What is tragedy?
The Greek word,tragoidia,it means 'the song of the goat'. which is refers to ancient
rituals, sacrifice of goat,which is associated with Dionysus,The ancient Greek God
According to Oxford Dictionary,
"Tragedy is an event causing great sadness,or suffering." Or we can say.
"Tragedy is a serious play with an unhappy ending.”
What is a Shakespearean tragedy?
"Shakespearean tragedy is a play,which was written
by Shakespeare himself,and in his own different
"Shakespearean tragedy is a play written by other
authors,but is in the style of shakespeare."
10 Tragedies of Shakespeare
Shakespear wrote 10 tragedies during his lifetime..
(1)Titus andronicus (2)Romeo and Juliet
(3)king Lear (4)Hemlet
(5)Othello (6)Julius caesar
(7)Macbeth (8)antony and Cleopatra
(9)coriolanus (10)Timon of athens
(1)THE TRAGIC HERO
- The Tragedies revolves around one person.
- The person or protagonist is either male or female
- The hero is someone who is the most tragic person in the play.
- Andrew Cecil Bradley, notable 20th century Shakespeare scholar,Shakespearean
tragedy is "essentially a tale of suffering and calamity conducting to death".
- The hero or heroine of the play's is towering personality in state /kingdom/ Country,
and holds the high position.
- such kind of figures are kings, princess, military, generals, and others.
- Macbeth, we find he is a general or kingsman. Who later on became king.
- Hamlet, prince of Denmark, highly educated, sociable, charming and philosophic bent.
At the end meet his own tragic end.
(2) STRUGGLE BETWEEN GOOD AND EVIL
- Mostly the supremacy of evil. Suppress the good.
- Evil characters are always introduced as having the most solid personality and
- Edward Dowden, poet of light century and Literary critic of the same age, noted that,
"Tragedy as conceived by Shakespeare is concerned with the ruin or restoration of
the soul and of the life of man. In other words, it's subject is the struggle of good and
evil in the world".
- The main character turns to evil at last and suffers terribly, and fails due to his fatal
- Macbeth, as in starting he is shown as a good character and then turned into the evil.
In between, we found him suffering from his own mental confusion, and conflicting
- hamartia is a greek word,used for 'sin' or 'error',which derives from the verb
hamatanein,it means 'to ear' or ''to miss the mark".
- In Shakespearean tragedy this word is used for tragic flaw.
- In Shakespearean tragedy, every hero fell, or died just because of his or her
own tragic flaw.
- Sometimes they fall from high positions or sometimes fate leads them
- good example of Hamartia we found in Macbeth where at last Macbeth died
because of his extreme greed and fat also Lady Macbeth soon died.
1 - External conflict :-
- This type of conflict causes a mess in
the mind of a tragic Hero.
- Hamlet we see,he wants to kill his
uncle,Claudius as a revenge but
because of his tight and effective
security. Hamlet isn't able to translate
his idea into action.
2 - Internal Conflict :-
- In Shakespearean tragedy,internal conflicts are
reflected as an inner confusion in the mind of the
- Internal conflict is mainly responsible for the
hero's fall,along with fate or destiny.
- Macbeth is a perfect example: somehow,he wants
to kill the king, but somewhere, he was confused
about his work.
- Hamlet wanted to kill his uncle but felt inner
conflict, ''Do, or not to Do'' which at the end led him
towards his death.
- Mainly the work of catharsis is to help the audience to release their
emotions by tragedy.
- For example, if we watch any play, we connect the character personally.
- And that gives us some opportunity to feel pity for a certain character
and fear for another.
- When a villain is working against the hero,we feel disgust for him and
when hero like Macbeth, Hamlet and Othello died, we feel sorry for
them and the same time we also feel happy that finally they received
(6) SUPERNATURAL ELEMENTS
- In the play, Supernatural beings are create a kind of
atmosphere of wonder,fear,awe etc.
- They generally used to advance the story and drive the
- In Macbeth. The three witches by their progressive
lead the play ahead.
- In Hamlet,the ghost of king Hamlet leads the play.
- Greek and Roman writers didn’t use comic relief. But
Shakespeare wanted to relieve the tension for the
reader and lighten up the mood here and there.
- gravedigger scene in Hamlet.
- Drunken porter scene in Macbeth
- “The fool is smarter than the king”, dialogue in King
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