Color
NEWS
 New color serie: Desert
Tak for opmærksomheden
4 anodiseringeloxering hai horsens
4 anodiseringeloxering hai horsens
4 anodiseringeloxering hai horsens
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4 anodiseringeloxering hai horsens

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4 anodiseringeloxering hai horsens

  1. 1. ALUMECO – 19-5-2015 Esben Øster B.Sc.Chem. Eng. Working whit surface treatment since 1999 at HAI Horsens, Denmark. 10 Years as Quality Manager. 5 Years as Technology Manager.
  2. 2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A/S HAI Horsens – 102 år Surface treatment of aluminium – Anodizing.
  3. 3. AGENDA  Why surface treatment ?  Anodizing – mechanism.  Pre-treatment.  After-treatment.  How to specify.  Alloy.  Case study.
  4. 4. MOST COMMON USED ALLOY Cobber containing alloy. Typical 4,0- 4,58 % cobber. 2007 2011 2014 2017 2024 High strength. Good for cutting. Bad corrosion . Difficult for welding. Bolts Machine parts Hydraulic components Magnesium containing alloy. 5005 5754 5005-best anodizing quality. Facade. Other construction Magnesium and silicon. 6060 6012 6063 6262 6082 High strength. Good for welding. Good for decorative anodizing. Construction Windows Door Zink containing alloy 7075 Very high stength. Car Aeroplane Space
  5. 5. A Rating for different anodizing proces:
  6. 6. WHY SURFACE TREATMENT?
  7. 7. OVERVIEW
  8. 8. EFFECT OF PRE- TREATMENT
  9. 9. VIBRATION TECHNIQUE Roughness. Gloss. Remove sharp edges
  10. 10. GRINDING Grinding – Brushing – Polishing Band – Pads
  11. 11. BLASTING • Uniform surface. • Remove scratches. • Decorative surface. • Roughness. Methods • Glass • Aluminium oxid • steel • Sand •Plastic
  12. 12. CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT Alkaline etch E6 Acid etch Chemical brightning Elektrolytic brightning Dip or spray
  13. 13. EFFECT OF ETCHING Treating time ?
  14. 14. ACID ETCH – DEOXIDING OR E0 ETCH Minimum attach - 0,1 micron. Keep tolerances. No visuel effekt. Example: diameter - 6 mm H7 +0,015 mm Alkaline etch 6 minutes. 6*3 micron =18 micron Alternativ: Masking of hole.
  15. 15. CHEMICAL BRIGHTNING – SEMI GLOSS  Dip proces.  Good for complex shape.  Whitout current.  Gloss up to ca. 100  Good in combination whit blastion and grinding.  Cheapest brighting method.
  16. 16. CHEMICAL BRIGTNING – HIGH GLOSS  Dip proces.  Good for complex shape.  Whitout current.  Gloss up to ca. 400.  Good in combination whit blasting and grinding.  Containing HNO3.  Produce hazard gasses during brightning.
  17. 17. ELECTROPOLISHING  Whit current, 5 amp/dm2  Gloss up to ca. 400-500  Good in combination whit blasting and grinding.  Difficult to control.  Old proces.  Deburring effect.
  18. 18. ISO 7599 PRE-TREATMENT
  19. 19. ANODIZING Aluksering Rafbrynjun Anodisering Anodizing Eloksering Anodisieren Anodischen oxidation  Hård aluksering  Hörd Rafbrynjun  Hard Anodizing  Hard coat  Teknisk Eloksering A lot of names
  20. 20. THE PROCESS Dissoziation: 3 H2SO4 = 3 SO4 2- + 6 H+ Anodic reaction: 3 SO4 2- - 6 e = 3/2 O2 + 3 SO3 3 Al + 3/2 O2 = Al2O3 Acid formation: 3 SO3+3 H2O = 3 H2SO4 Kathodic reaction: 6 H+ +6 e = 3 H2 Total reaction: 3 Al +3 H2O = 3 H2 + Al2O3 Sulfuric acid
  21. 21. IN PRACTICE Water 10 % sulfuric acid Anode katode katode
  22. 22. ANODIC LAYER
  23. 23. LAYER GROWTH  Type II ca. 1/3  Type III ca. ½  Vary from alloy – test.
  24. 24. THE ANODIC LAYER Layer thickness Density – coating veight Elements
  25. 25. HARDANODIZING  Lower temerature.  Change electrolyte.  Maybe additive to electrolyte.  Longer treating time.  Higher current density.  Better agitation.
