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Culture of Egypt

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History and culture of Egypt..

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  1. 1. Life Style of Ancient Egyptian By Huma.ch Department of geography
  2. 2. History of Egypt • Egypt was controlled by a ruler named Mena. The last of Egypt's pharaoh's was dethroned. in 322 B.C.E. it was conquered by Alexander the Great. • In 642 C.E., Arab forces took control and began to introduce the Arabic language which still exists in Egypt. • In1517, the Ottoman Turks entered and took control of Egypt which ended in 1882. • British stepped in to end a revolt against the Ottomans. They then occupied the area until 1922, when the United Kingdom declared Egypt independent.
  3. 3. History of Egypt Periods Time Frame Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E. Archaic 3100 – 2650 B. C. E. Old Kingdom 2650 – 2134 B. C. E. Middle Kingdom 2040 – 1640 B. C. E. New Kingdom 1550 – 1070 B. C. E. Late Period 750 – 332 B. C. E. Greek Ptolemaic Era 332 – 30 B. C. E. Roman Period 30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
  4. 4. Life Style of ancient Egyptian Marriage Food , cooking Cosmetics, Hairs Jewellery, Clothing Housing , Furniture Jobs Government Religion Gods and Goddess Key Gods Treatment with dead body
  5. 5. Marriage • The concept of marriage in Egypt is not an easy topic. Marriage between cousins, or uncles and nieces were fairly common in Egypt But, Father can marry with daughter Brother can also marry with sister. 24 percent of marriages among common people were brother/sister relationships. In early periods the future husband made a payment to the bride's father.
  6. 6. Food , cooking • cooking was done in clay ovens as well as over open fires. Beer was most popular drink. And bread was most popular food. The flour was then pounded by men to make a fine grain. Sesame seeds, honey, fruit, butter, and herbs were often added to the dough to help flavour the bread
  7. 7. Cosmetics, Hairs • Most people bathed daily in the river or out of a water basin at home. The wealthy had a separate room in their home to bath. Servants would pour jugs of water over their master. Men, women and children of all ages and classes wore makeup Their hair were short. Young girls usually Had long hairs. Wigs were worn by both men and women. The wigs were made of sheep's wool or human hair for decoration and for protection from the heat.
  8. 8. Jewellery, Clothing • Everyone in Egypt wore some type of jewellery. Rings and Bracelets were especially worn to ward off the evil spirits and injury. Both men and women wore earrings, armlets, bracelets, and anklets. The rich wore jewelled or collars, necklaces, and pendants. For the rich, jewellery was made of gold, silver. During the Old and Middle kingdoms, men usually wore a short skirt called a kilt. Women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps. The wealthy men wore pleated kilts, and the older men wore a longer kilt.
  9. 9. Housing , Furniture Egyptian homes were made from bricks of sun dried mud, called adobe, because wood was scarce. A nobleman's home was divided into three areas: a reception area, a hall, and the private quarters. inside walls were decorated with wall hangings made of leather, and the floors were covered with tile Most all people had some furniture consisting mostly of a stool, small boxes for jewellery and cosmetics, chests for clothing, pottery jars, and oil lamps.
  10. 10. Jobs • Farmers: most of the people were farmers. They grew barley to make bear, wheat for bread, vegetables such as onions and cucumbers, and flax to make into linen. • Craftspeople: There were a wide variety of craftsmen jobs. They included carpenters, weavers, jewellers, leather workers, and potters. • Soldiers: Becoming a soldier was an opportunity for a person to rise in society. In peacetime, soldiers would help with government projects such as moving stone for a pyramid or digging a canal. • Scribes: Scribes were important people in Ancient Egypt as they were the only people who knew how to read and write. • Priests and Priestesses: Priests and Priestesses were responsible for the temples and held religious ceremonies.
