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The Relevance of Photography in Architecture

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The Relevance of Photography in Architecture

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Since its invention, photography has been accepted as a reliable tool for architecture in terms of its power for creating objective documents of the built-form. The aim of this study, is to question the so-called objectivity and reliability of the photographic representations of the buildings by showing how architectural photography emerges also with an artistic and purely aesthetic character rather than being a mere tool of objective documentation.

Since its invention, photography has been accepted as a reliable tool for architecture in terms of its power for creating objective documents of the built-form. The aim of this study, is to question the so-called objectivity and reliability of the photographic representations of the buildings by showing how architectural photography emerges also with an artistic and purely aesthetic character rather than being a mere tool of objective documentation.


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The Relevance of Photography in Architecture

  2. 2.   i    DEDICATION This work is dedicated to God Almighty for his love, protection, grace, favour and provisions throughout the course of my studies.
  3. 3.   ii    CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this research work was carried out by OMONKHEGBE HENRY in the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. ______________________ ___________________ Arc. Dr. K.O. Dimuna Date Head of Department ______________________ ____________________ Arc N.E Uhumuavbi Date Project Supervisor ______________________ ____________________ External Examiner Date
  4. 4.   iii    ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS I am most grateful to my parents Mr and Mrs Omonkhegbe whose union made my existence possible. Special thanks to them for their affection, love, care, provisions, prayers, advice, and attention contributed to the successful completion of this degree program. My profound gratitude goes to my wonderful siblings Mrs. Rita Bogwu, Mr. Raymond Omonkhegbe, Mrs. Stella Aguke, Mr. Charles Omonkhegbe and Mr. Fredrick Omonkhua for their support, care, prayers and positive contribution to my life. Immeasurable thanks goes to my supervisor Arc N.E Uhumuavbi of the Department of Architecture, Ambrose Alli University under whose advise, attention and understanding contributed to the successful completion of this project work. I am also grateful to other lecturers who have assisted me in one way or the other during my course of study. I am also grateful to all my friends who in one way or the other showed me love and care towards the completion of this degree programme. I am most grateful. God bless you and grant all your heart desires.
  5. 5.   iv    TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Dedication II. Certification III. Acknowledgement IV. Table of Contents V. Table of Contents (2) VI. Abstract CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Justification 1.3 Scope of Study 1.4 Limitations 1.5 Methodology CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Brief History of Architecture Photography 2.2 The Purpose of Photography 2.3 Nature of Photography 2.4 Photographs As Icons
  6. 6.   v    2.5 A Brief History of the Camera 2.6 A Tool to Communicate 2.7 Evolution of Digital Camera 2.8 New Dimensions of Digital Innovation CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Photography as a language in Lagos 3.2 Photography in Media 3.3 The Power of the Photograph 3.4 The Context of the Photograph CHAPTER FOUR: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION. 4.1 Architecture in Lagos with Photogenic Representation/ Physical Experience. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Conclusion and Recommendation VII. REFERENCES VIII. INTERVIEW
  7. 7.   vi    ABSTRACT  Since its invention, photography has been accepted as a reliable tool for architecture in terms of its power for creating objective documents of the built- form. The aim of this study, is to question the so-called objectivity and reliability of the photographic representations of the buildings by showing how architectural photography emerges also with an artistic and purely aesthetic character rather than being a mere tool of objective documentation. Taking this formal emphasis on architectural subject as a basis, a broader focus will be given to the photogenic character of the images used in architectural publications. Instead of reflecting real spatial experience, these idealized photographs are used in a given context to constitute a fiction that alters the viewer’s understanding of the architectural subject. Therefore, the main question is not whether architectural photography is an objective tool of documentation which is capable to represent architecture as it really is or it is a category of purely artistic activity; it is about how photography alters our vision about architecture and constructs new ideas for architectural discourse. By taking Lagos State, Nigeria buildings in as a case study, this project aims to focus this alteration and question the potentials of architectural photography.
  8. 8.   1    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION The world of photography is changing. Ever since photography has been invented, men have been trying to make the best out of it as a tool, dreaming of new ways to make it what human eyes cannot, of speeding time or slowing it down to learn how things behave actually. The traditional methods are being replaced by digital means, thus creating an ease of this art form. Architecture can be appreciated in various mediums, styles, dates and so on. People generally don’t take the time to evaluate an architectural work the way it should be evaluated-as artwork of art, with functionality, its scope is difficult to grasp as a normal person. It is therefore the architect looks to be interpreted. This is where the architect looks into different media for expressing his ideology and work, thus photography being one of the closet and most efficient form of universal media in the modern day world; it has been exploited in course of time. Moreover, image editing with the advent of computers and technology helps in the present times by letting the architect’s express certain features that cannot just be communicated using a raw image. Photography has globalized architecture, thus bringing the gap between various architectural communities in this world. In the current scenario, the
  9. 9.   2    digital age has made this mode of graphic communication easily available for the layman, giving him opportunities to explore and exploit. The internet has come along and opened up new platforms for sharing. With social networking sites and photo sharing sites one has also gets more reasons to click and also to critique and analyze different works. A photograph which is considered architectural in one context might not in another. Though these trends have created new paths to express and communicate architecture, the scope of exploiting has to be checked, as its misuse has its own consequences. Proper application of this tool, understanding its limitation, according to the motive is essential. Various components of this language have to b e employed with utmost care so as to achieve the desired outcome. Being one of the most simple and efficient modes of graphic communication in the current day scenario, the probability of it being abused is high. Considering the above statement, the power of photography as a tool of visual communication has grown with experimentation and incoming of modern technology. Looking at photography from an architectural point of view, buildings are photographed primarily to be documented, sold or advertised. Does a space feel the same as a good as it looks in a photograph? Do the contemporary architects aim all their activities toward getting to the magazine cover and not worrying whether the building will last beyond the photographers shooting session? The intent of the photograph needs to be studied.
  10. 10.   3    1.2 JUSTIFICATION Architects and Photographers both work with space yet they approach their tasks from opposite directions. The Architect’s practice moves from two- dimensions into three, and the photographer from three-dimensional into two. For the most part, the architect imagines and renders spaces that do not yet exist, and then guide them into being. The photographer, conversely, documents things that already exists in time and space and abstracts them into flat depictures. When a photographer takes an architect’s finished product and transforms it, both the concept of the original place is idealized, drawn form, and the formal reality of its existence converge into one’s image. Since the development of photography, architects have well understood this dynamic. Many for this reasons has taken an intense interest in how their buildings are presented in photographs. Le Corbuiser, famously often air- brushed away all of the contextual information from photographs of is buildings, such as plants and the surrounding terrain, before he allowed them to be published. The term “Architectural Photography” generally means work made with a large format-camera that connected the third point perspective lines in pictures that celebrates the architect’s vision and depicts the building in factual terms.
  11. 11.   4    As photography can be regard as the closet medium of effective visual communication for architecture, the layman has to be assured that he gets the right information. 1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY This dissertation will strive to understand how architecture and photograph as entities of design have mutually contributed to the developments in their respective fields. It will also be focusing at how architecture is perceived owing to the subjective nature of the topic; the study will be based on qualitative facts. As the study is to understand imagery and its perceptions. It will rely on existing examples illustrated by various authors. The dissertation will include both black and white and colour photographs in image digital means since in the context of study, only the final imagery produced is important. The dissertation is not aimed at providing guidance regarding the technical aspects of photography like shutter speeds, aperture, focal lengths, lens details, the film chemistry, digital sensor e.t.c .
  12. 12.   5    1.4 LIMITATIONS On a subject like ‘Photography and Architecture’ in order to reach any substantial conclusion or to establish a system of thought, requires an appropriate and through study supplemented by virtually unlimited images. In the given time span of the research, it will not be able for me to go through the whole history of this field, the case studies are through conducting interview with photographers and architects, thus looking at the real-life situation, where analysis will be made and conclusions would be drawn out from analysis of those interviews. The limitation of my knowledge and skill of photograph makes me ill- equipped to deal with certain issues when taking photographs. Also, the study of photography is very complex and technical branch of study in itself. Keeping in mind the time span it would not be possible to discuss the issues related with equipments and technicalities directly affected the outcome of the photograph.
  13. 13.   6    1.5 METHODOLOGY A study that revolves around architectural photograph and perception needs a systematic approach that demands appropriate research methodology tools that can help draw conclusion. The approach starts with the literature survey and study followed by developing tools that can help me in my research methodology which in turn assists me to draw conclusions. The literature review primarily includes an initial reading from library sources like books, journals and the internet. This gives me a basic idea to what has been done in my field of research and help me look into that part where I can proceed with my research, thus refining my research question.The approach also included looking into images of different photographers and understanding certain methodologies applied in obtaining the final image. The intent was to keep myself aware of certain technical aspects of the subject. Documentation is done in two parts:- The first part includes compilation of information from a secondary resources, to understand briefly the history of architecture and photography and use of photographic imagery for the same due to the nature of the topic, the research will be looking at certain areas wherein photography as a tool has influenced architecture, the research involves conducting interviews with eminent architects and photographers thus drawing conclusions through qualitative approach.
