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# Introduction to thermodynamics

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### Introduction to thermodynamics

1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS Paprinder Singh Assistant Professor FET GNA University
2. 2. Definition • Thermodynamics- Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It states that the behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question
3. 3. THERMODYNAMICS SYSTEMS • The word system is very commonly used in thermodynamics; let us know what it is. Certain quantity of matter or the space which is under thermodynamic study or analysis is called as system.
4. 4. TYPES OF SYSTEMS
5. 5. PURE SUBSTANCES A pure substance contains only one type of particle. Substances don't usually occur in their pure form in nature, so in order to obtain pure substances, people must refine raw materials. Some examples of pure substances are gold, aluminium, and sugar.
6. 6. PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS Property is defined as the characteristic of any system. Some known properties are pressure (P), Temperature (T) , Volume (V) and mass(M). Some are independent and some properties are dependent on other property like density is defined as the ratio of mass per unit volume (since mass and volume are properties)
7. 7. TYPES OF PROPERTIES There are two types of properties INTENSIVE PROPERTIES • It is the property of a system which is dependent on the size of a system such as temperature, pressure and density. EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES It is the property of the system which is dependent on the size as well as the extent of the system. Such as mass M.
8. 8. ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
9. 9. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS • The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems. The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed
10. 10. SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS • The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system always increases over time, or remains constant in ideal cases where the system is in a steady state or undergoing a reversible process. The increase in entropy accounts for the irreversibility of natural processes, and the asymmetry between future and past.
11. 11. THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS • The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in equilibrium at absolute zero temperature: • The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero.
12. 12. THANK YOU