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Packaging Africa food manufacturing

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7-9 April 2019. Cairo. Africa Food Manufacturing conference. The conference hosted professors from various universities, food scientists, industries, and students, local and international, and will include the following tracks:
Track 4: Food Adulteration: Laws, policy and governance.
Dr. Patrick Vincent Hegarty,

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Packaging Africa food manufacturing

  1. 1. Global Regulation of Food Contact Substances Why? DR. P. VINCENT HEGARTY Founding Director & Professor Emeritus vhegarty@msu.edu www.iflr.msu.edu Africa Food Manufacturing Conference Cairo, Egypt, April 2019
  2. 2. Is the food safe? Is the packaging safe?
  3. 3. An “Outsider’s” Message for Africa’s Food Manufacturers • Least cost formulation – the world is coming to Africa for: – Food ingredients – Packaged foods – Food packaging materials • Value-added – increased when food is packaged • Export markets for Africa’s food – regulation changes – EU’s (EC) No 1935/2004 – updating • Codex Alimentarius, NGOs – more aware of health/safety issues with food packages
  4. 4. In just one pizza! 35 ingredients ⎸60 countries ⎸5 continents Dough: France UK Poland USA Yeast: UK Ireland Germany Salt: France UK China Tomato Paste: Italy, France, Netherlands Sugar: Brazil Indonesia Jamaica UK And then the toppings… Cheese: Switzerland, Ireland, France, Italy, Spain, UK, Netherlands Chicken: Brazil, Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Germany Anchovies: Peru, Argentina, Italy, Falkland Islands, Spain, Iceland, Denmark Pepperoni: Poland, Italy, Ireland, UK, Denmark, USA Vegetables: From a host of Mediterranean countries Olive Oil: Italy, Greece, Spain Chili Peppers: Africa, Asia, South America Herbs: Greece Italy Spain Kenya Uganda Tanzania Morocco Source: Food Safety Authority of Ireland Country of Origin: Ireland Country of Origin: Ireland
  5. 5. Why? • Food package manufacturing: growing globally • FDA regulates: more than 6,000 food contact chemicals (FCSs) as “indirect additives” • European Union (EU) regulates: 17 food contact materials (FCMs) • Health concerns: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), cancer… • Laws: updating in Canada, India, Japan, Switzerland, Turkey, EU (2004) • Laws: mostly non-existent in developing countries
  6. 6. Why? (continued) • Least cost formulation: relying on FCSs/FCMs from developing countries • FDA: food additives - Most of rest of world: contaminants or FCMs • Codex Alimentarius: work starting on contaminants • Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA): understaffed • Conflicts of interests: concerns in Pew’s US food additive study Is YOUR country up-to-date on FCS/FCM laws???
  7. 7. Food Package Manufacturing A Growing Industry Source: Grand View Research (USA)
  8. 8. WHO: Food Safety • According to the SPS agreement, WTO Member Countries have the right to apply measures to protect humans, animal and plant life and health. It covers decrees, regulations, testing, inspection, certification and approval procedures and packaging and labelling requirements directly related to food safety. www.emro.who.int/emhj-volume-14-2008/volume-14-supplement/food-safety.html
  9. 9. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) World Health Organization • Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and potential EDCs are mostly man-made, found in various materials such as pesticides, metals, additives or contaminants in food, and personal care products. EDCs have been suspected to be associated with altered reproductive function in males and females; increased incidence of breast cancer, abnormal growth patterns and neurodevelopmental delays in children, as well as changes in immune function. https://www.who.int/ceh/risks/cehemerging2/en/
  10. 10. FDA’s Work on Food Contact Substances (FCSs) Quantity & Quality • ‘With more than 10,000 additives allowed in food, Pew’s research found that the FDA regulatory system is plagued with systemic problems, which prevent the agency from ensuring that their use is safe.’ www.pewtrusts.org/en/projects/archived-projects/food-additives-project If this is the situation is YOUR country producing FCSs and FCMs?
  11. 11. 17 Materials and Articles Covered by Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 1. Active and intelligent materials and articles 2. Adhesives 3. Ceramics 4. Cork 5. Rubbers 6. Glass 7. Ion-exchange resins 8. Metals and alloys 9. Paper and board 10. Plastics 11. Printing inks 12. Regenerated cellulose 13. Silicones 14. Textiles 15. Varnishes and coatings 16. Waxes 17. Wood
  12. 12. Are the Europeans Happy??? No. Finally, a review of Europe’s ineffective laws on chemicals in food contact materials has begun. (Sidsel Dyekjaer, chemtrust.org, October 16, 2018) •As we have highlighted in the past, the current laws do not properly protect public health, as many materials – like paper, card, inks and glues – are not controlled by harmonised EU laws, and where harmonised laws do exist (like for plastic packaging), these laws are too weak.
  13. 13. Some FCSs in FCMs Bisphenol A (BPA) Bisphenol S (BPS) Phthalates Nanoparticle Alkylphenols, Nonylpheniols, Octyphenol Melamine Lead Antimony Methylnaphthalene Silicones Bioplastics Can coatings Perfluorinated compounds Mineral oil hydrocarbons
  14. 14. SIN = Substitute It Now SVHC = Substances of Very High Concern
  15. 15. NIAS = Non-Intentionally Added Substances Since many FCMs and FCAs have a high chemical complexity, a complete characterization of all NIAS is currently unrealistic. It is estimated that tens of thousands of substances migrate from FCMs and FCAs; thus it is a challenge to identify those NIAS that may be of concern. (Food Packaging Forum, 2018) The United States has NO definition for NIAS.
  16. 16. Codex: A World Full of Standards, p. 32.
  17. 17. Parting Questions Good food laws are based on good science: • How good is the science for FCSs and FCMs? • How good are the laws and regulations for FCSs/FCMs in developed and developing countries? • Are all countries prepared for the next generation of FCS and FCM opportunities and problems? • How important are the health issues related to FCSs and FCMs? • Where do FCSs/FCMs rank relative to other food safety risks (pathogenic microorganisms, heavy metals, pesticides)? • Where are the educators to educate government, industry, NGOs and consumers on the good food laws and the good science on FCSs/FCMs/packaging?
  18. 18. New Course! With MSU’s Institute for Food Laws & Regulations. Global Regulation of Food Contact Substances/Packaging • FSC 890, Section 736 (3 credits) • Developed and taught by Professor P. Vincent Hegarty • Offered online, each spring semester • May count toward IFLR’s “Certificate in International Food Laws and Regulations” • Laws and regulations of: USA, European Union, Canada, India, China, People’s Republic, Japan, Korea, Australia/New Zealand • Learn more at www.iflr.msu.edu or email iflr@msu.edu
  19. 19. Thank you Go raibh maith agaibh (Irish) DR. P. VINCENT HEGARTY vhegarty@msu.edu www.iflr.msu.edu