  14. 14.   7    CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE PHOTOGRAPHY The true architectural photography is primarily an instrument of communication between the architect and his audience – an audience with the capacity and desire to understand and appreciate, but lacking the opportunity to experience the work in question at first hand. The camera ideally is the anonymous vehicle for this journey, yet the ideal is never quite achieved, for a variety of reasons. To begin with, History of photography has a lot to do with architecture, particularly when shutter speed were slow , it was buildings that stood still for long duration of exposures and came out as an image thus letting photographers experiment their techniques. Now, while photographing the building the photographer often gets into the dilemma, whether to add an essence using components like composition, perspective or other techniques so as to produce a compelling and beautiful photograph or to show the scene as it is for authenticity or realism. Architecture Photography is commonly described as the form of photography that uses buildings and other structures as subjects. It has many
  15. 15.   8    classifications, but the two most common and simplest types are interior and exterior. The relationship between architecture and photography has been quite mutual throughout these years and the strong proof for the same can be seen with population and selling of modern architecture in 1920s which has a result of an eminent and progressive group of architectural photographers whom by the use of non-conventional perspectives, nocturne , lighting and other techniques helped create a new trend in modern architecture. Ezra Stroller, the American architectural photographer , was modernist. He had the ability to capture the building according to the architect’s vision and to reveal it within the given frame of view. His photographs convey a three- dimensional experience of architectural space through a two-dimensional medium, with careful attention of vantage point and lighting conditions, as well as, to time, color , form and texture. “He had a pretty deep appreciation of the kinds of strength of modern architecture, simplicity, proportion and balance , says “William S.Snaders , the author of Modern Architecture”.
  16. 16.   9    2.2 THE PURPOSE OF PHOTOGRAPHY Photography as a picture language in the newest version of the oldest form of graphic communication. Unlike the spoken or written word, it is a form of communication that can be internationally understood. This gives a photograph added meaning – and a photographer added responsibility. The essential purpose of photography is communication. Few people take pictures solely to please themselves. Most individuals take pictures as they want it to be seen by others. Pictures are a photographer’s means of expression as a writer means are words. And as a writer must choose a major field of work- journalism, creative writing, biography, advertising e.t.c so a photographer must choose a specific field, each field having a specific purpose. Some of these purposes are:- I. INFORMATION Documentary photographs as well as the majority of photographs found in picture , magazines , newspaper , manuals , scientific publications and pictures used for visual education being in this category . their purpose is either to educate people or to enable them to make correct decisions.
  17. 17.   10    II. SLANTED INFORMATION This is the province of commercial and advertising photography and political propaganda. The purpose of such pictures is to make the subjects glamorous and more desirable. The purpose of such pictures is to make the subject glamorous and more desirable. The goal is the selling of a product , a service or an idea. III. DISCOVERY Because the camera is in many respects supervisor to the eye , it can be used to make discoveries in the realm of vision. This is the field of research and scientific photography, close-up and telephotography, ultra-wide angle and high speed photography, abstract photographs and photogram. The purpose of such pictures is to open new fields for exploration, to widen lens visual and intellectual horizons, and to enrich his life. IV. RECORDING Photography provides the simplest and cheapest means for presenting facts in picture form. Catalogue pictures, reproduction of art , micro- filling of documents and books, identification pictures, and certain kinds of documentary photographs area all used for recording purposes; Photography preserves knowledge and facts in easily accessible form suitable widest dis crimination and utilization.
  18. 18.   11    V. ENTERTAINMENT Photography provides an endless source of entertainment and pleasure: motion pictures, amateur photographs, travel pictures, fine pictures books and photographs annuals, pin-up photographs , photographs feature stories in picture magazines e.t.c VI. SELF-EXPRESSION An increasing number of talented and creative people find in photography a relatively inexpensive means of self-expression. Almost any subject can be photographed in an unlimited numbers of different ways , and more and more photographers seek new and more expressive forms of photographic rendition through which to share with others their own vision of the world, their feelings , ideas and thoughts. ( Feininger , The Complete Photographer , 1971) 2.3. NATURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY Photography isa unique form of visual experience and through the years has seen various developments that have added to its authencity in creating the visual experience. Photography is governed bu its own characteristics that define its scope and limitations. Some of them are discussed below:
  19. 19.   12    I. AUTHENTICITY Authenticity is the main characteristics of this language. Other visual media like drawings or paintings are mostly inaccurate or incomplete; those created from imagination might not totally true. But every photograph expresses a sense of truth which other graphic media fail to deliver. As said by Feininger , “It is this quality that makes a photograph more convincing than a thousand words” and gives it a power of conviction that is not found in any other form of communication. No matter neither how imaginatively the subject is aware that the lens cannot invent something that wasn’t true. Even the most simulated form of perspectives distortion caused to the subject due to the use of a particular lens or method, is a rendition of reality. II. SPEED OF RECORDING The amount of time required to make the right exposure that freezes the subject or records an event as a photograph is negligible compared to other media of art. It only takes a few seconds to capture an imange and this speed of recording is a tremendous advantage that photography has over other media of communication. By thetime a draftsman or an artist take in sketching or painting the subject, the photographer can take dozens of different photographs and choose the most significant among
  20. 20.   13    them. In this aspect , a photographer can showcase an event with the use of a sequence of photographs. III. PRECISION As a photograph is produced through mechanical means, it is correct in every detail. The availability os such precise rendition is one most valuable characteristics of photography as a photograph can show us things that cannot be seen with the naked eye. In the current scenario, with experimenting and technological advancements, mainly post-processing techniques and different equipments help to create images seem “unnatural” or “surreal” whereas others deliberately process raw images to create an artistic effect. This depends on the point of view and the need as at certain moments a raw image cannot convey the required information and it needs processing. At the same moment the processing of the image must not be overdone as it might lead to miscommunication and misleading of information. ( Feininger , The Complete Photographer , 1971) 2.4 PHOTOGRAPHS AS ICONS Our first, sometimes only, impression of a building is often formed by a photographer can help us to see even the most seemingly familiar structures with a fresh eye.
  21. 21.   14    Architecture as taught and discussed by other architects relies on the recognition of a mass of famous pictures. Indeed, sometimes these can seem more ironically famous and even more satisfying “architectural” then some of the buildings themselves. The basic purpose of most photographs is to represent and reproduce objects realistically. However, it often becomes much more than a mere document. “Often a dramatic photograph can have such a strong impact that it doesn’t remain a simple reproduction of architecture infact an icon and a symbol itself. It is curious to see that buildings documentation elevates its status from merely architecture to a higher art.” (Ratternbury , 2000) 2.5 .A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CAMERA In a word of ever-increasing efficiency, manufacturers periodically strive to produce a single camera that can satisfy the requirements of all photographic demands. Camera is a phenomenal product that changed the lifestyles of nearly all people. At the same time, it has undergone radical change over a few centuries. The concept of camera evolved from a device called camera obscura. The earliest record of such device was made by an Arab scientist who described this
  22. 22.   15    device in his book an optics in 1021 A.D.it uses a pinhole or lens to project an image of the scene onto a viewing surface. Couple centurys later, Leornado Da Vinci wrote the first detailed design of camera obscura in his Altlantic Codex. In 1825, Niepce took what is known to be the world first permanent photograph by making a reproduction of a Dutch painting. Although there were others who took photos before this, none of them were permanent as they were all faded quickly. According to his own hand- written record, it took eight hours for Niepce to take his picture. Early cameras, known as Daguemotype cameras weighed 120 pounds and a complete kit required a horse-drawn wagon to move it around. (Nagera, 1996) After hearing about Niepce’s work, French painter Louis Jacques Mande Daguere (1799-1851) entered the field and finally both became partners. After that, the history of photography centers in commercial applications and its social implications. Both Daguere in France and William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) in England made little fortunes with the invention. Practically, anything we can imagine in photography has been done before, including camera-less photography, which was used by Talbot. Even today, photography students follow his procedure by placing objects directly on snenstive paper and turning on the line for a brief time: translucent objects such as onion layers produce beautiful impressions.
  23. 23.   16    Collodium dry plates had been available since 1855, thanks to the work of Desire Van Monckhoven, but it was not until the invention of the gelation dry plates in 1871 by Richard Leach Madddox, that they rivaled wet plates in speed and quality. Also, the first time, camera could be made small enough to be handled or even concealed. A photography studio in the 19th Century,Ireland After the invention of film based camera, 35mm camera and single lens reflex(SLR) camera were invented in1913 and 1928, irrespectively. One of the major innovations in SLR camera was the eye level viewfinder that was first introduced in 1947. (Youngin Yoo, 2002). Looking at the preliminary areas, mostly the camera was fixed on tripods due to their bulky character and this limited the photographer to portray ceratin perspectives of the building the way a building or space was perceived through the media was limited and at times this restricted the architect to high light the idea of his building. These concerns were later refurbished when the camera
  24. 24.   17    were compacted with the 35mm film roll and it made the whole process more flexible. Ur-Leica from 1914, Source: Leica Microsystems The film is 35mm (1.4in) wide. Each Image is 36x24mm in the most common “full frame” form A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another locatrd, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences ofimages constituting videos or movies. The camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without any contact. The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means “dark chamber”. A camera works with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene. All cameras use the same basic design. Light enters an enclosed box through a converging/ convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism
  25. 25.   18    controls the length of time that light can enter the camera. Most photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded, allow for a desried part of the scence to be in focus, and to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. Mechanics of a Camera In all but certain specialized cameras, the process of obtaining a usable exposure must involve the use, manually or automatically , of a few controls to ensure the photograph is clear, sharp and well illuminated. The controls usually include but are not limited to the following:- S/N CONTROLS DESCRIPTION I. FOCUS The position of a viewed object or the adjustment of an optical device necessary to produce a aclear image: in focus; out of focus. II. APERTURE Adjustment of the lens opening measured as f- number, which controls the amount of light pasing through the lens. Aperture also has an effect on
  26. 26.   19    deoth of field and diffraction. III. SHITTER SPEED Adjustment of the speed of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light for each exposure. IV. WHITE BALANCE On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions , ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore the colors in the frame will appear natural. V. METERING Measurement of exposure so that highlight and shadows are exposed according to the photographers wishes. Many modern cameras meter and set exposure automatically VI. FILM SPEED Traditionally , used to “tell the camera” the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the systems gain from lighting numerical output and to control automatic exposure system. Film speed is usually measured via ISO
  27. 27.   20    2.6 A TOOL TO COMMUNICATE Communication is described as a one way process originating with a sender through a medium to a receiver. The important aspect of the three parts is the medium which bridges the sender and the receiver as the sender does not know who the end receiver will be. As the world grows smaller and the population gets larger, it becomes even more essential that people understand each other to avoid hostility. It is consequentially important to have a common medium of communication between people all over the world. A persons primary and first interaction with his surroundings is through visual contact communication through a visual medium becomes ideal as not only does it have a greater impact but is also discernible and understood by all. Photography being a ystem. The higher the film speed number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower number , the film is less sensitive to light. VII. AUTO FOCUS POINT On some cameras, the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the autofocus system will attempt to focus. Many single lens reflex cameras (SLR) feature multiple autofocus points in the view finder.
