• Inherited disorder charactarised by complete
absence or partial reduction of synthesis of
•B-thallassaemia- B chain production is either completely absent or reduced to a variable degree.
• a-thallassaemia- a chain production is either
completely absent or partially reduced.
4. Type Genotype Clinical status
severe ,patient require regular
Intermedia Moderate to severe , patient
may not required BT
Minor Asymptomatic with mild or
Classification of b thalassemia
5. Type Genotype Clinical status
Hydrops fetalis Little in utero
HbH disease severe
α thallasemia trait Asymptomatic
Silent carrier Asymptomatic
Classification of b thalassemia
6. Hb E β thalassemia
• Combination of thallassaemia and Hb E. Most common type of thallassaemia in
• Claassiﬁed into 3 category
#Mild Hb EB thallassaernia #Moderately severe Hb E B thallassaemia
(like thallassaemia intermedia).
#Severe Hb EB thallassaemia(like thallassaemia major)
11. How to diagnose
• Clinical presentation:
*Age of presentation:
Thallassaemia major: <2 year.Commonty 2-6 month.
Thallassaemia intermedia: >2 year. *Progressive pallor *Intermittent mild
*Prone to develop infection.
*Failure to thrive, profound weakness, poor appettite.
19. ● MCHC:Reduced
● Reticulocyte count:Elevated, (5-10%) but inappropriately low compared to degree of
anaemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis.
● Hb electrophoresis/HPLC:Conﬁrmatory test.
20. B thallassaemia intermedia:
B thallassaemia trait:
● HbA:mild reduction(90-95%). HbF:normal or slight increase(1-5%)
HDE B thallassaemia :
● HbA:absent or reduced. HbF:Increased.
21. Radiological ﬁndings:
● *X-ray skull:Hair on end appearance.
● *X-ray hand:Mosaic pattern, laey trabeulen #NESTROFT(Naked eye single
tube red cell
● Osmotic fragility test): *Decreased osmotic fragility
● *Effective test for screening of B thallassaemia trait.
● #Other investigations :
● *S.ferritin,/ron, *RFT G]6vd ve *S. bilirubin.
22. Differentiation of thalassemia major and
Important for designing appropriate treatment *Accurate prediction of mild
phenotype helps to
avoid needless transfusion and transfusion related complcaton.
Timely diagnosis of thallassaemia major will allow earty start of transfusion
thereby delaying/preventing hypersplenism and skeletal deformity.
27. Neocyte transfusion / cord blood transplantation
● Fetal Hb inducer
● Nutrition with suppliments
● Gene replacement therapy
● Prevention of disease by antenatal diagnosis and genetic counselling and
28. Transfusion therapy
The decision to initiate transfusion therapy should be based on a deﬁnite
diagnosis of severe thalassaemia. Regular BT to maintain pre-transfusion Hb level
above 9-10.5 gm/dl but post-transfusion not exceed greater than 15 gm/dl and in
children as per normal Hb values corresponding to age.
29. How to transfuse ?
● Usual recommended dose:
● Packed RBC= 10-15 ml/kg over 3-4 hours every 2-5 weeks (3rd week) 3-4
● Cardiac failure or Hb <5 gm/dl = 2-5 ml/kg/hr at slower rate
● Amount PCV required (ml) = wt(kg) x 4 x desired raise of Hb (gm/dl)
30. Iron Chelation Therapy
1. Desferrioxamione (DFO)
2. Deferiprone (L1)
3. Combination of Desferrioxamione and deferiprone
When to start chelation?
● After 10-20 transfusion or
● S.ferritin >1000 micro gm/l or
● LIC >3.2 mg/ g dry wt. or
● Age >/= 3 years
34. DFO in pregnancy and lactation
Avoid in 1st trimester but extremly high iron load or serious heart problem treat
with low dose DFO (20-30 mg/kg/day) in late stage pregnancy
DFO can be resumed while breast feeding.
Deferasirox is not recommended in pregnancy and lactation
36. Splenectomy :
1. An oversized spleen> 6 cm in length and resulting in discomfort
2. When amount of blood required increase 1.5 times or more than 200 - 220
ml/kg/yr of BRBC
3. age of pt > 5 years old
5. Increasing iron store despite good chelation therapy.
6. Possibility of spleenic rupture in massive spleenomegaly
38. How preventing/minimizing the risk of Infection ?
● Immunoprophylaxis against HI, Pneumococcal,Meningococcal vaccine 2
weeks before surgury.
