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• Thermodynamics- Thermodynamics is
the branch of science concerned with
heat and temperature and their relation to
energy and work. It states that the
behavior of these quantities is governed
by the four laws of thermodynamics,
irrespective of the composition or
specific properties of the material or
system in question
• The word system is very
commonly used in
thermodynamics; let us
know what it is. Certain
quantity of matter or the
space which is under
thermodynamic study or
analysis is called as system.
A pure substance contains only
one type of particle. Substances
don't usually occur in their pure
form in nature, so in order to
obtain pure substances, people
must refine raw materials. Some
examples of pure substances are
gold, aluminium, and sugar.
PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS
Property is defined as the characteristic of any system.
Some known properties are pressure (P), Temperature (T) ,
Volume (V) and mass(M).
Some are independent and some properties are dependent
on other property like density is defined as the ratio of
mass per unit volume (since mass and volume are
TYPES OF PROPERTIES
There are two types of properties
• It is the property of a system which is
dependent on the size of a system such
as temperature, pressure and density.
It is the property of the system which is dependent on the
size as well as the extent of the system. Such as mass M.
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
• The first law of thermodynamics
is a version of the law of
conservation of energy, adapted
for thermodynamic systems. The
law of conservation of energy
states that the total energy of an
isolated system is constant;
energy can be transformed from
one form to another, but cannot
be created or destroyed
SECOND LAW OF
• The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system
always increases over time, or remains constant in ideal cases where the system is in a
steady state or undergoing a reversible process. The increase in entropy accounts for the
irreversibility of natural processes, and the asymmetry between future and past.
THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
• The third law of thermodynamics is
sometimes stated as follows, regarding
the properties of systems in equilibrium
at absolute zero temperature:
• The entropy of a perfect crystal at
absolute zero is exactly equal to zero.