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Nutri&on	
  &	
  Health	
  in	
  Adolescence:	
  
An	
  overview	
  on	
  Physical	
  Changes	
  &	
  Ea5ng	
  Habits	
  
...
ü  Employment	
  &	
  Research	
  experience	
  as	
  Epidemiologist	
  
ü  Coaching	
  and	
  Neuro-­‐Linguis;c	
  Prog...
Food	
  Choice:	
  A	
  life	
  span	
  perspec&ve	
  
•  Individual	
   food	
   choices	
   develop	
   in	
   stable	
 ...
Physical	
  changes	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
Pubertal	
  Growth	
  Spurt	
  
Weight	
  gain	
  is	
  propor;onally	
  grea...
•  Changes	
  in	
  muscle	
  mass:	
  
–  Both	
  sexes:	
  gradual	
  increase,	
  but	
  
more	
  pronounced	
  in	
  b...
What	
  influence	
  adolescence	
  food	
  choices?	
  
•  Psychosocial	
  
ü Food	
  preferences	
  (early	
  childhood	...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
•  Skipping	
  meals	
  (par;cularly	
  breakfast)	
  
•  Fruits	
  &	
  V...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
Skipping	
  breakfast	
  
ü  Not	
  ea;ng	
  breakfast	
  is	
  common	
 ...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
Skipping	
  breakfast	
  
•  Regular	
  breakfast	
  consump;on	
  leads	
...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
Fruit	
  &	
  Vegetable	
  consump&on	
  
•  Fruit	
  consump;on	
  promot...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
So]	
  drinks	
  consump&on	
  
•  Regular	
  consump;on	
  has	
  been	
 ...
•  Fast	
  food	
  is	
  food	
  that	
  is	
  low	
  on	
  nutri;on	
  and	
  high	
  on	
  calories	
  
•  Fast	
  food	...
•  “Energy	
   drinks”	
   contain	
   caffeine,	
   taurine,	
   vitamins,	
   herbal	
  
supplements,	
   sugar	
   or	
 ...
•  High	
   caffeine	
   consump;on	
   has	
   been	
   associated	
   with	
   serious	
  
consequences:	
  
o  Caffeine	
...
Why	
  aren't	
  adolescents	
  gedng	
  enough	
  sleep?	
  	
  The	
  vicious	
  circle…	
  
•  Stay	
  up	
  late	
  (e...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
Sleeping	
  depriva&on	
  &	
  &redness	
  
•  Impose	
  earlier	
  bed;me...
•  Young	
   people	
   perceive	
   alcohol	
   as	
   fulfilling	
   social	
   and	
   personal	
  
needs,	
  facilitate...
Behavioral	
  Concerns	
  in	
  Adolescents	
  
Ea&ng	
  Disorders	
  
	
   Nadia	
  Barozzi	
  -­‐	
  	
  h e a l t h y 4...
Causes	
  of	
  Ea&ng	
  Disorders	
  	
  
•  Ea;ng	
  Disorders	
  ofen	
  begin	
  with	
  die;ng	
  	
  
–  Die;ng	
  m...
Anorexia	
  Nervosa	
  
Possible	
  symptoms	
  
–  Amenorrhea,	
  estrogen	
  reduc;on	
  (low	
  LH,	
  FSH)	
  
–  Loss...
Bulimia	
  nervosa	
  
Possible	
  symptoms	
  
–  Regular	
  vomi;ng	
  infected	
  salivary	
  glands	
  	
  
•  Enlarge...
healthy4life	
  
Phone:	
  +41	
  79	
  353	
  91	
  63	
  
E-­‐mail:	
  info@healthy4life.ch	
  
Skype:	
  healthy4life.c...
Nadia barozzi   health coaching - nutrition in adolescents
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Nadia barozzi health coaching - nutrition in adolescents

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Nutrition and Health in Adolescents

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Nadia barozzi health coaching - nutrition in adolescents

