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5. hai alumeco

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5. hai alumeco

  1. 1. ALUMECO 19-5-2015 Esben Øster B.Sc.Chem. Eng. Working whit surface treatment since 1999 at HAI Horsens, Denmark. 10 Years as Quality Manager. 5 Years as Technology Manager.
  2. 2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A/S HAI Horsens 102 år Surface treatment of aluminium Anodizing.
  3. 3. AGENDA Why surface treatment ? Anodizing mechanism. Pre-treatment. After-treatment. How to specify. Alloy. Case study.
  4. 4. MOST COMMON USED ALLOY Cobber containing alloy. Typical 4,0- 4,58 % cobber. 2007 2011 2014 2017 2024 High strength. Good for cutting. Bad corrosion . Difficult for welding. Bolts Machine parts Hydraulic components Magnesium containing alloy. 5005 5754 5005-best anodizing quality. Facade. Other construction Magnesium and silicon. 6060 6012 6063 6262 6082 High strength. Good for welding. Good for decorative anodizing. Construction Windows Door Zink containing alloy 7075 Very high stength. Car Aeroplane Space
  5. 5. A Rating for different anodizing proces:
  6. 6. WHY SURFACE TREATMENT? Texture Gloss Structure Matt surface Color Visuel properties Pitting Generel corrosion Filiform corrosion Others Corrosion protection Hardness Electrical insulation Roughness Abrasion resistance Mechanical properties
  7. 7. OVERVIEW Pretreatment Cleaning and activate surface. Etching, blasting, Polishing. Chemical and Mechanical methods. Gloss, structure, rougness, smootness Anodizing Std. anodizing, hardanodizing, chromic acid anodizing, phosphos acid anodizing. Hardness, insulation, corrosion resistens, abrasion resistance, adhedsions properties. Aftertreatment Coloring, screen printing, sealing, organic coating. Color, increase corrosions resistance, chemical resistance.
  8. 8. Pre-treatment Mechanial methods Chemical methods
  10. 10. VIBRATION TECHNIQUE Roughness. Gloss. Remove sharp edges
  11. 11. GRINDING Grinding Brushing Polishing Band Pads
  12. 12. BLASTING Uniform surface. Remove scratches. Decorative surface. Roughness. Methods Glass Aluminium oxid steel Sand Plastic
  13. 13. CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT Alkaline etch E6 Acid etch Chemical brightning Elektrolytic brightning Dip or spray
  14. 14. EFFECT OF ETCHING Treating time ?
  15. 15. ACID ETCH DEOXIDING OR E0 ETCH Minimum attach - 0,1 micron. Keep tolerances. No visuel effekt. Example: diameter - 6 mm H7 +0,015 mm Alkaline etch 6 minutes. 6*3 micron =18 micron Alternativ: Masking of hole.
  16. 16. CHEMICAL BRIGHTNING SEMI GLOSS Dip proces. Good for complex shape. Whitout current. Gloss up to ca. 100 Good in combination whit blastion and grinding. Cheapest brighting method.
  17. 17. CHEMICAL BRIGTNING HIGH GLOSS Dip proces. Good for complex shape. Whitout current. Gloss up to ca. 400. Good in combination whit blasting and grinding. Containing HNO3. Produce hazard gasses during brightning.
  18. 18. ELECTROPOLISHING Whit current, 5 amp/dm2 Gloss up to ca. 400-500 Good in combination whit blasting and grinding. Difficult to control. Old proces. Deburring effect.
  19. 19. ISO 7599 PRE-TREATMENT
  20. 20. ANODIZING Aluksering Rafbrynjun Anodisering Anodizing Eloksering Anodisieren Anodischen oxidation Hård aluksering Hörd Rafbrynjun Hard Anodizing Hard coat Teknisk Eloksering A lot of names
  21. 21. THE PROCESS Dissoziation: 3 H2SO4 = 3 SO4 2- + 6 H+ Anodic reaction: 3 SO4 2-- 6 e = 3/2 O2 + 3 SO3 3 Al + 3/2 O2 = Al2O3 Acid formation: 3 SO3+3 H2O = 3 H2SO4 Kathodic reaction: 6 H++6 e = 3 H2 Total reaction: 3 Al +3 H2O = 3 H2 + Al2O3 Sulfuric acid
  22. 22. IN PRACTICE Water 10 % sulfuric acid
  23. 23. ANODIC LAYER
  24. 24. LAYER GROWTH Type II ca. 1/3 Type III ca. ½ Vary from alloy test.
