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NENA oases overview : a strategic role for a fragile ecosystem

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31 March - 4 April 2019. Cairo. Land and Water Days in the NENA Region 2019 :
1 April: Governance of Oases ecosystems: Challenges and perspectives
NENA oases overview : a strategic role for a fragile ecosystem, Noureddine Nasr FAOSNE

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NENA oases overview : a strategic role for a fragile ecosystem

  1. 1. FAO/GEF project Adaptative Management and Monitoring of Oasis ecosystems in Maghreb (2017/2020) The Maghreb strategy for the oases conservation : towards an international strategy Land & Water Days – FAO – Cairo 31/03 to 05/04 2019 Patrice Burger – Chair CARI and cofounder of RADDOPatrice Burger – Chair CARI and cofounder of RADDO
  2. 2. Who we are ? RADDO (CSOs international network) dedicated to Oasis ecosystems safeguard and developpement ( including population and culture ) JOHANNESBURG 2002 MADRID, 2008 DOHA, ANKARA, 2015 MARSEILLE, 2012 PARIS, 2015 MARRAKECH 2016, GENEVA 2008 Partnership with FAO Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania…. • STANDING FOR DRYLANDSSTANDING FOR DRYLANDS AND OASISAND OASIS • ACTION ON GROUND LEVELACTION ON GROUND LEVEL • ADVOCATING FOR PUBLICADVOCATING FOR PUBLIC POLICIESPOLICIES • WHISTLEBLOWERSWHISTLEBLOWERS
  3. 3. Global Risk Forum 2010 - Davos 41% of the land are drylands ; 10 to 20 % are hihgly degraded Asia is the most affected 1.4 billion Africa has 74 % of its land affected North America, Australia and Europe are also affected DRYLANDS ARE MORE VULNERABLE DRYLANDS ARE MORE VULNERABLE Population growth Water stress Drought Drylands : an underrated global concern
  4. 4. 4 Desertification andDesertification and its Landdegradationits Landdegradation processesprocesses The nature of desertificationThe nature of desertification is thatis that althoughalthough each place is unique andand desertification is alwaysdesertification is always contextual,contextual, the physicalthe physical processes and humanprocesses and human behaviourbehaviour that cause it arethat cause it are usuallyusually similar.similar.  soil erosionsoil erosion  soil fertility reductionsoil fertility reduction  biodiversity lossbiodiversity loss  wild firewild fire  salinisationsalinisation  land abandonmentland abandonment  poorly conducted irrigationpoorly conducted irrigation  littoralisationlittoralisation  drought /flooddrought /flood Going somewhere ? DEGRADED LANDDEGRADED LAND LEAD to DEGRADEDLEAD to DEGRADED LIVES !LIVES !
  5. 5. Why drylands are so important ? • By their surface of total available land (40 to 44%) • 1/3 of the world population hosted in drylands • 4% of the cultivated systems in the world • 30% of the international biodiversity • 50% to 70 % of the global livestock Maghreb = 70% of the land are drylands (90% in Mauritania ) CP MENA DELP –27 juin 2013
  6. 6. Oasis the specific agroecosystem born from adaptation to drylands … And spread all over the world Silk, gold, slaves, trade and cultureSilk, gold, slaves, trade and culture
  7. 7. Oasis a drylands tailored system for coping with aridity recognized as Globally important Agriculture Heritage System • Intensively cultivated area on three floors/levels • Located and often isolated in dry and arid areas • Built and organized around water management and scarce natural ressources • Created by Human • A tiny equilibrium based on social, ecological and economical strict constructions • A shelter, a fallback point, a place of exchange and food production, a stop, a symbol …
  8. 8. Oasis ecosystems are under high treath • Rainfall variations • Decrease of water tables • Outmigration • Palm tree desease (bayoud, red charançons) • Sand invasion • Low access to market and low prices • Land division by inheritage and lack of land reform • Uncontrolled pumping of water • Cultural and know how losses… • ….
  9. 9. Any future for these ecossytemsAny future for these ecossytems and population ?and population ?
  10. 10. Oasis offer answers to present global stakes  global warming : oasis have history of adapattion and can contribute to carbon sequestration trhough sound agriculture  Biodversity fall down : oasis are protected reservoirprotected reservoir of biodiversity  land degradation, desertification and drought : oasis can contribute to land degradtion neutrality ( SDG 15 o 15.3)  food security in drylands : oasis held part of the local suplylocal suply aand expertise  Water shortage : oasis have expertise in water socialwater social engineeriengineering and management and water savingwater saving  Agriculture transitionAgriculture transition : expertise in: expertise in ecological intensificationecological intensification  Out migration : providing income for settlement ofsettlement of populationpopulation  Experience ofExperience of resilient ecosystems and communities ( 2000resilient ecosystems and communities ( 2000
  11. 11. 8,9±0,4 2,6±0,5 2,9±0.8 0,9±0,5 Average Values pour 2004-2013 (Le Quéré et al., 2014) Oasis Agriculture can contribute to increase C Sink  The FLUXES (per year) Soils = 1500-2400 (0-1m) Vegetation=450-650 Atmosphere=830 ~800 Soils top 0-30 cm Gt C ou Milliards de t  The SINK ? Selon JL Chotte IRD OASISOASIS
  12. 12. Healthy oasis ecosystems respond to the SDGs
