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Artificial intelegence semifinal round (3rd rank)

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Artificial intelegence semifinal round (3rd rank)

  1. 1. • Intelligence: – “the capacity to learn and solve problems” (Websters dictionary) – in particular, • the ability to solve novel problems • the ability to act rationally • the ability to act like humans • Artificial Intelligence – build and understand intelligent entities or agents – 2 main approaches: “engineering” V /S “cognitive modeling”
  2. 2.  Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things that people are better at or would be better at if they could extend what they do to a World Wide Web- sized amount of data and not make mistakes.
  3. 3. AI can have two purposes. One is to use the power of computers to argument human thinking. The other is to use a computer's artificial intelligence to understand how humans think. In a humanoid way.
  4. 4. • Game Playing (Deep Blue Chess program, TD-gammon, …) • Handwriting recognition (Apple, IBM, Microsoft,...) • Speech Recognition (PEGASUS spoken language interface to American Airlines’ EAASY SABRE reservation system, Apple interface, …) • Human-computer interaction (COG, KISMET) • Navigation & problem solving (NASA Rover, MARS Beagle) • Computer Vision (Face recognition, ALVINN,…) • Expert Systems • Diagnostic Systems (Microsoft Office Assistant in Office 97) • Planning/scheduling (DARPA DART, ARPI) • Web search tools (Google,...) • Games and movies (eg. Lord of the Rings, Age of Empires, ...)
  5. 5. • Deep Blue defeated the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997 • AI program proved a mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for decades • During the 1991 Gulf War, US forces deployed an AI logistics planning and scheduling program that involved up to 50,000 vehicles, cargo, and people • NASA's on-board autonomous planning program controlled the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft • Proverb solves crossword puzzles better than most humans • Robot driving: DARPA grand challenge 2003-2007 • 2006: face recognition software available in consumer cameras
  6. 6. • Deep Blue defeated the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997 • AI program proved a mathematical conjecture (Robbins conjecture) unsolved for decades • During the 1991 Gulf War, US forces deployed an AI logistics planning and scheduling program that involved up to 50,000 vehicles, cargo, and people • NASA's on-board autonomous planning program controlled the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft • Proverb solves crossword puzzles better than most humans • Robot driving: DARPA grand challenge 2003-2007 • 2006: face recognition software available in consumer cameras
  7. 7. • 1950 Claude Shannon published a paper describing how a computer could play chess. • 1952-1962 Art Samuel built the first checkers program • 1957 Newell and Simon predicted that a computer will beat a human at chess within 10 years. • 1967 MacHack was good enough to achieve a class-C rating in tournament chess. • 1994 Chinook became the world checkers champion • 1997 Deep Blue beat Kasparpov • 2007 Checkers is solved
  8. 8. 2
  9. 9. • Anonymity (Joinson, 2001) • Online disinhibition effect (Suler, 2004) • Cyber immersion (Takatalo et al., 2008) • Cyber presence (Riva et al., 2007) • Self-presentation online (Gibbs et al., 2006) • Privacy (McMahon & Aiken, 2014; Barnes, 2006) • Escalation online (White & Horvitz, 2002) • Altruism (Adar & Huberman, 2000) • Trust (Putnam, 2000) • Identity (Turkle, 1999; Gross & Acquisti, 2005)
  10. 10. CyberPsychologyHUMAN TECHNOLOGY CyberPsychology: Delivering insight at the human,technology interface
  11. 11. • Post Office – automatic address recognition and sorting of mail • Banks – automatic check readers, signature verification systems – automated loan application classification • Customer Service – automatic voice recognition • The Web – Identifying your age, gender, location, from your Web surfing – Automated fraud detection • Digital Cameras – Automated face detection and focusing • Computer Games – Intelligent characters/agents
  12. 12. “The automation of activities that we associate with human thinking…” Bellman, 1978 Thinking like a human “The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models” Charniak & McDermott, 1985 Thinking rationally “The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people.” Kurzweil, 1990 Acting like a human “The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior.” Luger, 2002 Acting rationally
  13. 13. • Represent facts about the world via logic • Use logical inference as a basis for reasoning about these facts • Can be a very useful approach to AI – E.g., theorem-provers • Limitations – Does not account for an agent’s uncertainty about the world • E.g., difficult to couple to vision or speech systems – Has no way to represent goals, costs, etc (important aspects of real-world environments)
  14. 14. • Decision theory/Economics – Set of future states of the world – Set of possible actions an agent can take – Utility = gain to an agent for each action/state pair – An agent acts rationally if it selects the action that maximizes its “utility” • Or expected utility if there is uncertainty • Emphasis is on autonomous agents that behave rationally (make the best predictions, take the best actions) – on average over time – within computational limitations (“bounded rationality”)
  15. 15. • Turing (1950) "Computing machinery and intelligence“ • "Can machines think?"  "Can machines behave intelligently?“ • Operational test for intelligent behavior: the Imitation Game • Suggests major components required for AI: - knowledge representation - reasoning, - language/image understanding, - learning * Question: is it important that an intelligent system act like a human?
  16. 16. • Cognitive Science approach – Try to get “inside” our minds – E.g., conduct experiments with people to try to “reverse- engineer” how we reason, learning, remember, predict • Problems – Humans don’t behave rationally • e.g., insurance – The reverse engineering is very hard to do – The brain’s hardware is very different to a computer program
  17. 17. Intelligent embedded software and hardware for traffic control, safety, security.....
  18. 18. Embedded intelligent systems for control of unmanned aerial vehicles
  19. 19. COGKismet
  20. 20. Project at Carnegie Mellon, Pittsburgh Project at JPL, Pasadena
  21. 21. Under water McGill Aqua project in the forest...
  22. 22. And just helping out housekeeping
  23. 23.  Intelligence & Artificial Intelligence  Success Stories AI Technology  AI in Gaming  AI in Cyber security  Intelligent Systems in Your Everyday Life  What Is AI?  Think Like Human  Act Like Human  Think Rationally  Act Rationally  Application Of AI
  24. 24. THANK YOU... Any Questions.!!!

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