  1. 1. Nutri&on  &  Health  in  Adolescence:   An  overview  on  Physical  Changes  &  Ea5ng  Habits   Nadia  Barozzi   PharmD,  PhD,  MAS  ETH  NH,  NLP  Master  Prac&&oner  
  2. 2. ü  Employment  &  Research  experience  as  Epidemiologist   ü  Coaching  and  Neuro-­‐Linguis;c  Programming  training  (NLP   Licensed  Prac;;oner)   ü  Master  of  Advance  Studies  in  Nutri&on  &  Health   ü  PhD  in  Public  Health  &  Pharmacoepidemiology   ü  Master  in  Pharmaceu;cal  Technologies   •  Researcher     •  Epidemiologist   •  Health  Coach   •  Nutri;on  Advisor   •  NLP  Master  Prac;;oner   I  introduce  myself…     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  3. 3. Food  Choice:  A  life  span  perspec&ve   •  Individual   food   choices   develop   in   stable   trajectories   over   someone’s  life  course   •  Only  few  major  turning  points  during  life  course  that  affect  food   preferences  and  determined  the  adjustment  to  food  preferences   •  Major  turning  points:   1.  Young  children:  weaning,  learning  to  eat  solid  foods   2.  Young   adults:   gaining   independency,   star&ng   a   household,   cooking  on  their  own   3.  Adults:  star&ng  a  family   4.  Elderly:  difficul&es  in  shopping,  cooking  and  ea&ng,  death  of  a   spouse     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  4. 4. Physical  changes  in  Adolescents   Pubertal  Growth  Spurt   Weight  gain  is  propor;onally  greater  than  height  gain.     In  girls:  gain  20%  of  adult  height  during  growth  spurt   and  50%  of  adult  weight.     •  Girls  start  around  10  years,   lasts  2-­‐3  years  (followed  by   onset  of  menstrua;on)     •  Boys  start  around  12  years,   lasts  2-­‐3  years     •  Boys  gain  more  height  and   weight  before  and  during   growth  spurt       Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  5. 5. •  Changes  in  muscle  mass:   –  Both  sexes:  gradual  increase,  but   more  pronounced  in  boys     •  Changes  in  body  fat  mass:     –  In  boys:  slight  increase  followed  by   decrease  in  absolute  mass     –  In  girls:  gradual  increase     •  Fat  free  mass  as  %  of  body  weight:     –  Increase  from  80%  to  90%  in  boys     –  Decrease  from  80%  to  75%  in  girls     Remodeling  of  body  composi&on     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  6. 6. What  influence  adolescence  food  choices?   •  Psychosocial   ü Food  preferences  (early  childhood  experiences,   exposure)   ü Taste  and  appearance   •  Lifestyle   –  Time  and  convenience   ü Teens  would  rather  sleep  than  eat  breakfast   ü Cost   •  Family   –  Food  provider,  teens  s;ll  obtain  65%  of  their  total  energy   from  home   –  Influences  food  actudes,  preferences  and  values   –  Dinner  at  home  is  the  most  important  meal     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  7. 7. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   •  Skipping  meals  (par;cularly  breakfast)   •  Fruits  &  Vegetable  consump&on   •  So]  drinks  consump&on   •  Fast  Food  consump&on   •  Caffeinated  (Energy)  Drinks  consump&on   –  Sleeping  depriva&on  &  Tiredness   •  Alcohol  consump&on  &  Binge  Drinking   •  Ea&ng  disorders     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  8. 8. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Skipping  breakfast   ü  Not  ea;ng  breakfast  is  common  among  adolescents   ü  Contribu;ng  factors  include:   •  Increased  autonomy  over  food  choice  among  those  in   older  age  groups   •  Reduced  influence  of  the  family  environment   •  Increased  die;ng  behaviour  among  older  girls     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  9. 9. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Skipping  breakfast   •  Regular  breakfast  consump;on  leads  to:   ü  Beder  diet  (more  fruit  and  vegetables,  higher  intake  of   micronutrients,  less  frequent  use  of  sof-­‐drinks)   ü  Cogni;ve  func;on  and  academic  performance  improvement   ü  Lower  BMI  and  lower  prevalence  of  overweight     ü  Physical  ac;vi;es   •  Those  skipping  breakfast  have  greater  hyperac;vity,  irritability,  and   anxiety;  more  disrup;ve  classroom  behavior;  more  tardiness     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  10. 10. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Fruit  &  Vegetable  consump&on   •  Fruit  consump;on  promotes  op;mal  health  in  childhood,   growth,  intellectual  development,  lower  levels  of  body  fat,  and   higher  energy  levels   •  Ea;ng  fruit  at  younger  ages  appears  to  translate  to  adult   paderns,  with  adult  outcomes  including  decreased  risks  for   coronary  heart  disease,  stroke  and  cancer   •  Factors  that  may  mo;vate  young  people  to  consume  more  fruit   include  increasing  availability  of  fruit  at  home,  providing  fruit  in   schools  and  implemen;ng  appropriate  educa;onal  ac;vi;es     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  11. 11. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   So]  drinks  consump&on   •  Regular  consump;on  has  been  associated  with:   –  Increased  energy  intake  due  to  high  sugar  consump;on   –  Weight  gain,  risk  of  being  overweight,  and  obesity   –  Development  of  obesity-­‐related  chronic  metabolic  diseases  such  as   metabolic  syndrome  and  type  2  diabetes   –  Dental  caries  due  to  low  pH   –  Lower  intakes  of  milk,  calcium  and  other  nutrients   –  High  caffeine  intake  (ice  tea,  coke,  energy  drinks)     •  500  ml  coke  or  ice  tea  contain  circa  120  mg  caffeine     •  250  ml  Red  Bull  contains  circa  80  mg  caffeine       Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  12. 12. •  Fast  food  is  food  that  is  low  on  nutri;on  and  high  on  calories   •  Fast  food  is    also  referred  to  as  Junk  Food,  a  slang  term  used  to   describe  any  food  of  poor  nutri;onal  value   •  Junk  foods  offer  lidle  in  terms  of  vitamins,  protein,  vitamins  or   minerals   and   are   loaded   with   calories   from   sugar   or   fat,   salt   and  preserva&ve   Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Fast  Food  Consump&on     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  13. 13. •  “Energy   drinks”   contain   caffeine,   taurine,   vitamins,   herbal   supplements,   sugar   or   sweeteners   and   are   marketed   to   improve   energy,  weight  loss,  athle&c  performance,  and  concentra&on   •  Half   of   the   energy   drink   are   marketed   to   children   (<12   years   old),   adolescents  (12–18  years  old),  and  young  adults  (19–25  years  old)   •  Children,  especially  those  with  cardiovascular,  renal,  or  liver  disease,   seizures,  diabetes,  mood  and  behavioral  disorders,  hyperthyroidism,   may   be   at   higher   risk   for   adverse   events   from   energy   drink   consump;on   Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Caffeinated  (Energy)  Drink  consump&on     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  14. 14. •  High   caffeine   consump;on   has   been   associated   with   serious   consequences:   o  Caffeine   intoxica;on   is   a   clinical   syndrome   of   nervousness,   irritability,   anxiety,   insomnia,   tremor,   tachycardia,   palpita&ons,   and  upset  stomach.  Addi;onal  adverse  effects  include  vomi&ng  and   abdominal   pain,   hypokalemia,   hallucina&ons,   increased   intracranial   pressure,   cerebral   edema,   stroke,   paralysis,   rhabdomyolysis,   altered   consciousness,   rigidity,   seizures,   arrhythmias,  and  death!   Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Caffeinated  (Energy)  Drink  consump&on     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  15. 15. Why  aren't  adolescents  gedng  enough  sleep?    The  vicious  circle…   •  Stay  up  late  (e.g.,  social  life,  caffeinated  drinks,  electronic  media   such  as  computers,  TV,  gaming  devices,  and  cell  phones)   •  Use  of  s;mulants  to  compensate  for  sleep  loss  (caffeinated   drinks).  