  25. 25. THE ANODIC LAYER Layer thickness Density coating veight Elements
  26. 26. HARDANODIZING Lower temerature. Change electrolyte. Maybe additive to electrolyte. Longer treating time. Higher current density. Better agitation.
  27. 27. PROPERTIES - HARDANODIZING Hårdhed Abrasion resistance Corrosion resistance Elektrical insolation Layer thichness Natural color Addition color Heat resistance Application for hardanodizing. Offshore, machine parts, moving parts, etc. Bigger than 350 HV. Taber test. Maks 35 mg. Saltspray test 1000 h. Break down ca. 1500-2000 volt. 30-150 micron. Brown / grey. Black, normal black. Short up to 2000 degree.
  28. 28. CROMIC ACID ANODIZING CAA 1-5 micron layer thichness, maximum. Natural color: grey. Different methods. Adhesion properties, painting and bonding. Good corrosion properties. Smooth surface. Aeroplane. Old process. Containing Cr6+ Not RoHS.
  29. 29. PHOSPHORIC ACID ANODIZING, PAA Thin layer thichness. Natural color: grey. Adhesion properties, painting and bonding. Aircraft and aerospace alloy sheets. According to RoHS.
  30. 30. POROSITY Number of porer, and size of the porer, gives the porosity.
  31. 31. WHY CORROSION RESISTANCE? Compact surface. Electrical insulation. No bad intermediate layer. Aluminium Aluminium Anodic layer Paint
  32. 32. AFTER-TREATMENT COLORING Electrolytic color. UV resistance. Few color. Organic color Not UV resistance. Indoor application. Many color. In generel Need normally 15 micron. Best whit surfuric acid method, anodizing, pore size. Spray or dip process.
  33. 33. AFTERTREATMENT In Organic UV stabile Outdoor use Less numbers of color Organic pigment not UV stabile. Indoor Many color
  34. 34. anodic produced oxide layer anodic produced oxide layer anodic produced oxide layer Integral Colouring: Adsorptive Colouring: Electrolytic Colouring: oxide layer with inherent colour barrier layer aluminium barrier layer aluminium barrier layer aluminium adsorbed dye electroplated metal THE DIFFERENT COLOURING METHODS
  35. 35. MANY COLOR Dip proces Alloy Jigging
  36. 36. SEALING CORROSION RESISTANCE Dicromatsealing, not RoHS. Hot water sealing, Bøhmit. Cold sealing, Nickel and Cobalt. Reduce hardness and abrasion resistance, approx. 20 %. Dicromate gives gren color. Others are invisible.
  37. 37. RESISTANCE - CHEMICAL Corrosion resistance. Neutral pH (6-9). Organic coating can improve properties. pH resistens. Painting and unsealed pre-anodic layer. 5-8 micron + topcoat big amount of color, including white.
  38. 38. PTFE ON ANODIC LAYER Extra corrosion resistance. Non stick. FDA approvel. Chemical resistance High temeratur. Low friction. Many color. Need baking.
  39. 39. Many different methods. Also multi layer system Navn Kemisknavn Kemiskstruktur Temp. max. C c Smeltepunkt C PTFE Polytetra- fluorothylen F F -C-C- F F 260 18 327 PVDF Polyvinyliden- fluoride F H -C-C- F H 140 25 170 E-CTFE Ethylenchloro- trifluorethylene H H F F -C-C-C- C- H H CL F 150 31 245 FEP Fluorinated ethylene propylene F F-C-F F F F | (-C-C-)-(-C-C-) F F F F 205 16 270 PFA/TF A Perfluoroalkoxy (R = - C3F7) F F F O (-C-C-)- (-C-C-) F F F F 260 17 305 ETFE Ethylentetra- fluorothylene H H F F (-C-C-C-C-) H H F F 150 25 270 PE Polyethylene H H (-C - C-) H H 70 31 100
  40. 40. PRE-ANODIZING FOR PAINTING Pre-anodizing according to GSB.
  41. 41. STANDARD / CERTIFICATE DIN 17611 MIL-A-8625F Type ? ASTM B580 AMS-2468 ISO7599 GSB Custumer specific standards. Sometimesrequirement for COC.
  42. 42. CASE STUDY Stainless steel, look - high gloss Can we use Aluminium ? No Pretreatment - only anodizing for corrosion protection - alloy 1050 Anodic layer
  43. 43. CASE STUDY Let us develop new visuel surfaces. Color
  44. 44. NEWS New color serie: Desert
  45. 45. Tak for opmærksomheden