  28. 28.   21    universal and the simplest form of visual media has been the most appreciated medium of communication. As far as architectural representation is considered, the greatest advantage of photographic images as communication is that they are not technical or abstract compared to architectural drawings and can educate the lay-man a lot more about architecture. Media, publicity and consumerism defines architecture relationship with photography. With the advent of media in every sphere of life, images have become the primary means of communication and international architecture finds place in the drawing rooms and homes of a common man. Today, photograph is not only about crystalline memories or events; it is a profession: it is fun; it is used for exchanging ideas. Today, with the advent of digital medium, we have many ways to under- take the same activity with the expression of the web, a new dimension has been added to digital photography. Not only are photographs used by the media, to convey news, information, or by Hollywood, Bollywood to portrays ones personality; they are also used in astronomy and medical diagnosis. But it has its negative too. Photographs can be used for many unwanted purposes, like straying opinions e.t.c lovers of photography feel that with the advent of digital technology , the opportunity to derive satisfaction by producing a piece of art has been derived to the photographer and it has even
  29. 29.   22    impacted ethics in photography. But , on the other hand, it has given rise to a new breed of photographers who have taken this up as a hobby. 2.7 EVOLUTION OF DIGITAL CAMERA A digital camera records still images in a digital format. Unlike analog cameras that record light onto photographic film, digital cameras use a solid state, light-sensitive, silicon chips. The chip electrical charges are converted into discrete numbers or storage on a flash , memory card or optical disc. The origin of the digital camera can be traced back to the US program. NASA and the US intelligence agencies uses satellite images to gather
  30. 30.   23    intelligence needed an efficient way to take images in the space and transmit them back to the earth. A major step towards digital photography was the invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD), in 1969. The CCD is a light sensitive integrated circuit that stores information, represented by discrete packets of electric charge. Soon after, its invention, the CCD was established as a versatile and robust optical detector for cameras. Overtime, digital camera has been integrated with other technologies. First, cameras have become an integrated part of mobile phones. These phones are generally referred to as camera phones. The first camera phone, J-SHO4 was manufactured by “SHARP” in 2000 for J-phone, a Japanese mobile operator. The major impact with the invention of the CCD sensors is that the photographer had more resources to experiment with and it came with more opportunities to highlight the various aspects of a building. The cameras of the present days have been compacted to such an extent that cannot be thought of. The camera of an Iphone cann creates wonderful images and the user doesn’t need much skill to create such an image. 2.8 NEW DIMENSIONS OF DIGITAL INNOVATION The analysis of the evolution of the digital camera shows an unbounded nature of digital innovation. At the beginning, the core idea of digital camera was a
  31. 31.   24    simple technical replacement of chemical based photographic film with a light- sensitive solid-state silicon chip. During the initial wave of digital camera evolution, there was no fundamental change in the function and the meaning of the camera. However, overtime continuing digitalization of different components and the integration with other digital technologies such as mobile phone, network technology, G.P.S , and the internet, transformed digital cameras and its usages in a way that was not originally intended by the early inventors. For example, new digital cameras comes now with on-board You-Tube and Flickr applications so that pictures and video clips can be directly uploaded without connecting toa PC. This in turn demand development of more robust operating systems underlying the function of digital cameras to control simultaneously multiple software and hardware resources required by these services. In present times, if you look at story-telling or something like most of it has become photographs, when a person goes on a vacation, immediately Facebook has an album of that vacation and shows what the person has done ( Mr Asim Waqif 2010). In that sense, a photograph becomes a very integral part of certain typical experiences like holidays or weddings, birth, birthdays and so on and the event starts getting manipulated by the needs of photography. The whole thing has come before the camera where everybody comes, stands for a
  32. 32.   25    while and then walks off. So in this aspect, the visual of what good buildings are or what good houses are , that is a thing that is propagated partly through medium or partly through their own picture. It is also trying to create an idea of visually what the culture trying to be by photographs only.
  33. 33.   26    CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 PHOTOGRAPHY AS A LANGUAGE (LAGOS AS CASE STUDY) Photography is more than a technical art, it is a visual language. The fallacy of the popular notion that the camera automatically captures not only the appearance but also the significance of what happens in front of the lens is evident to anyone who has had to look at someone else's vacation pictures. Their makers may have had a wonderful time, but their cameras did not automatically capture the depth and range of their experiences. Lagos, sometimes referred to as Lagos State to distinguish it from Lagos Metropolitan Area, is a state in the southwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The smallest in area of Nigeria's 36 states, Lagos State is arguably the most economically important state of the country, containing Lagos, the nation's largest urban area. It is a major financial centre and would be the fifth largest economy in Africa, if it were a country. The actual population total is disputed between the official Nigerian Census of 2006 and a much higher figure claimed by the Lagos State Government. Lagos State is bounded on the north and east by Ogun State. In the
  34. 34.   27    west it shares boundaries with the Republic of Benin. Behind its southern borders lies the Atlantic Ocean. 22% of its 3,577 km2 are lagoons and creeks. Nigeria’s Lagos is the second largest city in Africa, and the fastest growing Megacity in the world. Its current population figure stands at 20 million and is expected to hit the 25million mark by 2015. However, its rapid urbanization followed by an unplanned urban expansion as well as the historical trajectory facing the city the last decades, result in the formation of a chaotic laboratory of urban/socioeconomic form which is yet far from the model of a balanced and effective polycentric development. While the state is essentially a Yoruba-speaking environment, it is a socio-cultural melting pot attracting both Nigerians and foreigners alike. Indigenous inhabitants include the Aworis and Eguns in Ikeja and Badagry Divisions respectively, with the Eguns being found mainly in Badagry. There is also an admixture of other pioneer settlers collectively known as the Ekos. The indigenes of Ikorodu and Epe Divisions are mainly the Ijebus with pockets of Eko-Awori settlers along the coastland and riverine areas.  Area (mq) 1,341.7  Population (million) 17,552,942  Density (sq mi) 13,000  Number of districts 16 Local Government Areas
  35. 35.   28     Population growth 6% per annum  Projected Population by 2025 25 million  Lagos State’s revenues :- that is internally generated: over 70%  Nigeria’s skilled labour force 45% CITIES AND TOWNS  Lagos Lagos is the most populous city in the state and in Nigeria as a whole. The conurbation is one of the most populous in the world. As of 2015, the population of Lagos city was approximately 16 million. Lagos is a port which originated on islands separated by creeks, such as Lagos Island, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon while protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 kilometers (62 miles) east and west of the mouth. The metropolitan area of Lagos includes Ikeja (which is the capital of Lagos State) and Agege and Mushin.
  36. 36.   29     Ikeja Ikeja is the state capital of Lagos State. Prior to the emergence of military rule in the early 1980s, Ikeja was a well planned, clean and quiet residential and commercial town with shopping malls, pharmacies and government reservation areas. The Murtala Mohammed International Airport is in Ikeja. Ikeja is also home to Femi Kuti's African Shrine and Lagbaja's Motherland, both live music venues. It now boasts a shopping mall, Ikeja City Mall, which is the largest mall in the Mainland of Lagos State and also has a cinema.
  37. 37.   30     Lekki Lekki is a city in the south eastern part of the state. It is a naturally formed peninsula, which is still largely under construction. As of 2015, only phase 1 of the project has been completed, with phase 2 nearing completion. The peninsula is approximately 70 to 80 km long, with an average width of 10 km. Lekki currently houses several estates, gated residential developments, agricultural farmlands, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, an airport, and a sea port under construction. The proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a "Blue-Green Environment City", expected to accommodate over 3.4 million residential populations and an additional non- residential population of at least 1.9 million.
