Jean Bonhotal
Cornell Waste Management Inst.
cwmi.css.cornell.edu
Compost OperationsCompost Operations
Integrating Compost...
Easy On-site Composting!
Turn lawn and yard trimmings and food scraps into rich compost your plants will
love.
Main Workin...
Composting – How It Works
Ingredients -
Kitchen
•Vegetable peels &
seeds
•Fruit peels &
seeds
•Coffee grounds
•Egg shells
...
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
-Static Pile or Windrow -Forced Air Compost
-Turned Windrow -Rotating Drums
-Combo Stat...
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Which system works where?
• Space available- neighbors
• Containment or not
• Time and ...
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
All Methods Require Balance:
• Moisture
• Aeration
• C:N Ratio
• Temperature
Compost Bin Sales
D
C
A
B
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Holding bins
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Restaurant worm bin
New Orleans
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Three bin turning unit with removable front boards.
Simple
Containment
Plans for 2-bin
System -6’x6’x6’
Students at South Lewis
Composting-These have been installed
Some in North country school Districts
Cornell
Waste Management Institute Rotating drums Candor Schools
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
St. John’s University
Rotating Drums
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Composting Drum
@ boarding school
with 300 people in
residence,
livestock, and
green re...
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Vokashi-
Fermentation
Process
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Earth Tub- institutions
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Earth Bin
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
West Irondequoit Central School
– Earth Bin
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Tropical Vermi-Composting
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Slabwood vermi compost container
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Vermi in an old feed trough
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Vermi compost in an old water container with an
outlet hole to collect nutrient rich le...
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Cayuga
Compost
NYS Prisons
42 Compost Sites
Multi Bin System
Cornell Compost site
installed
in 92 expanded 2002
Cornell Waste Management InstituteCornell Waste Management Institute
ht...
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Composting
at the urban
farm in
Brooklyn
Forced aeration
Turned
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Gov’s Island
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
Aerated Compost
Forced Air Composting --Ulster
Heat Transfer
Simple Aeration System
Sunset View Acres
xx
Adding Manure Bank
Diamond Hill Custom Heifers
4-5 million BTU/day
Cornell
Waste Management Institute
RecyclingRecycling
Organics MakesOrganics Makes
Good Sense!Good Sense!
Healthy Soils =
...
CCC Workshop - Part 2: Small-Scale Composting Systems/Processing BMPs [Jean Bonhotal, Cornell Waste Management]
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CCC Workshop - Part 2: Small-Scale Composting Systems/Processing BMPs [Jean Bonhotal, Cornell Waste Management]

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Jean Bonhotal of Cornell Waste Management presented this at ILSR's Cultivating Community Composting workshop.

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  • CCC Workshop - Part 2: Small-Scale Composting Systems/Processing BMPs [Jean Bonhotal, Cornell Waste Management]