  13. 13. Anticipat e & Plan Interpret & Adjust A level balance = neutrality = no net loss New degradation Reversed past degradation Gains Losses LDN For each land type Avoid or Reduce new degradation via Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Reverse past degradation via restoration, rehabilitation, reclamation LDN “a state whereby the amount and quality of land resources necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security remain stable or increase within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems” Monitor indicators of LDN through time bas elin e
  14. 14. In the drylands, eg Maghreb and Machrek, Oasis are part of the solutions, • A considerable advantage in about 80 % dry region • A food production contributing to food security • Optimisation of land surface through the « oasis effect»« oasis effect» • Sustainable management of natural ressources ( water, land,) •Collective management of water ( social engineering) • livestock – including pastoralism - integration • Resilent agriculture through « oasis« oasis breathing »breathing » • endogen biodiversity • settelement of population with agriculture employement •Family farming
  15. 15. Le projet DEV OASIS est mené dans le cadre du programme PAP ENPARD Objective : change of policyObjective : change of policy and/or its implementationand/or its implementation Means :Means : tactic and tools for influencetactic and tools for influence AdvocacyAdvocacy TargetsTargets Policy and economicPolicy and economic Decision makersDecision makers Advocacy : how it works ?
  16. 16. Striving for an official and specific recognition of oases as vulnerable ecosystems and heritage to be preserved at United Nations level 3 specific objectives for a long term strategy  Recognition of oases as vulnerable ecosystems and heritage to be preserved within the three Rio Conventions  Development of interlinked advocacy among the issues covered by the three Rio Conventions  Linking with the Sustainable Development Goals process ( goals and targets )
  17. 17. www.raddo.org • Production and dissemination of specific positioning notes • Based on current achievements in the field of policy ( eg ANDZOA Morroco) • of oases for humanity • The new findings of rresearchesearch and the goodgood practicespractices • Technical support that shows the multi-use ofthe multi-use of waterwater (eg khettaras/foggaras..) • Writing and disseminating an Oasesases declarationdeclaration for endorsement by VIPs, countries and international organizations . The strategy is based on increasing the knowledge both in terms of problems and solutions expecting public policies BASED ON • their structuring role in the sustainable development of drylands, • their vulnerability to climate change, desertification and land degradation • their assets for the development of dryland regions • their contribution to local food security, to job creation and population stabilization, etc.)
  18. 18. Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), New Delhi, India 7-18 October 2019 • RecognitionRecognition of oasis ecosystems as vulnerable • side eventside event and advocacy during COP based on testimonies • Accompanying the national focal in order ton enter the oasis issue into the negociationsnegociations • Joint mention of Oasesmention of Oases as vulnerableas vulnerable ecosystems andecosystems and solutions to climatesolutions to climate change by the Maghreb countries and the Sahel region. Participation in the UNFCCC, end of 2019: Follow-up of the Sustainable Oasis Initiative; Dissemination of documents to identified targets; networking; Accompanied focal points to push departmental officials to bring the oasis issue into UNFCCC discussions and negotiations. • UNCCD. Proposal for an "official initiative" on oases and biodiversity on the occasion of the COP 15 of 2020, Advocacy and launching of the official Oases and Biodiversity Initiative, at the COP - CBD end of 2020. Highlighting expertise and positioning notes with identified targets; Co- organization and participation in launching the official initiative on Oases and Biodiversity within the CBD. COP 25 UNFCCC Climate change (11 to 22 november 2019 in Chile ) COP 15 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2020 in Beijing, China and revision of the post-2020 CBD Strategic Plan
  19. 19. COP14 UNCD – New Dehli On the basis of existing research and advocacy documents produced: production of position papers related to the 3 conventions . Atelier plaidoyer régional projet FEM/FAO FITS (MAROC) International advocacy road map : 2019 Side event RADDO / key countries Meeting of the national focal points of the three rio Conventions + régional group of Nort Africa Desertif’Actio n 2019 (Burkina Faso) Production of advocacy / com media (video, computer graphics, etc.) for use during events COP14 CCNUCC – Chili Specific messages about oases; Invitation of National Focal Points of the Conventions. Side event Conférence FAO- Région NENA (Land and water days 2019) Identifications of ambassadeur s in support to the advocacy Links with the national advocacies
  20. 20. Morroco (Akka) cooperative building, composting, packaging for the dattes, marketing… Its possible !
  21. 21. Morroco (Aglaguel ) innovating seedlings techniques and income generation for the women Its possible !
  22. 22. Morroco (Icht) protect and multiply local « beldis » seeds and test marketing from local varieties Its possible !
  23. 23. Le projet DEV OASIS est mené dans le cadre du programme PAP ENPARD « Stand for the oasis, they are our first and last borders that prevent us from many upcoming dangers … » D’a17 Strasbourg Thank you foryour attention www.raddo.org