  38. 38.   31     Ikorodu Ikorodu is a city located north east of the state along the Lagos Lagoon. It shares a boundary with Ogun State. As of the 2006 Census Ikorodu had a population of 535,619.  Eko Atlantic Eko Atlantic is a planned city being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. It is located on former Lagos’ Bar Beach. Upon completion, the new island which is still under development is anticipating at least 250,000 residents and a daily flow of at least 150,000 commuters. The development will
  39. 39.   32    also have a positive environmental impact; its purpose is to stop the erosion of the Lagos coastline. The Eko Atlantic City project received global recognition in 2009, as the Lagos State government and its private sector partners on the Project, South Energyx, received the Clinton Global Initiative Commitment Certificate.  Badagry Badagry is a coastal town in the state. It is situated between Metropolitan Lagos, and the border with Benin at Seme. As of the preliminary 2006 census results, the municipality had a population of 241,093.
  40. 40.   33     Epe Epe is a town located on the north side of the Lekki Lagoon. It is popular for the fishing activities attributed to the city. Per the 2006 Census the population of Epe was 181,409.
  41. 41.   34     Ojo Ojo is a town with a population of 507,693. Lagos State University is in this town. One of the consequences of society valuing the camera’s image was the development of realism, the resemblance to the “real world” as we see it, and a rejection of the imaginative, symbolic idealizations inspired, if not actually mandated, by ascetic church dogma, and that had characterized art in the west for a thousand years. Painted images based on mathematical perspective could correspond point for point to some aspect of reality that was verifiable, reproducible and consistent. Even depictions of angels or mythological beasts could be made to seem real and tangible. As science replaced religion as the
  42. 42.   35    principal means by which the world was explained and understood, Renaissance perspective became an increasingly valued tool for structuring images, describing the material world and its contents, and celebrating our dominion over it. The use of camera obscura by artists supported the belief that painted space, when true to the camera’s optics, reflected the orderly working of the mind of God. Once emulsion replaced the fallible hand of the artist, this notion found continued expression in the nineteenth century’s belief in the inherent Truthfulness of the camera’s imagery. This faith was expressed in the very word Daguerre used for his camera’s lens: “objectif”. Subsequently, the belief in an orderly, rational universe as espoused by Enlightenment thinkers of the eighteenth century came to underlie our embrace, in the nineteenth century, of the camera as “a faithful witness.” To the extent that we continue to hold to this conceit in the face of the growing capacity for seamless digital dissembling that, like the relentless power of the tides, threatens to erode the technical basis for this faith, it continues to sustain our belief that a photograph does not lie. With the advent of the industrial revolution at the beginning of the nineteenth “Who would believe that so small a space could contain the image of all the universe? O mighty process! What talent can avail to penetrate a nature such as these? What tongue will it be that can unfold so great a wonder? Verily, none!
  43. 43.   36    This it is that guides the human discourse to the considering of divine things. Here the figures, here the colors, here all the images of every part of the universe are contracted to a point. O what a point is so marvelous!” --Leonardo Da Vinci on the Camera Obscura The esteem of the machine-made artifacts caught up with and eventually replaced the value of the traditional, hand-made object. With that shift, the use of pigment and canvas to preserve the imagery of the camera obscura came to be seen as inherently flawed. Pigment and canvas could be manipulated to distort the truthfulness otherwise inherent in the physical and optical principles that underlay the camera’s imagery. To do that one needs to understand the underlying language of photography, and to master its principles. Images, like words, can only evoke a sense of experience, they cannot reproduce it. The commercial photo industry attempts to create products that they claim reproduce the experience of reality. The newest ink-jet printing technologies, for example, are touted for their realism. But all this self-promotional hoopla downplays the more basic fact that in the end it is not the camera that makes the photograph, it is the photographer. Although print technology is an important component of the delivery of the imagery and can deeply affect how an image is perceived and/or experienced, it is not in the print technology that meaning resides, it is in the imagery.
  44. 44.   37    To understand how to make a good image we need to investigate how the camera “sees” and examine the basic principles on which the visual language of photography is based. This language, like any language, has a structure. The structure of the language of photography consists of the following elements:  Light  Time  Composition  Color  Subject The application of this structure can be stated as follows: The task of the photographer is to find a moment when the light is such that when transmitted by the lens onto a two-dimensional surface the resulting image communicates the very qualities of experience (object) that were the reason (subject) for wanting to make the photograph in the first place. However, there is an aspect of meaning in photographs, in their ability to communicate not just facts, but complex ideas and feelings, which resides in a separate visual language that artists have developed over centuries, and that like English, French, Chinese or sign language has structure and rules. Light One of the factors that can make or break a photo is the lighting. When we take
  45. 45.   38    a photo, the lens of our camera records light. In communicating, we often rely on our five senses and we can say the same for photography. We rely on the photo, our vision, in order to relay the message of that captured moment. With lighting, we can depict the mood and evoke feeling from the one viewing the photo. Time Timing is another element that makes a good photograph. Some of the most iconic photographs from famous photographers that we have come to love were taken at the right time. Photographic opportunities happen in a split second and capturing that perfect moment can effectively portray the message of a memory captured in time. Composition Proportion was something that photographers took into consideration when composing shots. Just like renaissance artists, the ratio and proportion had a lot to do with the final look of the artwork. The aesthetic quality of a photograph is somehow dependent on proportion since you can control where you want your subjects to be placed on a frame. Subject By emphasizing your subject when framing, you can capture the attention of the viewers and make them see the focus of your photo and the story that you want
  46. 46.   39    to tell. Watch and observe your subject before taking the photo as each second can tell a different story. Color The colors in a photography adds another element to your photo that can tell a story. Use colors to your advantage and you’ll eventually learn how to tell a story with them. Warm and bold colors grab our attention and can make a photo more interesting. Play with colors to get amazing results. These are some of the elements that make up the language of photography. Each element contributes in telling a story. 3.2 PHOTOGRAPHY IN MEDIA Mass communication is a means for diversified mediatechnologiesto reach a large audience. The technologies may vary, in that some are transmitted electronically, some are through print, through digital media, and some through public speaking. Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society. It is actually leading the digital revolution in media today, especially with the advent of digital photography. Images play an important role in mass media. Today’s generation rely on pictures both to understand a message and to send a message across. When we read a newspaper, for example, we look at the pictures first before reading the
  47. 47.   40    text, if at all. Some people just look at the pictures and read the headlines and captions, and move on to the next news story. When browsing a magazine, the images for an article leads us to understand what the article is all about. An image makes or breaks an advertising campaign as well. If the image chosen is bad, the advertisement is doomed. Which would you prefer: an image without text, or text without a picture? I am almost certain a great number will choose the first option.Sometimes, we don’t really bother with the text anymore, as long as the image was vivid and poignant. If this is the case, should we call on media people to rely on images and leave the text out altogether? It will then be a bigger challenge to the media photographer to create an image that will evoke emotions and provoke thinking so that it can stand alone, free of texts or explanations. As part of the industry that a tremendous amount of influence to readers, the images we choose is what grabs our attention. It should spark curiosity yet not persuade one’s opinion. Photography is still art and very much a conversational component to the words we write, even at the documentary level and how we use it in the media should be treated as such. The increasing use of Social Media and the rise in new platforms has everyone classified as an amateur photographer so the need for quality photography is as important now than ever.
  48. 48.   41     Advertising It’s basically used for communicating in the market and is usually used to promote and persuade people to buy their product. It’s soul purpose is to make the audience feel like they really need the product. Funny, touching and unusual adverts usually stand out from the rest because they make you feel the need to find out more about it.  Photojournalism is just like journalism the only difference is that in photojournalism is that they have to take pictures in order to create a story. If there is no photo then there is n story or job. The photos are printed into magazines and news papers if the photo doesn’t go with the story then there will be many consequences. This photography doesn’t need creativity just a good timing.  Documentary:- Documentary shows exactly what and how our world is like in everyday life at any moment of time. It’s similar to photojournalism but the only difference is that it doesn’t have to capture news worthy events. No matter what the picture is, whether it’s bleak, playful, angering or astounding, they all have a significant purpose in history.  
  49. 49.   42    3.3 THE POWER OF PHOTOGRAPH Photographers use their cameras as tools of exploration, passports to inner sanctums, instruments for change. Their images are proof the photography matters-now more than ever. Today photography has become a global cacophony of freeze-frames. Millions of pictures are uploaded every minute. Correspondingly, everyone is a subject, and knows it—any day now we will be adding the unguarded moment to the endangered species list. It’s on this hyper-egalitarian, quasi-Orwellian, all-too-camera-ready “terra infirma” that National Geographic’s photographers continue to stand out. Why they do so is only partly explained by the innately personal choices (which lens for which lighting for which moment) that help define a photographer’s style. Instead, the very best of their images remind us that a photograph has the power to do infinitely more than document. It can transport us to unseen worlds. When you look at a photograph, be it that selfie you took with your friend at the movies or that excellent New York Times front page, that photo tells you a story. No wonder many people say that a picture is worth a thousand words. The story pictures tell means so much more than just a camera click. Especially those taken far from us, depicting culture, habits, and struggles
  50. 50.   43    different from ours. Those tell even more important stories since they capture emotions that words can't even begin to describe.  Afghan girl in a Pakistani refugee camp, 1984 Honestly, this is one of my favorite pictures out there. It gives me chills to imagine what that girl went through and you can almost see the uncertainty in her eyes. This is considered the most iconic photograph of National Geographic. When a photographer is out there, in the middle of riots, civil wars and protests frantically taking pictures, it means something. They swallow their own
  51. 51.   44    fear, anxiety and pain to capture others' with their camera. Photographers are out there and have the responsibility to make those clicks count.   Francesca Borri, freelance photographer in Aleppo, Syria
  52. 52.   45    Some people only started noticing what was really happening in Syria after seeing that touching image of Omran. This picture shocked the world; it made people (myself included) want to fly to Syria and scoop that child in their arms and take care of him. That picture and people's reaction to it pressured governments to take action against the atrocities being made in Syria and even made more people donate to aid and relief organizations. All of that because of a photograph. We, as global citizens, must never forget the power of a photograph to change the world and must never forget to thank those photographers showing those stories to us. They matter more than we give them credit for. While photography was introduced in Africa shortly after its invention in 1839, it was limited to entrepreneurs or expatriates who could afford large format cameras and equipment and had access to chemicals for the wet plate process. When dry glass plates and later roll film became available in the late 19th to early 20th century, many West Africans took up the profession of photography. Some were highly successful and profited from this new venture. Solomon Osagie Alonge was one of these early photographers; his images have not circulated outside Nigeria and are, until now, unknown to most Western audiences
  53. 53.   46    Sources: - https://africa.si.edu/exhibitions/past-exhibitions/alonge/early- photography-in-nigeria/ (Chief S.O. Alonge – Early Photography in Nigeria.