  26. 26. PROPERTIES - HARDANODIZING  Hårdhed  Abrasion resistance  Corrosion resistance  Elektrical insolation  Layer thichness  Natural color  Addition color  Heat resistance  Application for hardanodizing.  Offshore, machine parts, moving parts, etc.  Bigger than 350 HV.  Taber test. Maks 35 mg.  Saltspray test 1000 h.  Break down ca. 1500-2000 volt.  30-150 micron.  Brown / grey.  Black, normal black.  Short up to 2000 degree.
  27. 27. CROMIC ACID ANODIZING CAA 1-5 micron layer thichness, maximum. Natural color: grey. Different methods. Adhesion properties, painting and bonding. Good corrosion properties. Smooth surface. Aeroplane. Old process. Containing Cr6+ Not RoHS.
  28. 28. PHOSPHORIC ACID ANODIZING, PAA Thin layer thichness. Natural color: grey. Adhesion properties, painting and bonding. Aircraft and aerospace alloy sheets. According to RoHS.
  29. 29. POROSITY Number of porer, and size of the porer, gives the porosity.
  30. 30. WHY CORROSION RESISTANCE? Compact surface. Electrical insulation. No bad intermediate layer. Aluminium Aluminium Anodic layer Paint
  31. 31. AFTER-TREATMENT COLORING Electrolytic color. UV resistance. Few color. Organic color  Not UV resistance.  Indoor application.  Many color. In generel Need normally 15 micron. Best whit surfuric acid method, anodizing, pore size. Spray or dip process.
  32. 32. AFTERTREATMENT In Organic UV stabile Outdoor use Less numbers of color Organic pigment  not UV stabile.  Indoor  Many color
  33. 33. anodic produced oxide layer anodic produced oxide layer anodic produced oxide layer Integral Colouring: Adsorptive Colouring: Electrolytic Colouring: oxide layer with inherent colour barrier layer aluminium barrier layer aluminium barrier layer aluminium adsorbed dye electroplated metal METHODS
  34. 34. MANY COLOR • Dip proces •Alloy •Jigging
  35. 35. SEALING – CORROSION RESISTANCE  Dicromatsealing, not RoHS.  Hot water sealing, Bøhmit.  Cold sealing, Nickel and Cobalt.  Reduce hardness and abrasion resistance, approx. 20 %.  Dicromate gives gren color.  Others are invisible.
  36. 36. RESISTANCE - CHEMICAL  Corrosion resistance.  Neutral pH (6-9).  Organic coating can improve properties.  pH resistens.  Painting and unsealed pre-anodic layer.  5-8 micron + topcoat – big amount of color, including white.
  37. 37. PTFE ON ANODIC LAYER Extra corrosion resistance. Non stick. FDA approvel. Chemical resistance High temeratur. Low friction. Many color. Need baking.
  38. 38. Many different methods. Also multi layer system Navn Kemisk navn Kemisk struktur Temp. max.°C γc Smeltepunkt °C PTFE Polytetra- fluorothylen F F -C-C- F F 260 18 327 PVDF Polyvinyliden- fluoride F H -C-C- F H 140 25 170 E-CTFE Ethylen chloro- trifluorethylene H H F F -C-C-C- C- H H CL F 150 31 245 FEP Fluorinated ethylene propylene F F-C-F F F F | (-C-C-)-(-C-C-) F F F F 205 16 270 PFA/TF A Perfluoroalkoxy (R = -C3F7) F F F O (-C-C-)- (-C-C-) F F F F 260 17 305 ETFE Ethylentetra- fluorothylene H H F F (-C-C-C-C-) H H F F 150 25 270 PE Polyethylene H H (-C - C-) H H 70 31 100
  39. 39. PRE-ANODIZING FOR PAINTING Pre-anodizing according to GSB.
  40. 40. STANDARD / CERTIFICATE A lot of standards for……ask your supplier. DIN 17611 MIL-A-8625F Type ? ASTM B580 AMS-2468 ISO7599 GSB Custumer specific standards. Sometimes requirement for COC.
  41. 41. CASE STUDY Stainless steel, look - high gloss Can we use Aluminium ? No Pretreatment - only anodizing for corrosion protection - alloy 1050 Anodic layer
  42. 42. CASE STUDY Let us develop new visuel surfaces. Color
  43. 43. NEWS  New color serie: Desert
  44. 44. Tak for opmærksomheden

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