  11. 11. Government Ancient Egypt achieved stability through the co-operation of all levels of the population. The PHAROAH was at the top of the social hierarchy. • Next to him, the most powerful officers were the VIZIERS, the executive heads of the bureaucracy. • Under them were the HIGH PRIESTS, followed by ROYAL OVERSEERS (administrators) who ensured that the 42 DISTRICT GOVERNORS carried out the pharaoh's orders. • At the bottom of the hierarchy were the SCRIBES, ARTISANS, FARMERS, and LABORERS.
  12. 12. Religion • Throughout Egypt's history beliefs and practices were constantly changing though the themes of fertility, rebirth, death and resurrection generally remained constant. The Egyptians had many tales about how the world began. According to one legend, it started with an ocean in darkness. Then a mound of dry land rose up and the sun god Re appeared. He created light and all things
  13. 13. Gods and Goddess • Thousands of gods and goddesses worshipped were by the Egyptians. Local areas had local gods, with each city or region often having their own Gods that they worshipped. If a city came to prominence under a ruler or powerful official, then the local gods rose alongside them. Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods. They were everywhere. Each city had a temple built for the god of that city. The purpose of the temple was to be a cosmic centre by which men had communication with the gods. The priest’s duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs.
  14. 14. Key Gods Amun was one of the most powerful gods in ancient Egypt. At the height of Egyptian civilisation he was called the 'King of the Gods'. Amun was important throughout the history of Egypt Ra was the God Of Sun. However, when Amun was combined with the sun god Ra he was even more powerful. He was then called Amun-Ra Anubis was the jackal-headed god of embalming and mummification and the patron god of embalmers. He was also a guardian of the dead and a guide through the underworld
  15. 15. Key Gods Osiris chief god of the dead and the afterlife is usually depicted as a mummy- shaped human wearing the atef crown (a white crown flanked by ostrich feathers) and holding a crook Isis was the wife- sister of Osiris and a powerful goddess of protection. Horu the falcon-headed sky god was the son of Osiris and Isis His eye was a powerful protective amulet
  16. 16. Treatment with dead body • Egyptian buried their dead in a different way than we do today. They mummified you depending on how much money you had. It was a very expensive and long burial process to complete. They would wrap you up in linen and when they were done, you would look like a ball of cloth. They put them in things called tombs. Whatever tomb they put a mummy in they painted scenes of the afterlife on the walls.
  17. 17. MATERIALS USED IN MUMMIFICATION MATERIALS USED IN MUMMIFICATION: 1. Linen 2. Sawdust 3. Lichen 4. Beeswax 5. Resin 6. Natron 7. Onion 8. Nile mud 9. Linen pads 10. Frankincense
  18. 18. Steps of mummification • The dead body was laid out on a table and the brain removed via the nostrils with an iron hook, and what cannot be reached with the hook is washed out.
  19. 19. Steps of mummification • next the flank is opened with a flint knife and the whole contents of the abdomen removed; the cavity is then thoroughly cleaned and washed out, firstly with palm wine and again with an infusion of ground spices. after this the body is placed in natron, covered entirely over for seventy days.
  20. 20. Steps of mummification • When this period is over, the body is washed and then wrapped from head to foot in linen cut into strips and smeared on the underside with gum, which is commonly used by the Egyptians instead of glue. In this condition the body is given back to the family who have a wooden case made, shaped like a human figure, into which it is put.
  21. 21. Conclusion • the culture of Egypt is the most strongest, famous and old culture in whole over the world. This culture has some amazing stories about the world, about their God and Goddess. The pyramids and mummies in them attract the people of the entire world. The name of Egypt is famous in the entire world only due to its culture. The unique thing about this culture is that this is most safe and complete ancient culture. This is a Silence Culture but its silence is roaring in the every corner of the world..!!