  54. 54.   47    Nigeria has grown to be Africa’s largest economy; the country has transformed from an unpretentious mishmash to a soaring capital in less than a century. You will be amazed at how Nigeria has changed throughout history, from economic growth, population growth, innovative government, oil and gas boom, transportation, real estate developments and revolutions. We look back at the history of Nigeria, we remember the good times and the bad times, we also look at the way people used to live and dress.
  55. 55.   48    We present to you 40 old photos that will show you how times have changed in Nigeria. These stunning photos show the big difference between those days and now: A view from Ikoyi Park, Lagos
  56. 56.   49    Barclays bank and Shell Petroleum buildings, Lagos (1960s-Early 1970s) Ben Ekanem’s equestrian Statue of Queen Amina- National Theatre Lagos, (1980)
  57. 57.   50    Central bank of Nigeria, Lagos (1950s)   Chapel Of The Resurrection, University Of Ibadan (1960s)    
  58. 58.   51    CKC (Christ the king College), Onitsha. Central buildings, (1961)   Entrance to the Emir of Zarias Palace in Kaduna (1973)  
  59. 59.   52    Humuani Mosque, Lagos (1933)    General View Of Historic Kano City (1950s)  
  60. 60.   53    Independence Fountain on the main road leading into the city of Kaduna, Nigeria (1960s)      Lugard Memorial Hall , Kaduna (1960s.)  
  61. 61.   54    Mary Slessor’s House in Calabar, Built in 1880    Independence Building and Lagos Harbour (1974)    
  62. 62.   55    The main core of the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University), Ile-Ife.   Western  House  of  Assembly,  Ibadan  (late  1950s)  
  63. 63.   56    Nigeria has changed beyond recognition, these photos has transformed Nigeria into the country we know today. These photographs are directly from Nigerian Nostalgia Project’s archives and The Nigerian Nostalgia 1960 -1980 Project on Facebook. For more old pictures and history of Nigeria, Visit: Nigeria Nostalgia Source (blog) :- http://www.travelstart.com.ng/blog/40-old-photos-that-will- show-you-how-times-have-changed-in-nigeria/comment-page-3/ 3.4 THE CONTEXT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH Photographers make decisions both about composition (arrangement of visual elements) as well as content (meaning) when taking photographs. Consequently, it is important to consider the artist's intentions for making a photograph of a particular subject. Context photography consists of capturing more than incoming light in an image, i.e. the context. Information about the physical context is gathered from various sensors and visually affects pictures as they are taken. The context camera therefore not only takes pictures of the visual scenery, but also of invisible things in its surroundings – such as sound and movement – in real time. As opposed to other projects registering context by augmenting photographs with e.g. audio , a context camera opens up a new dimension of what can be captured on a photograph by using sensor-based data to directly
  64. 64.   57    influence the appearance of the resulting picture. For instance, in a noisy environment, images will get a certain visual effect whereas in a quiet environment the pictures will look different. The main pointers when doing contextual photography is to use the five senses within the image. For example, the feeling of the the buttons on the mobile phone. visually looking at the screen of the mobile phone. Finally hearing the sound that the buttons make when you are pressing them. What many don't often consider when taking a picture is the issue of context. To a large extent, context sets the tone in how an image is received by others. Thus, the more context an image relates to a person, the more the image will be received positively by that person. Conversely, the fewer contexts an image relate, the less positive - or more precisely - the more indifferent the image is received. This is why pictures shared by friends or family, like selfies, baby pictures, or even people-less milestones have a higher likelihood of being received more positively than ones without any discernible context relating to the photo taker. Because the photo means something to the photo taker, the image will better relate to those who are shared the image. As a result, the shared image will likely be received more positively.
  65. 65.   58    Admittedly, I wasn't originally aware of this relationship between context and how an image was received. However, recognizing it became increasingly evident, which was only possible through my late introduction to social media. From a process of sharing my images and observing images shared by others, I quickly noticed a regular pattern. Images that were more relatable in context generally received more interaction than ones less relatable in context. Images captured by renown photographers and celebrities will always be received more positively than images captured by working photographers and amateur enthusiasts - despite being removed by more degrees of separation in context from the intended audience. This is because: 1. The fame of the photographer or the celebrity makes the image more relatable to the intended audience, on the context of recognition or popularity. 2. The fame of the subject makes the image more relatable to the intended audience, on the context of popularity. Famous people have a higher likelihood of photographing famous people. 3. The frequency of dissemination of a famous image makes it more relatable to the intended audience, on the context of familiarity. The context of recognition, popularity, and familiarity bridges the divide in closing the degrees of separation between the famous and their audience, by giving meaning to the relationship. In other words, fans, followers, and admirers
  66. 66.   59    will have a feeling of attachment towards the renown photographer or celebrity and their resulting work. This is why their work is generally received more positively with greater responsiveness from their audience. Alternatively in layman's term, it's just a demonstration of appreciation or fan worship. We spend a lot of time thinking about how to make and take a photograph, but we may not be as thorough when thinking about how to view a finished photograph. With the exception of studying photography as fine art, we typically approach a photograph as a technically accurate representation of what the photographer saw. A subject is a subject is a subject, to paraphrase Gertrude Stein. And in all fairness, some photographs—snapshots and pics, really—are not meant to be more than tangible items that remind us of what we saw or experienced. Quick pics of a restaurant meal, selfies, and snapshots taken at events often fall into this category. Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. —Gertrude Stein, “Sacred Emily” However, most photographs offer another layer of experience—a reading experience as rich as any written prose—if we take the time to observe and process the photograph’s visual language. A photographer intervened between the subject and viewer in these photographs, composing and framing the elements in the photograph to express a narrative, nudge the viewer’s focus, and evoke feelings. These photographs are about something. They not only invite a
  67. 67.   60    viewer’s involvement; they demand that engagement. These photographs provide insights and information, but only if we interpret the visual rhetoric. We also read photographs to avoid being visually misinformed. More than any other art form, a photograph represents something real. We don’t look at a photograph as much as we look through it, using the photograph as a visual portal to a mental re-creation of what we expect to see. But even the most representative photograph is a version of reality interpreted by the photographer for an intended audience. By reading a photograph, we decode the photograph, unpacking the photographer’s interpretation rather than accepting the photograph as it appears on its face. How to Read a Photograph There’s nothing fixed about how to read photographs. In fact, your approach to reading a photograph can change, depending upon the purpose or your use of the photograph. For example, if viewing a photograph for historical information, you’d spend time closely examining the photographer’s cultural bias and the prevailing social attitudes at the time the photograph was taken. In contrast, if you’re viewing a photograph for social meaning, you might spend more time considering the techniques a photographer used to identify the subject.
  68. 68.   61    Viewers can disagree about the quality or relevance of a photograph, and they can—and usually do—generate multiple interpretations of the same image. It’s also common to read a photograph one way and then some time later, when re-visiting the photograph, read the same photograph a different way or arrive at a different interpretation. However, there is a limit on the range of interpretations a photograph will allow. The limit is not what the photographer meant the photograph to mean but what the internal visual coherence of the photograph will sustain. An interpretation that breaks a photograph down into unrelatable or conflicting parts is invalid. So, how do we read photographs? While there may not be hard and fast rules, there are some guidelines. The guidelines are based on our understanding of how we see two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space, and how, as a culture, we interpret visual elements, icons, and symbols. Terry Barrett, an American art critic who specializes in reading photography, suggests we work our way through these guidelines in an approach that I’m going to express as a formula: Subject Matter + Form + Medium + Context = Content
  69. 69.   62    I’ve used that formula to shape my following guidelines for reading photography. Subject Matter: What’s In the Photograph? Begin reading a photograph by looking at the things in the photograph. What people, places, and things are included in the photograph? (Be sure to look right to the edges of the photograph.) List the items and group them (mentally or on paper) into logical categories. Consider whether there are any activities captured. If so, how do the people or activities use the objects in the photograph? Is there a relationship between subjects in the photograph? Do they touch or look at each other? Or is there an existing order in the subjects? In the photograph below, there are a boy, a ball, a half-open entrance, a camera, and several signs. There are also windows, a canal, a railing, steps, lots of sun and some shade. There’s a relationship of play between the boy and the ball. There’s also a relationship between the signs (Carabinieri, or police), entrance, and security camera. The canal, windows, steps, and street all provide a setting. There is not yet a relationship between the boy and his ball and the police, but the anticipation of a relationship is a palpable subject.
