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Coin Age - India

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The development of coins in India, dating back to the Ancient Indian civilizations, till current day.

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Coin Age - India

  1. 1. CoinAge- INDIA Hrishi Desai 0813
  3. 3. Introduction Coins provide not only evidence of art and economy, but also a wisdom for understanding the history and politics of a nation. As a means of communication, they speak to the political and religious ideologies that underpinned a ruler's or state's claim to power. Coinage of India, issued by Imperial dynasties and smaller middle kingdoms of India began during the 1st millennium BCE, and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage. Hrishi Desai
  4. 4. Ancient Punch Marked Coins : The Indus valley civilisation of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa dates back between 2500 BC and 1750 BC. There, however, is no consensus on whether the seals excavated from the sites were in fact coins.  The first documented coinage is deemed to start with 'Punch Marked' coins issued between the 7th-6th century BC and 1st century AD. These coins are called 'punch-marked' coins because of their manufacturing technique. Mostly made of silver, these bear symbols, each of which was punched on the coin with a separate punch. Hrishi Desai
  5. 5. Seals of Mohenjo-Daro Punch Marked Coin, Silver Bentbar Hrishi Desai
  6. 6. Issued initially by merchant Guilds and later by States, the coins represented a trade currency belonging to a period of intensive trade activity and urban development. They are broadly classified into two periods : the first period (attributed to the Janapadas or small local states) and the second period (attributed to the Imperial Mauryan period). The motifs found on these coins were mostly drawn from nature like the sun, various animal motifs, trees, hills etc. and some were geometrical symbols. Hrishi Desai
  7. 7. Hrishi Desai
  8. 8. Kushan Coins The Kushan coins generally depicted iconographic forms drawn from Greek, Mesopotamian, Zorastrian and Indian mythology. Siva, Buddha and Kartikeya were the major Indian deities portrayed. Hrishi Desai
  9. 9. satavahana coins These coins carried the motifs of fauna like elephants, lions, bulls, horses, etc. often juxtaposed against motifs from nature like hills, tree, etc Hrishi Desai
  10. 10. Western Kshatrapa The term Western Kshatraps alludes to the set of rulers who ruled Western India between the 1st and 4th Century AD. The common copper coins are the 'bull and hill' and the 'elephant and hill' types. Hrishi Desai
  11. 11. Gupta coins Gupta coinage (4th-6th centuries AD) followed the tradition of the Kushans, depicting the king on the obverse and a deity on the reverse; the deities were Indian and the legends were in Brahmi. Hrishi Desai
  12. 12. Post Gupta coins Post-Gupta coinage (6th-12th centuries AD), is represented by a monotonous and aesthetically less interesting series. Gold coins struck between this period are rare. Hrishi Desai
  13. 13. South indian coins The symbols and motifs on South Indian coin issues were confined to dynastic crests such as the boar (Chalukya), bull (Pallava), tiger (Chola), fish (Pandya and Alupas), bow and arrow (Cheras) and lion (Hoysala) etc. Coin legends refer to names or titles of the issuer in local scripts and languages. Hrishi Desai
  14. 14. Medieval Coins of the Delhi Sultanate Hrishi Desai
  15. 15. Coins of the Khiljis Silver Coin, Malwa Hrishi Desai
  16. 16. Coins of the Vijayanagar Empire Pagoda, East India Company inspired by the coins of the Vijayanagar Empire Hrishi Desai
  17. 17. Mughal Technically, the Mughal period in India commenced in 1526 AD when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi and ended in 1857 AD when the British deposed and exiled Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Emperor after the great uprising. The later emperors after Shah Alam II were little more than figureheads. The most significant monetary contribution of the Mughals was to bring about uniformity and consolidation of the system of coinage throughout the Empire. The system lasted long after the Mughal Empire was effectively no more. Hrishi Desai
  18. 18. Mohur-Aurangzeb Mohur-Farrukhsiyar Hrishi Desai
  19. 19. Pre-COLONIAL While the Marathas have had a long history, they came into the limelight in the seventeenth century led by the charismatic leader Shivaji. The Maratha Confederacy consolidated itself after Aurangzeb's death in 1707 AD. As regards coinage, Shivaji first issued coins in 1664 AD when he assumed the title of Raja. Coins were again issued to commemorate his coronation at Raigadh in 1674 AD. These coins are rare. Maratha Mints and coinage were consolidated around the middle of the eighteenth century. Three types of Rupees were in circulation during this period, viz., the Hali Sicca, the Ankushi rupee which was the standard rupee of Pune, and the Chandori rupee which was on par with the Ankushi. MARATHA COINS Hrishi Desai
  20. 20. MARATHA COINS Hrishi Desai
  21. 21. The monetary system consisted of the gold ashrafi, (half, quarter, eighth and sixteenth of an ashrafi), the silver rupee with similar five denominations and the copper fulus. COINS OF AWADH Hrishi Desai
  22. 22. The gold coins carried the Hara-Gauri motif and the King's name on the reverse. The silver coins were in the Mughal tradition, bearing the name of the Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam II on the obverse and the name of the mint on the reverse. Some of the smaller fraction coins carried the image of the deity Chamunda, the family deity of the Wodeyar family COINS OF MYSORE Coins of Haider Ali Coins of Tipu Sultan Hrishi Desai
  23. 23. sikh coins Around 1777 AD, coins were issued from Amritsar without the name of the Mughal Emperor and were called 'Nanak Shahi'. These coins bore the name of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs. Hrishi Desai
  24. 24. coins of hyderabad The coins of the Nizams were issued in the name of the Mughal Emperor till 1858 when a coin legend was introduced with the name of the founder of the state, Asaf Jha. Thereafter, they were struck independently and the new coins were termed the 'Hali Sicca', i.e., the current coins. In 1903-04 coins were machine struck for the first time. These coins featured the Charminar on the obverse with Persian inscription Nizam-ul-mulk Bahadur Asaf Jah around it. The reverse carried the value. Hrishi Desai
  25. 25. Hyderabad Coins Hrishi Desai
  26. 26. Udaipur Coins Hrishi Desai
  27. 27. And after this era, started the British Era, followed by Republic India (after the Independence). Thus, this is the evolving of Coin since ancient times till today’s date. Hrishi Desai
  28. 28. THANK YOU! Hrishi Desai