Description

History and culture of Egypt..

Transcription

  1. 1. Life Style of Ancient Egyptian By Huma.ch Department of geography
  2. 2. History of Egypt • Egypt was controlled by a ruler named Mena. The last of Egypt's pharaoh's was dethroned. in 322 B.C.E. it was conquered by Alexander the Great. • In 642 C.E., Arab forces took control and began to introduce the Arabic language which still exists in Egypt. • In1517, the Ottoman Turks entered and took control of Egypt which ended in 1882. • British stepped in to end a revolt against the Ottomans. They then occupied the area until 1922, when the United Kingdom declared Egypt independent.
  3. 3. History of Egypt Periods Time Frame Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E. Archaic 3100 – 2650 B. C. E. Old Kingdom 2650 – 2134 B. C. E. Middle Kingdom 2040 – 1640 B. C. E. New Kingdom 1550 – 1070 B. C. E. Late Period 750 – 332 B. C. E. Greek Ptolemaic Era 332 – 30 B. C. E. Roman Period 30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
  4. 4. Life Style of ancient Egyptian Marriage Food , cooking Cosmetics, Hairs Jewellery, Clothing Housing , Furniture Jobs Government Religion Gods and Goddess Key Gods Treatment with dead body
  5. 5. Marriage • The concept of marriage in Egypt is not an easy topic. Marriage between cousins, or uncles and nieces were fairly common in Egypt But, Father can marry with daughter Brother can also marry with sister. 24 percent of marriages among common people were brother/sister relationships. In early periods the future husband made a payment to the bride's father.
  6. 6. Food , cooking • cooking was done in clay ovens as well as over open fires. Beer was most popular drink. And bread was most popular food. The flour was then pounded by men to make a fine grain. Sesame seeds, honey, fruit, butter, and herbs were often added to the dough to help flavour the bread
  7. 7. Cosmetics, Hairs • Most people bathed daily in the river or out of a water basin at home. The wealthy had a separate room in their home to bath. Servants would pour jugs of water over their master. Men, women and children of all ages and classes wore makeup Their hair were short. Young girls usually Had long hairs. Wigs were worn by both men and women. The wigs were made of sheep's wool or human hair for decoration and for protection from the heat.
  8. 8. Jewellery, Clothing • Everyone in Egypt wore some type of jewellery. Rings and Bracelets were especially worn to ward off the evil spirits and injury. Both men and women wore earrings, armlets, bracelets, and anklets. The rich wore jewelled or collars, necklaces, and pendants. For the rich, jewellery was made of gold, silver. During the Old and Middle kingdoms, men usually wore a short skirt called a kilt. Women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps. The wealthy men wore pleated kilts, and the older men wore a longer kilt.
  9. 9. Housing , Furniture Egyptian homes were made from bricks of sun dried mud, called adobe, because wood was scarce. A nobleman's home was divided into three areas: a reception area, a hall, and the private quarters. inside walls were decorated with wall hangings made of leather, and the floors were covered with tile Most all people had some furniture consisting mostly of a stool, small boxes for jewellery and cosmetics, chests for clothing, pottery jars, and oil lamps.
  10. 10. Jobs • Farmers: most of the people were farmers. They grew barley to make bear, wheat for bread, vegetables such as onions and cucumbers, and flax to make into linen. • Craftspeople: There were a wide variety of craftsmen jobs. They included carpenters, weavers, jewellers, leather workers, and potters. • Soldiers: Becoming a soldier was an opportunity for a person to rise in society. In peacetime, soldiers would help with government projects such as moving stone for a pyramid or digging a canal. • Scribes: Scribes were important people in Ancient Egypt as they were the only people who knew how to read and write. • Priests and Priestesses: Priests and Priestesses were responsible for the temples and held religious ceremonies.
  11. 11. Government Ancient Egypt achieved stability through the co-operation of all levels of the population. The PHAROAH was at the top of the social hierarchy. • Next to him, the most powerful officers were the VIZIERS, the executive heads of the bureaucracy. • Under them were the HIGH PRIESTS, followed by ROYAL OVERSEERS (administrators) who ensured that the 42 DISTRICT GOVERNORS carried out the pharaoh's orders. • At the bottom of the hierarchy were the SCRIBES, ARTISANS, FARMERS, and LABORERS.
  12. 12. Religion • Throughout Egypt's history beliefs and practices were constantly changing though the themes of fertility, rebirth, death and resurrection generally remained constant. The Egyptians had many tales about how the world began. According to one legend, it started with an ocean in darkness. Then a mound of dry land rose up and the sun god Re appeared. He created light and all things
  13. 13. Gods and Goddess • Thousands of gods and goddesses worshipped were by the Egyptians. Local areas had local gods, with each city or region often having their own Gods that they worshipped. If a city came to prominence under a ruler or powerful official, then the local gods rose alongside them. Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods. They were everywhere. Each city had a temple built for the god of that city. The purpose of the temple was to be a cosmic centre by which men had communication with the gods. The priest’s duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs.
  14. 14. Key Gods Amun was one of the most powerful gods in ancient Egypt. At the height of Egyptian civilisation he was called the 'King of the Gods'. Amun was important throughout the history of Egypt Ra was the God Of Sun. However, when Amun was combined with the sun god Ra he was even more powerful. He was then called Amun-Ra Anubis was the jackal-headed god of embalming and mummification and the patron god of embalmers. He was also a guardian of the dead and a guide through the underworld
  15. 15. Key Gods Osiris chief god of the dead and the afterlife is usually depicted as a mummy- shaped human wearing the atef crown (a white crown flanked by ostrich feathers) and holding a crook Isis was the wife- sister of Osiris and a powerful goddess of protection. Horu the falcon-headed sky god was the son of Osiris and Isis His eye was a powerful protective amulet
  16. 16. Treatment with dead body • Egyptian buried their dead in a different way than we do today. They mummified you depending on how much money you had. It was a very expensive and long burial process to complete. They would wrap you up in linen and when they were done, you would look like a ball of cloth. They put them in things called tombs. Whatever tomb they put a mummy in they painted scenes of the afterlife on the walls.
  17. 17. MATERIALS USED IN MUMMIFICATION MATERIALS USED IN MUMMIFICATION: 1. Linen 2. Sawdust 3. Lichen 4. Beeswax 5. Resin 6. Natron 7. Onion 8. Nile mud 9. Linen pads 10. Frankincense
  18. 18. Steps of mummification • The dead body was laid out on a table and the brain removed via the nostrils with an iron hook, and what cannot be reached with the hook is washed out.
  19. 19. Steps of mummification • next the flank is opened with a flint knife and the whole contents of the abdomen removed; the cavity is then thoroughly cleaned and washed out, firstly with palm wine and again with an infusion of ground spices. after this the body is placed in natron, covered entirely over for seventy days.
  20. 20. Steps of mummification • When this period is over, the body is washed and then wrapped from head to foot in linen cut into strips and smeared on the underside with gum, which is commonly used by the Egyptians instead of glue. In this condition the body is given back to the family who have a wooden case made, shaped like a human figure, into which it is put.
  21. 21. Conclusion • the culture of Egypt is the most strongest, famous and old culture in whole over the world. This culture has some amazing stories about the world, about their God and Goddess. The pyramids and mummies in them attract the people of the entire world. The name of Egypt is famous in the entire world only due to its culture. The unique thing about this culture is that this is most safe and complete ancient culture. This is a Silence Culture but its silence is roaring in the every corner of the world..!!

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