  70. 70.   63    Dawn Oosterhoff When looking at what’s in the photograph, be sure to also consider what is not in the photograph. Can you assume that the missing items exist but have been left out of the frame, either deliberately or by necessity? That is, did the photographer frame the photograph to exclude the item or is the item excluded because it would not be possible to include it in the photograph? For example, in the above photograph, the shadow on the ground suggests there’s a large tree behind, but it would be impossible to include that tree in this photograph. Also missing is a playmate. Is the boy playing with the ball by himself or did the photographer deliberately exclude a playmate?
  71. 71.   64    Form: How is the Photograph Composed? The nature of photography forces us to work with a frame, making a decision about what to include and what to exclude. Within the frame, we use various techniques to lead viewers around the objects that were included and emphasize some objects over others. These compositional techniques speak volumes about what is in the photograph and what the photographer is trying to communicate. Look at what the photographer chose to emphasize within the frame and with what technique. How does the photographer lead you around and through the contents of the frame? Consider subject placement within the frame and the use of leading lines, depth of field, and focus. Did the photographer choose a focal length that emphasizes one object or de-emphasizes another? What has become the focus of the photograph as a result of these techniques? What does the photographer’s techniques for emphasis tell us about the subject of the photograph? Sometimes, a photographer is able to deliberately organize items before framing and taking the photograph. This would be the case with a still life, product shot, or portrait. Other times, the photographer is faced with what the situation presents and must choose a perspective that organizes the objects within the frame. To see how a photograph has been structured and organized, try turning the photograph upside down or imagining the photograph as a flat
  72. 72.   65    piece of plain paper with shapes and objects rather than a representation of three-dimensional space. What shapes do you see? Are there lines or repetitions in the photograph? What do these shapes and their placement tell you about the photograph? In the following photograph, the photographer uses lines and shapes to lead the viewer past the person in the foreground to the second person, who is the subject. The line of chairs in the foreground, the edge of the light coming in from the distant windows, and the planks in the floor all point to the grandmother, who is sitting in the centre right of the photograph—a compositionally strong point in the frame. The photographer also uses the archway to create a frame around the grandmother and, in the distance, the parents. If the viewer is drawn past the grandmother to the parents and windows in the background, the line created by the furniture along the right wall redirects the viewer's eye back to the grandmother. The photographer's composition tells you the grandmother is the matriarch, the strength in this photograph of a three- generational family.
  73. 73.   66    Canadian National Railways, Library and Archives Canada, e010860630. Light and shadows are also objects within a photograph, so be sure to consider them when reading a photograph. Notice where the light and shadows
  74. 74.   67    are placed. What are their shapes? Where are the light and shadows in relation to the frame of the photograph? What has been placed in light and what has been placed in shadow? What does the photographer’s use of light and shadow tell you about the photograph and its story? For example, in the above photograph, light is streaming in from the windows in the background, washing out the parents in highlights but perfectly lighting the grandmother. The young boy, who occupies the largest physical space in the photograph, is in shadow. There is light coming in from the window behind him, but it's a weak light that doesn't illuminate the boy's face or the book he is reading. What does the photographer's use of light and shadow tell you about the boy and his place in the family? Medium: What Materials and Processes Were Used? Medium is the materials and processes used to make the art. For a photograph, this can include the equipment (camera and lens), the recording medium (digital or film, and if film, the size and kind), the developing process or adjustments, and the final presentation (printed or web, and if printed, the size and type of the paper and framing). Historic photos are going to be black and white by necessity, but modern photographs could be colour or black and white. Consider the photographer’s choice and what that means for the photograph’s story. If a photograph is taken with film, even the choice of film stock can make a significant difference in
  75. 75.   68    how a subject is portrayed. Is the film high contrast and grainy, or is it a slow, smooth film with infinite tonality? If the photograph is in colour, are the colours enhanced or altered, or if the photograph is black and white, was the photograph toned? Was the photograph taken with a smartphone or a large format camera? Does it matter? Did the photographer use a specific lens—a fisheye, for example—to emphasize something in the frame? When considering medium, also consider the photographer’s choices within the context of the standards and practices of photography at the time. A modern photograph presented in black and white would tell us something about the photographer’s intent, but the same photograph taken seventy or eighty years ago would necessarily be in black and white. Similarly, a modern photographer using an historic photographic process—collodion plates, for example—is adding layers of meaning to the photograph. In the following photograph, you can’t tell whether the photographer originally shot in colour or black and white, but you can tell that the black and white photograph has been toned to create or enhance a cold, moody look. The lack of compression indicates that the photograph was taken with a wide-angle lens, and even with that, the photographer has created an impressively-wide panoramic. How do those choices add to the photograph? Do they influence your feelings about the view?
  76. 76.   69    Dawn Oosterhoff When considering medium, also consider where and how the photograph is displayed. The same photograph could sustain different interpretations depending upon whether it’s hung in a gallery, printed in a magazine, or displayed on a personal website. How would you read the above photograph if it was used as a banner image in a travel magazine or in material advocating environmental awareness? Would your reading be different if the photograph was printed 6-feet wide on canvas, framed, and hung in an art gallery? Context: What Were the Circumstances in Which the Photograph Was Made? Context involves a broad consideration of the interrelated conditions in which the photograph was made and is being viewed. This includes the culture in which the photograph was made; for example, the time, social beliefs, and cultural practices that would have given rise to the image and influenced the photographer. A still life of a rich display of seafood, tropical fruit, and crystal could be an appreciation of texture, light, and tones, but, if the photograph was taken in the late 1800s when seafood, tropical fruit, and crystal were
  77. 77.   70    extraordinarily expensive and difficult to obtain, the photograph would also be an expression of wealth. What if that same photograph had been taken during a food crisis: how would that change your interpretation? The following photograph could be read differently, depending upon where the photograph was taken. The photograph would tell one story if it was taken in a hospital waiting room and yet another if the photograph was taken at a transit stop. What if the photograph was taken in a park or on a busy train? How does the story change if the person in the flowered outfit is a relative, friend, or stranger? Dawn Oosterhoff
  78. 78.   71    Considerations of context are deep and convoluted when it comes to reading photographs of conflict. Photographs taken by a journalist embedded with a conflict group will have a different perspective than photographs taken by an outside observer or local journalist. Similarly, photographs taken surreptitiously are likely to tell a different story than those taken by a press corp. Other considerations include who is publishing which photographs and who is photographing whom. Photographs published of the uprisings during the Arab Spring were taken by both foreign and local photographers. How would the photographer’s own culture influence your reading of the photographs? Tim Hetherington, a British combat photojournalist, is known for his attempts to express how the context of conflict shapes combat photography, and how combat photography shapes conflict. Hetherington called it “the feedback loop”: news, movies, and photographs of war influence young people, who then re-enact that imagery when they find themselves in conflict. Photographs of that conflict then shape the news, movies, and photographs of war. And so on. Context also includes a photographer’s intent when taking the photograph. Intent is not a definitive indication of meaning, but it certainly contributes to what is read in a photograph. A photographer’s work can also be shaped by influences beyond a photographer’s intent and conscious attention. Richard Avedon intended to offer a fresh view of the American west when he took the photographs for his collection “In the American West.” However,
  79. 79.   72    Avedon’s photographs of hardship and suffering among the working class in the West have been criticized as exploitative because, it is argued, Avedon’s perspective was unconsciously skewed by his success as a commercial photographer from the East. Does the criticism change how you read his collection? Avedon had suffered a critical illness before launching on his American West project. Does that change your reading of his photographs? What if, as was alleged, Avedon had dressed some people up to be photographed as someone they were not? Photographers frequently photograph better than they know. —Minor White A photograph’s story is also shaped by the person viewing the photograph. We read images from the perspective of our own worldviews and values. I am fascinated by visual storytelling, so will engage documentary photographs with more gusto than I might those that are abstract. Similarly, I would likely read photographs of conflict in Ukraine differently than would a Ukrainian. That’s not to suggest that certain perspectives are more valid than others or even that the photographer’s perspective is the only correct view. Edward Weston railed against those who tried to layer sexual meaning onto his photographs of green peppers. Weston maintained that an object is photographed for its own sake. The fact that many still saw sexual intent in Weston’s peppers says as much about the viewer as it does about the
  80. 80.   73    photograph itself. But, if Weston did not intend sexual imagery with his peppers, does that mean that those viewers who saw it there were wrong? The test would be whether the internal consistency of the photograph could sustain the viewer’s sexual interpretation. It is disgust and weariness over having my work labeled and pigeonholed by those who bring to it their own obviously abnormal, frustrated condition: the sexually unemployed belching gaseous irrelevancies from an undigested Freudian ferment. —Edward Weston Content: What Story is the Photograph Telling? By considering together the subject, form, medium, and context of a photograph, we can form some conclusions about the content of a photograph. By examining photographs, we can express in words the visual representation contained within the frame. We can often intuit meaning in a photograph, but taking the time to read a photograph will often provide us with more insight into the photograph itself and what the photograph or photographer is expressing. Finally, learning to read photographs helps us write photographs. Understanding visual literacy is as relevant to making a photograph as it is to reading a finished photograph. Not every photograph will contain complex content and not every reading will reveal all nuances in an image. Edward Weston maintained that an object is
  81. 81.   74    photographed for its own sake. Minor White argued that you can photograph an object for its own sake, but you could also photograph it, or a viewer could interpret it, for what else the object might be. And Alfred Stieglitz believed that you photograph an object with the intention of also provoking an emotional reaction. Regardless of the level of analysis the photographer intends or the viewer undertakes, what is certain is that developing skills in visual literacy will reward you with a richer experience both in making and viewing photographs. Experiment with reading photographs by using the comments below to offer your reading of the following photograph. Source :- https://photography.tutsplus.com/tutorials/how-to-read-a-photograph- -cms-25495
  82. 82.   75    CHAPTER FOUR: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION. 4.1 Architecture in Lagos with Photogenic Representation/ Physical Experience The architecture of Lagos is an eclectic mix of different types, styles and periods. Buildings range from traditional vernacular architecture to tropical, modern architecture or a mixture. The oldest European-styled buildings date back to the 17th century. Elements of Portuguese architecture introduced by returnee ex-slaves from Brazil and the Caribbean, although present all over the city, predominate in Lagos Island. Colonial-styled architecture flourished during the Lagos Colony. The Lagos skyline is a mixture of modern high rise buildings, skyscrapers, dilapidated buildings and slums. Lagos has the tallest skyline in Nigeria. Skyscraper construction commenced in the 1960s. Several iconic classes a office and mixed-use buildings have been built by reputable international developers and private equity firms. Modern buildings and structures have been a continuous development till date.