The  half-­‐life  of  caffeine  is  5  -­‐  9  hours.  A  caffeinated  drink   late  in  the  day  delays  sleep  at  night   Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Sleeping  depriva&on  &  &redness     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  16. 16. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Sleeping  depriva&on  &  &redness   •  Impose  earlier  bed;mes  &  a  regular  bed;me  rou;ne     •  Discouraging  them  from  drinking  caffeine  past  12  noon   •  Discouraging  them  from  electronic  devices  at  night   •  Encourage  a  short  nap  (30  minutes)  afer  school  with  the  alarm   clock  set       •  Avoid  arguing  with  them  just  before  bed;me     •  Turn  on  the  bright  lights  in  the  morning   •  Do  not  let  them  sleeping  on  weekends  more  than  2  or  3  hours  extra     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  17. 17. •  Young   people   perceive   alcohol   as   fulfilling   social   and   personal   needs,  facilitate  contacts  with  peers  and  new  rela;onships     •  Alcohol   can   disrupt   brain   development   in   childhood   and   adolescence  (par;cularly  in  the  cor;cal  region)  which  influences   cogni;ve,  emo;onal  and  social  development   •  Risky  drinking  is  associated  with  adverse  psychological,  social  and   physical   health   consequences   (e.g.   academic   failure,   violence,   accidents,   injury,   smoking,   use   of   illicit   drugs,   and   unprotected   sexual  intercourse)   Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Alcohol  consump&on  &  Binge  Drinking     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  18. 18. Behavioral  Concerns  in  Adolescents   Ea&ng  Disorders     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  19. 19. Causes  of  Ea&ng  Disorders     •  Ea;ng  Disorders  ofen  begin  with  die;ng     –  Die;ng  may  ini;ate  a  “posi;ve  feedback”  or    “vicious  circle”  process   •  Mul;ple,  diverse  factors  confer  risk:   –  Gene;c  (e.g.  dysfunc;on  of  serotonergic  neurotransmission)   –  Familial  &  Social  influences   •  Obsessive-­‐compulsive  personality  type  (anorexia)   –  Exaggerated  perfec;onism   –  Rigidity   –  Propensity  for  behavioral  constraint   –  Poor  coping  with  stress     •  Sociocultural  influences     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  20. 20. Anorexia  Nervosa   Possible  symptoms   –  Amenorrhea,  estrogen  reduc;on  (low  LH,  FSH)   –  Loss  of  bone  density  and  osteoporosis   –  Disturbed  temperature  regula;on,  cold  intolerance,  lanugo   –  Gastrointes;nal  tract,  decreased  mo;lity,  diarrhea     –  Cardiovascular  complica;ons  (low  blood  pressure,  bradycardia,   reduced  blood  volume,  edema)   –  Anemia,  leukopenia     –  Impaired  thyroid  func;on   –  High  cholesterol   –  Depression,  affected  mental  func;oning,  decreased  brain  mass     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  21. 21. Bulimia  nervosa   Possible  symptoms   –  Regular  vomi;ng  infected  salivary  glands     •  Enlarged  salivary  glands   •  Gastric  acid  demineralizes  teeth  with  dental  erosion   •  Stomach  ulcers  and  gastric  rupture   •  Reduced  potassium  concentra;on  in  blood,  muscle  cramping,   irregular  heart  beats     –  Frequent  use  of  laxa;ves   •  Cons;pa;on    &  laxa;ve  dependence   –  Irregular  menses   –  Laboratory  abnormali;es:  hypokalemia,  hypochloremia,   hyponatremia,  alkalosis  in  vomiters,  acidosis  in  laxa;ve  abusers   hyperamylasemia     Nadia  Barozzi  -­‐    h e a l t h y 4 l i f e   -­‐ Health  &  Nutri;on  Coaching  –  www.healthy4life.ch  
  22. 22. healthy4life   Phone:  +41  79  353  91  63   E-­‐mail:  info@healthy4life.ch   Skype:  healthy4life.ch   Website:  www.healthy4life.ch     Get  Involved!   Follow  me  on  Twijer   Like  me  on  Facebook   Get  updates  from  my  Blog   Connect  with  me  on  LinkedIn    

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