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Introduction to research 14-7-22.pptx

  1. Research Introduction , Meaning, Objectives, Motives and Types Himani Pandya Research Department
  2. What is Research Research is an activity that leads us to finding new facts, information, assisting us in verifying the available knowledge and in making us question for things that are difficult to understand as per existing data.
  3. Introduction to Research  Research is defined as systematic gathering of data and information and its analysis for advancement of knowledge in any subject.  Research attempts to find answer intellectual and practical questions through application of systematic methods.  Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary defines research as "studious inquiry or examination; esp: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws".  Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown.
  4.  Research includes defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
  5. Characteristics of Research 1. Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. 2. Research gathers new knowledge or data from primary sources. 3. Research is based upon observable experience or experimental evidence. 4. Research is logical and objective, applying every possible test to verify the data 5. Research is expert, systematic and accurate investigation. 6. Research demands accurate observation and description. 7. Research requires patience and courage. 8. The researcher should courageously face the unpleasant finding 9. Research is carefully recorded and reported. Everything must be carefully defined and described in detail.
  6. Objectives Of Research  The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth : which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet
  7. We may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings:  To gain knowledge with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies (Find out the nature of the problem));  To describe accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group(studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies);  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies);  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis- testing research studies).
  8. Types of research Types of research can be classified in many different ways. some major ways of classifying research include the following.  Descriptive versus Analytical Research  Applied versus Fundamental Research  Qualitative versus Quantitative Research  Conceptual versus Empirical Research
  9. Descriptive versus Analytical Research  Descriptive research is a type of research that is used to describe the characteristics of a population. It collects data that are used to answer a wide range of what, when, and how questions relating to a particular population or group.  The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.
  10.  Subdivisions of Descriptive Research  Survey Research  The Case Study  Correlational Study  Comparative Study
  11.  Analytical Research • Involves in-depth study and evaluation of available information in an attempt to explain complex phenomenon  The researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material  Subdivisions of Analytical Research Historical Research Philosophical Research Review Research synthesis (meta analysis i.e. analysis of the review already published)
  12. Applied versus Fundamental Research  Applied research is carried out to find answers to practical problems to be solved and as an aid in decision making in different areas including product design, process design and policy making.  Fundamental research is carried out as more to satisfy intellectual curiosity, than with the intention of using the research findings for any immediate practical application.
  13. Quantitative and Quantitative Research  Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, and allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses.  Qualitative research deals with words and meanings. And allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.
  14. Conceptual and Empirical Research  Conceptual research is involves investigation of thoughts and ideas and developing new ideas or interpreting the old ones based on logical reasoning.  Empirical research is based on firm verifiable data collected by either observation of facts under natural condition or obtained through experimentation .
  15.  Some Other Types of Research All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor.
  16. MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its significant benefits; 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; 3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work 4. Desire to be of service to society 5. Desire to get respectability.
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