    1. 1. Jean Bonhotal Cornell Waste Management Inst. cwmi.css.cornell.edu Compost OperationsCompost Operations Integrating Composting into Waste Management Plans
    2. 2. Easy On-site Composting! Turn lawn and yard trimmings and food scraps into rich compost your plants will love. Main Working Pile Finished Compost Composting at School Making compost takes some care; add greens, brown, water and air. Keep a store of browns near to add throughout the year. Make your pile come alive. Encourage microbes to help it thrive. You need a lot, to get it hot. If your pile gets too dry, add water, don’t let it die! Let fresh air flow through your pile, for an earthy smell all the while. Mix or turn to add more air to make fresh compost you can share. Cornell Waste Management Institute cwmi.css.cornell.edu Take it slow, nice and steady, give compost time to get ready. Curing Pile
    3. 3. Composting – How It Works Ingredients - Kitchen •Vegetable peels & seeds •Fruit peels & seeds •Coffee grounds •Egg shells •Nut shells •Any other vegetable or fruit scraps •Waste paper 1. Microorganisms are the key to composting. Creating the proper habitat for them, with a balance of moisture, air and food, makes them more efficient at processing organics. Decomposers differ in their need for temperature zones and types of organics. 2. Diverse types of organic material will provide the habitat for many decomposers. Layer the material: start with a layer of carbon (dry brown material) then a layer of nitrogen (manure, food scraps). Continue in this manner until your pile or container is 1 cubic meter or larger. If you have a large amount of organic material, you will build a windrow, a long narrow pile, 1-2 meters high x 2 meters wide x as long as there is space. 3. The organics should be moist so the microorganisms can digest the material. Moisture comes from the wet, nitrogen rich materials in the pile. Some piles may need more. Rain may help give the compost pile the moisture it needs. If you want to capture more moisture from rain, keep the top of the pile flat or make an indentation to channel the water. If the pile has too much moisture make a peak on top and the rain will run-off. To check the moisture, take a handful of the compost mixture and squeeze it in your hand. If water runs out it is too wet, if the mixture falls apart when you open your hand it is too dry, if the ball holds its shape and only a drop or two of water comes out, it is the correct moisture level to produce compost. 4. Make sure enough air is getting into the pile. The pile or window can work without turning if the material has enough natural airspace, that is why we mix or layer carbon (dry, brown materials) with nitrogen (wet manure, food scraps). If the material is too dense, the pile may need to be turned to break the material up which will increase airspace. Turning also serves to mix the material which can speed the process. 5. When the microorganisms are working they give off heat. As there are millions of them processing organics, the temperature of your pile will increase to 104-149°F. This indicates that the process is working. As long as there is food, air and moisture the pile will stay hot. When it cools down that indicates the pile is going into a curing phase and completing the cycle. 6. The compost process can take 6 months to 2 years depending on all of the variables: air, moisture, food and amount of undigested carbon in the pile. Do Not Add: *Grease, fats, oils *Fish, meat, bones *Dairy *Pet or human feces *Treated wood Cover with brown layer Green Brown Third layer: green Second layer: brown (dry leaves) First layer: sticks 4”-6” Feed Your Soil! Ingredients - Yard or Garden •Waste hay or straw •Sticks & leaves •Clean sawdust •Rice hull •Weeds & other garden waste •Manure A. Wood chip or stick base with plenty of air space. B. Leaves and/or straw or other carbon completely covering green material. C. Steam rising off the pile. D. Air pulled in/out from chimney effect* (arrows). D C A B * Chimney effect: as the pile heats up, warm air rises upward creating a partial vacuum and, fresh air flows in to replace it. This requires air space in the base of the pile. Grass & yard trimmings Leave s Coffee grounds, egg shells, peels Food scraps Cornell Waste Management Institute cwmi.css.cornell.edu
    4. 4. Cornell Waste Management Institute -Static Pile or Windrow -Forced Air Compost -Turned Windrow -Rotating Drums -Combo Static/Turned -Vermicompost units Many options are available for producing compost: CompostingComposting SystemsSystems D C A B
    5. 5. Cornell Waste Management Institute Which system works where? • Space available- neighbors • Containment or not • Time and energy available • Static, Turned or Vermi-compost • Finances • How putrescible(odiferous)is the waste
    6. 6. Cornell Waste Management Institute All Methods Require Balance: • Moisture • Aeration • C:N Ratio • Temperature
    7. 7. Compost Bin Sales D C A B
    8. 8. Cornell Waste Management Institute Holding bins
    9. 9. Cornell Waste Management Institute Restaurant worm bin New Orleans
    10. 10. Cornell Waste Management Institute Three bin turning unit with removable front boards.
    11. 11. Simple Containment
    12. 12. Plans for 2-bin System -6’x6’x6’
    13. 13. Students at South Lewis Composting-These have been installed Some in North country school Districts
    14. 14. Cornell Waste Management Institute Rotating drums Candor Schools
    15. 15. Cornell Waste Management Institute St. John’s University Rotating Drums
    16. 16. Cornell Waste Management Institute Composting Drum @ boarding school with 300 people in residence, livestock, and green residuals
    17. 17. Cornell Waste Management Institute Vokashi- Fermentation Process
    18. 18. Cornell Waste Management Institute Earth Tub- institutions
    19. 19. Cornell Waste Management Institute Earth Bin
    20. 20. Cornell Waste Management Institute West Irondequoit Central School – Earth Bin
    21. 21. Cornell Waste Management Institute Tropical Vermi-Composting
    22. 22. Cornell Waste Management Institute Slabwood vermi compost container
    23. 23. Cornell Waste Management Institute Vermi in an old feed trough
    24. 24. Cornell Waste Management Institute Vermi compost in an old water container with an outlet hole to collect nutrient rich leachate
    25. 25. Cornell Waste Management Institute Cayuga Compost
    26. 26. NYS Prisons 42 Compost Sites
    27. 27. Multi Bin System
    28. 28. Cornell Compost site installed in 92 expanded 2002 Cornell Waste Management InstituteCornell Waste Management Institute http://cwmi.css.cornell.eduhttp://cwmi.css.cornell.edu
    29. 29. Cornell Waste Management Institute Composting at the urban farm in Brooklyn Forced aeration Turned
    30. 30. Cornell Waste Management Institute Gov’s Island
    31. 31. Cornell Waste Management Institute Aerated Compost
    32. 32. Forced Air Composting --Ulster
    33. 33. Heat Transfer
    34. 34. Simple Aeration System Sunset View Acres xx
    35. 35. Adding Manure Bank Diamond Hill Custom Heifers 4-5 million BTU/day
    36. 36. Cornell Waste Management Institute RecyclingRecycling Organics MakesOrganics Makes Good Sense!Good Sense! Healthy Soils = Healthy Food! http://cwmi.css.cornell.eduhttp://cwmi.css.cornell.edu

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