  83. 83.   76    Notable buildings in Lagos with Photogenic representation. 1. Civic Center Building The Civic Center on Ozumba Mbadiwe Road in Victoria Island is definitely an iconic structure that won’t escape your eyes whenever you pass by it. The building is a contemporary mixed-use development designed by John Cubitt Architects. The structure in itself has a commanding presence by the waterfront but its form emanates from its context and functional purposes. Its inverted ziggurat structure is dictated by the limited lot size prompting the architects to increase the floor size for each successive floor. The building is oriented east-west and its inverted form serves as a self-shading device against the Northern midday sun. Vertical openings provide views toward the lagoon
  84. 84.   77    but total area of glazing is minimal, reducing heat gain whilst permitting ventilation. The distinctive steel truss above the building was employed to uphold the roof of the uppermost floor eliminating the need for columns and allowing a more open area for the hall.
  85. 85.   78    2. Heritage Place Ikoyi The Heritage Place is a 14-story office building in Alfred Rewane Road, Ikoyi, and Lagos. The building comprises 14 floors of approximately 15,736sqm of office space and 350 parking bays. It was completed on the 15th of January, 2016 and it currently has a tenancy level of 40%. The sustainable features include a 30-40 % reduction in energy use, a double volume reception, suspended ceilings, raised floors, a cafe and coffee shop, plaza as well as flexible floor plate sizes from 450sqm up to 2,000sqm. Heritage Place is a world-class development situated in Lagos's commercial and retail area, and just a few minutes’ walk from the most important venues in the city.
  86. 86.   79    This ultra-modern, eco-friendly building is Nigeria's most advanced development, employing the latest building principles and state-of-the-art finishes. Heritage Place is set to become one of the Lagos' most recognisable and accessible buildings.
  87. 87.   80    3. Senate Building, University of Lagos The senate building of Unilag is one of the highest of the lot. It is a 13 story high rise structure that towers above other buildings in Unilag. University of Lagos is the most sought after higher institution in Nigeria not because of the beauties inherent there or the somewhat breathtaking structures but because it is situated in the centre of excellence – LASGIDI– the city where dreams come true.      4. Four Points Lagos Four Points By Sheraton is a 4-Star luxury hotel located at Plot 9/10 Block 2, Oniru Chieftaincy Estate, Lekki Peninsula, Victoria Island,
  88. 88.   81    Lagos. Situated in the highbrow and ultra serene part of Lagos metropolis, it provides guests with a platform for relaxing in an atmosphere of luxury and excellent comfort. 5. Diamond Bank Headquarters Lagos Headquarters of Diamond Bank in Nigeria, this building's design is sure to draw second glance due to the peculiarity of its design. This is a very safe location. The intricate design features metal lines running across the glass facade of the building The building catches the eye from a distance, and one can not help but to examine the architectural wonder that is this building.
  89. 89.   82   
  90. 90.   83    6. Cathedral Church of Christ Lagos The foundation stone for the first cathedral building was laid on 29 March 1867 and the cathedral was established in 1869. Construction of the current building to designs by architect Bagan Benjamin started on 1 November 1924. The foundation stone was laid by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII) on 21 April 1925. It was completed in 1946. In 1976 the relics of Rev Dr Samuel Ajayi Crowther, a former Yoruba slave who became the first African bishop in the Anglican Church, were translated to the cathedral. There is a cenotaph erected as a memorial of him.[5] It is popularly known as the Cathedral Church of Christ Marina, is the oldest Anglican cathedral in the Church of Nigeria. At various times in its history, the cathedral was the seat of the archbishop of the Province of West Africa, the seat of the archbishop and primate of All Nigeria and the seat of the archbishop of the Ecclesiastical Province of Lagos. It is currently the seat of the Bishop of Lagos. By Yellowcrunchy - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=63271134
  91. 91.   84   
  92. 92.   85    7. Holy Cross Cathedral Lagos The first cathedral (which was a pro-cathedral) building was inaugurated in 1881 and built by stonemasons and architects Lazarus Borges da Silva and Francisco Nobre. This old cathedral saw the ordination of the first three Yoruba priests, late monsignors Lawrence Layode, Julius Onih, and Stephen Adewuyi in 1929 by Bishop Thomas Brodericks, the apostolic vicar of Western Nigeria after the death of Bishop Ferdinand Terrien. By the 1930s a larger cathedral was needed, and the older one was demolished. The current church building of French Gothic style architecture had its foundation stone laid on 6 August 1934 by Bishop Francis O'Rourke and it was completed in 1939. On 18 April 1950 the apostolic vicariate of Lagos was elevated to metropolitan archdiocese with the bull Laeto accepimus of Pope Pius XII. The archdiocese at the end of the year 2016 from a population of 12.276.000 people counted 3,274,000 baptized, corresponding to 26.7% of the total. By Kelechinaba - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=58366523
  93. 93.   86   
  94. 94.   87    8. Marriott Lagos Waterfront Hotel (Marriott Lagos, Victoria Island)  Name: Marriot Lagos, Victoria Island;  Floors: 10 Floors;  Keys: 200;  Investor/Developer: Quantum Luxury Properties;  Architects: G1 Architecture;  Site Area: 5,300 sqm;  Amenities: Over 1,400sqm of ball room & meeting facilities, infinity pool, spa & health club, executive lounge and a specialty restaurant. Ozumba Mbadiwe, Victoria Island will soon be christened ‘Hotel Row’, if developers have anything to do with it. This major Lagos thoroughfare already houses the Radisson Blu Anchorage and the Oriental Hotel (plus its soon to be completed extension). Across from the Oriental, is the Four Points by Sheraton, just off Ozumba Mbadiwe and if all goes well, the Marriott Lagos Waterfront will become the latest addition to Lagos’ Hotel Row. This will be the first Marriott-branded hotel in Nigeria, and one of the first in sub-Saharan Africa as it looks like Marriott Kigali in Rwanda will have the honour of being the first. The hotel will be sited on a 5,300sqm waterfront site, overlooking the Lagos Lagoon, next to the Civic Centre and the recently completed Civic
  95. 95.   88    Tower. The hotel’s developer, Quantum Luxury Properties, also owns the Civic Centre and the Civic Tower. The project architects, G1 Architecture, are also involved with the 251- key Marriott Hotel Ikeja being planned by Sifax Group, and the Cotonou Marriott, currently under construction. The design cleverly makes the best use of the limited area, with plenty of openings out onto the waterfront. The project is was under construction with a target completion date during 2018 but construction has been on hold for over 12 months. Before construction came to a halt, the ground level and basement levels were beginning to take shape.
  96. 96.   89   
  97. 97.   90    9. National Theater Lagos The National Arts Theatre is the primary centre for the performing arts in Nigeria. The monument is located in Iganmu, Surulere, Lagos. Its construction was completed in 1976 in preparation for the Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) in 1977. The collection of National Gallery of Modern Nigerian Art is housed in a section of this building. Construction of The National Arts Theatre was started by the military regime of General Yakubu Gowon and completed during the military regime of Olusegun Obasanjo. Its exterior is shaped like a military hat. It has a 5,000- seater Main Hall with a collapsible stage, and two capacity cinema halls, all of which are equipped with facilities for simultaneous translation of 8 languages; among others. The National Arts Theatre was designed and constructed by Bulgarian construction companies and resembles the Palace of Culture and Sports in Varna, Bulgaria (completed in 1968), the National Arts Theatre Lagos being the bigger of the two.
  98. 98.   91   
  99. 99.   92    10.Central Bank Lagos It is Located in the Island, a central business district in Lagos, the building measures 100 m (330 ft) with a total gross area of 99.50m². The L-shaped structure has 19 floors of which six are used as car parks and 13 as office space. The building also has a central atrium with four office wings, a wide 500- seater auditorium, a service block with five generators and other ancillary buildings. It was completed in 2013 by Messer Julius Berger.