● Chemoprophylaxis =Oral penicillin or alternatives
● <2yrs=125 mg BD ; >2yrs=250 mg BD (life long or untill 18 yrs or 2 yrs after
● Education about infection ; planning to travel in different infectious disease of
● Attention to raise the platelet count=(i.e.,>800000/mm³) treatment: aspirin
50-100mg/daily till normal
Choice of recipient(pt) depends on 3 risk factors :
Choice of the recipient (pt) depend on 3 risk factor
● Enlarge liver >/= 3cm
● Liver damage = ﬁbrosis or scarring of liver
● Poor control of iron chilation
According to the number of risk factor pts. are classiﬁed into 3 categories
● Class 1= no risk factor -93% disease free survival
● Class 2= 1 or 2 risk factor - 85% disease free survival
● Class 3= all 3 risk factor - 58%
Another independent risk factor = age > 16 yrs (poor result)
43. Nutrition with supplements :
● Very I don't reach food should be avoided
Liver or drinks, Multivitamin, baby food containing added iron.
● Patient should drink black tea with meals and diet containing calcium
● Vit C -2-3 mg/kg/day PO. or, <10yr=50 mg/day PO. or, >10 yrs = 100 mg/day
● Folic acid - 10 mg/day
● Vitamin E - BD
44. ● Gene replacement therapy: ﬁnal cure
● Prevention of disease by antinatal diagnosis genetic counselling and general awareness
FBS : at 16-18/20 week of IU life (estimation of global synthesis)
Fetal blood sampling
DNA analysis by PCR
CVS : at 8-9/10-12 week or later (preferable)
Amniocentasis: at 15 week onwards
45. Genetic counselling
● Correct diagnosis
● Risk eliminatiocn
● Career identiﬁcations-RBC indicies (MCV, MCH, MCHC) NESTROFT, HbA2
DNA mutation analysis.
● Marriage counseling
● Reproductive choice
● Prenatal Diagnosis
46. What are the problem associate with thalassemia and
with treatment ?
● Heart and endocrine complication (BVF arrythmia, slow growth, delayd
growth, hypogonadism, diabetes, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism.
● Fibrosis of liver, cirrhosis of liver, specially HBV & HCV
● Psychological problem
47. Management of endocrine and bone disorder
● Measure height quarterly /year
● Sexual development =Tanner stitching 6 monthly from 10 year
● FSH & LH = 6 monthly
● Estradiol, testosterone = 6 monthly
● Glucose (blood & urine) = at any visit
● GTT = yearly
● Hypothyroidism = 6 monthly
● Hypoparathyroidism = 3 monthly
● Bone = yearly
● Bone age = X-Ray (knee, wrist) DEXA Scan, X-Ray spine.
48. Management of TI
To maintain HB level between 6-9 gm/dl,
patient suffer mild anaemia 8-10 gm/dl and
rarely requireing BT if at all.
49. When to BT therapy ?
The following condition from chronic anaemia to initiate blood transfusion
● Delayed growth
● Pathological bone fracture
● Hyper splenism
● Cardiac complication
● Facial deformity
● Decrease normal physical activity
51. What are the problems of TI ?
● Bone changes - expansion of bone marrow
● Gall stone
● Leg ulcer
● Kidney complication
● EME (chest area, near spine)
● Hot and liver complications
52. Thalassemia trait :
● No treatment is usually required but mile anaemia treated with iron and
genetic counselling should be offered.
HbE β thalassemia management :
● Mild - no treatment
● Moderately severe like - TI treatment
● Severe - like TM treatment
HbE disease - like T minor
HbE carrier - asymptomatic
● Iron load is commonest cause of death
● Date usually occur towards the end of second or
early 3rd decade
● No transffusion death within 2 to 5 years
● Inadequately transferred = poor outcome
● Lohemoglobin throughout the childhood death
within early childhood
54. Psychosocial existence
● Physical demand of the disease and lack of public awareness both
patient parents and families experience emotional diﬃculties in
trying to cope with thalassemia.
● Patient frustration disappointment depression fare to death
helplessness and feelings of being unloved.
● Positive emotion courage sense of challenge and endiorence.
55. ● Patient similar positive and negative emotions are experienced
● Patient and parents feels with painful reality of long term treatment
● Information from -NTA, ITF, doctors and nurse.