  100. 100.   93    11. Former Nitel Building Lagos NECOM House (formerly NITEL Tower and before that, the NET Building) is a skyscraper located in Lagos. The 32-story building was completed in 1979, and houses the headquarters of NITEL. The communications spire at the top of the tower serves as a lighthouse beacon for Lagos Harbor. The building is constructed of concrete. The building was the tallest in Nigeria and the entirety of West Africa as at the time of completion. Necom House has suffered two fires since it was built; one in 1983 which caused considerable damage to the building, and the other in 2015 which affected the top of the building
  101. 101.   94    12.Muson Center MUSON Centre (Musical Society of Nigeria) is a performance hall in Lagos. The multipurpose civic auditorium is located in the heart of Lagos Island, situated conspicuously between the National Museum, the City Mall, the Onikan Stadium and the former official residence of the Nigeria’s Governors- Generals and adjacent to Tafawa Balewa Square. The Musical Society of Nigeria (MUSON) was established in 1983 in the site of the former "Love Garden" (prior to the unveiling the centre’s facilities by Prince Charles in 1995). MUSON was founded as a result of the commitment and dedication of some distinguished Nigerians and expatriates to stimulate the love and awareness of the richness of classical music in Nigerians, especially Lagosians.
  102. 102.   95    The need for musical training and instruction spurred the establishment of the Muson School of Music in 1989. Muson represents the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM) in Nigeria and offers ABRSM theory and practical examinations. Muson regularly organizes concerts of both Nigerian and Western genres. The MUSON choir commenced performances in 1995 while the MUSON Symphony Orchestra, Nigeria’s only professional symphony orchestra at the time, commenced performances in 2005. They perform regularly at the annual MUSON Festival and during the Society’s concert season. The MUSON Choir and the MUSON Symphony Orchestra are also invited to perform outside MUSON.
  103. 103.   96    13.City Hall The Lagos City Hall, established in 1900, is the secretariat of the oldest local government in Nigeria. It is located within the Brazilian quarters, right in the center of the Lagos business district. It is also adjacent to King's College, Lagos, St. Nicholas Hospital, Lagos and Cathedral of the Holy Cross, Lagos. The City Hall used to be the local government headquarters with other area offices serving the entire local governments in colonial Lagos and after Nigeria's independence. The City hall was the fountain of local government administration in Nigeria and the secretariat of the Lagos Island local government, the doyen of Nigeria's native or grassroots administration since 1900. The hall is a historical, political and cultural landmark for metropolitan Lagos.
  104. 104.   97    14.Intercontinental Hotel The Lagos Continental Hotel is a 5-Star hotel lying in the popular high- brow area of Lagos, at Plot 52, Kofo Abayomi Street, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. It is the tallest hospitality building in Nigeria, and with its terraces, it offers splendid views of the Lagos city, most importantly the Lagos Port and Lagos skyline. It is a 30-minute drive away from Ikoyi Club; with its proximity to Silverbird Cinemas and Embassies also, it has the right location for guests to enjoy their stay. The 23-storey houses 358 exquisite rooms and suites categorised into: King Superior, The Lagos Continental Club, Club King, One Bedroom Ambassador Suite, and One Bedroom Deluxe Suite. Rooms in The Lagos Continental Hotel are luxurious and exquisitely furnished with king-size beds, fine tapestries from around the world, air -conditioners, ornate lampshade, DVD-player, a refrigerator, a flat-screen TV with satellite reception, a work desk and chair, a wardrobe and a balcony that offers a breath-taking view of the surrounding. The rooms also come with a bathtub, a private bathroom with a hairdryer and a bathrobe.
  105. 105.   98    15.Eko Hotels and Suites Eko Hotels and Suites is a five-star conference centre hotel in Lagos. Established in 1977 as Èkó Holiday Inn and built on Victoria Island, it is the largest hotel in Nigeria. It was designed by architect Oluwole Olumuyiwa in collaboration with Americans.It was subsequently renamed Le Meridien Eko
  106. 106.   99    Hotel and Suites, Lagos. L'Hotel Eko Le Meridien is part of the Chagoury Group of companies. The Hotel building comprises 825 rooms and suites in four multistory buildings, clad in white with views of the Atlantic Ocean and the Kuramo Lagoon. The hotel located next to the financial centres of Lagos Island: Victoria Island. Eko Hotels & Suites has a sister hotel in Port Harcourt named Hotel Presidential. Eko Hotels & Suites has the largest Convention Centre in Nigeria Events that have taken place at the hotel include; concerts, movie premieres, international exhibitions, weddings, conferences and Award ceremonies. The Convention center is usually used for these events and can cater to 6,000 people.
  107. 107.   100    16.UBA Building United bank of Africa (UBA) might not be a new generation bank, but it has maintained its status as one of the leading banks of Africa. The UBA headquarters stands tall and straight as a sentinel overlooking the waters at Marina. The address is: UBA Asset Management Ltd UBA House (9th Floor) 57 Marina, Lagos. https://www.legit.ng/626631-see-amazing- pictures-5-lagos-banks-astonishing-buildings-photos.html 17.. Zenith Bank Headquarters Zenith Bank remains one of the banks we grew up on, many Lagosians paid their secondary school fees in Zenith Bank. The bank has now grown into a bank for the elite, due to their higher than normal
  108. 108.   101    deposit requirements. Their headquarters stands tall on Victoria Island Lagos. A monument made of glass. 18.. GT Bank Building Known for their technological innovation and groundbreaking banking inventions, Guaranty trust Bank (GTB) is a bank for the urbane, young and trendy, and true to this image, their buildings are futuristic and chic. Their Lagos Headquarters is no different.The address is 635 Akin Adesola Street, Victoria Island Lagos, Lagos State. https://www.legit.ng/626631-see-amazing- pictures-5-lagos-banks-astonishing-buildings-photos.html
  109. 109.   102    (Photographs in this chapter are taken by me, gotten from Google, Wikipedia and other Social Media platforms)
  110. 110.   103    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The various ideas in modern architecture are brought out to spotlight by the media in vast proportions that a person doesn’t need to visit any particular place in any part of the world to learn about architecture of that place. All of his/her requirements are click away, through online blogs, e-magazines and web albums that provide all the necessary information of any particular building through photographs, conceptual sketches , 3D’s and descriptions. The key connect in this aspect is photography as it gives a glimpse of the building to the reader and due to its authenticity it removes all abstract doubts of the building. When a reader looks into the photograph he has to be assured the authenticity of the photography. Architecture is more of an experimental medium, the photograph can only provide a glimpse of the building and it captures a momentary mood of the space. As a photographer one has to take responsibility to highlights the essential components of the design within the frame of the camera after discussion with the architect. Thus the architect has to be able to provide a physical experience to the photographer so as to facilitate him to capture precise angles of the building that highlights the various design aspects involved. A photograph is a tool that interprets an architectural space at a particular moment of time. To best understand a space through photography, the building has to be studied across a given time and documenting the building through
  111. 111.   104    photographs at different points of time. The angles that explain the building the best have to be chosen utmost care as it is this frame the whole world is about to see through the various media available. The idea of photography has always been the same: the only major advancements are in the field of technology which has made photography more flexible. The huge bulky cameras have been compacted and the digital sensors and storage have given new ways for experimentation of this medium and made it more compliant. Moreover, various details that could otherwise not be observed in a normal photograph due to excessive lighting or lack of lighting. At times, photographer has the freedom to manipulate the image according to the need. This manipulation has to be done with utmost care due to the above discussed reasons. Most photographers tend to add special effects or backdrops to photographs on Photoshop and the architect needed them for exhibition of their works. When one looks at the media, it is not an easy task for the architect to get himself published by a well reputed publisher. As said by Arc. Rajeev Agarwal, the architect would have to provide proof of authenticity of the photographs and any serious publication will not just publish any given work without proper verification. Photography has always been the greatest tool to document architecture. Buildings may get depleted and damaged in course of time but a photograph
  112. 112.   105    might live long. At times all of what remains are the photographs. Through the advent of present technology one is even able to create 360 panoramas which try to bring out the feel of a space but still it doesn’t match the realityof the spatial experience as it would lack the various dynamic facets prevalent in a space that makes it unique. Photography is a powerful tool to document and to provide a glimpse of the architecture documented. As documenting architecture is vital and photography is of utmost necessity in the process, photography becomes indispensable. “ A picture is worth a thousand words”
  113. 113.   vii    REFERENCES Artist biography. (n.d). Retrived December 17, 2018, from Asim Waqif; http://asimwaqif.com/#880111/Biography Barthes, R. (1981) Camera Lucida-Reflections on Photography. London: Fontana Paperbacks. Busch, A. (1993). The photography of architecture: twelve views. John Wiley & Sons. Collier, J. & Collier, M. (1986) Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method. New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press. Cronin, Ó. (1998) Psychology and Photographic Theory, Prosser J. (Ed.) Image- Based Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers. London: Routledge Falmer. Curl, D. H. (n.d). Photocommunication: A Guide to Creative Photography. New York: Macmillan Publishing. Elkins, J. (2003) Visual Studies: A Skeptical Introduction. New York: Routledge. Elwall, R. (2004). Building with Light, The International History of Architectural Photography, In M. Rothenstein, Color and Modern Architecture or the Photographic Eye (p. 195), United Kingdom: Merrell Publishers Limited.