TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Less fat, salt and sugar in
sauces
Monica Trif, Natalia Perez-Moral,...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
What are Multiple Emulsions?
Emulsion
Oil in Water (o/w) Water in Oi...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Applications
Food
• Reduced Fat content
• Taste masking
• Encapsulat...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
How are they made 
2 stage homogenisation process
eg – w/o/w emulsio...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Multiple Emulsion Stability
Coalescence
events: primary
(W) droplets...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Interfacial Stability
The importance of curvature
Hydrophobic
Hydrop...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Low HLB Emulsifiers for w/o
CITREM Span 80 / 
85
SSL MG Lecithin PGP...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/gras_notices/grn000266.pdf...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Improving WOW Stability
• Gelling internal water phase
• Gelling age...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
A B
C D
E F
Heat Stability
Whey Protein WOW
Lecithin WOW
Lecithin GO...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
 W/O/W emulsion using Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) was reproduced using...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Pizza Sauce
Sweet Creams for cakes
Real Food Systems
Standard = 4 - ...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Sensory assesment of pilot scale formuations
Sensory evaluation was ...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Sensory assesment of pilot scale formuations
Differences in rating o...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
SWEET CREAM
I do not 
like
I like 
very 
much
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
H...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
SWEET CREAM
Do you perceive
any unpleasant
aftertaste?
Non
Very
stro...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
SWEET CREAM
Overall Consumer
Acceptance
PIZZA SAUCE
I do not like   ...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Summary
 Multiple emulsions offer an effective method of reducing
f...
TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015
Acknowledgements
Eva Csutak
Natalia Perez-Moral
Fiona Husband
Didier...
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Less fat, salt and sugar in sauces by Peter Wilde, IFR

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TeRiFiQ Conference
Reducing salt, fat and sugar in everyday foods – Results from TeRiFiQ EU project and opportunities for food industry
27 October 2015 ♦ Milan EXPO, Italy

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Less fat, salt and sugar in sauces by Peter Wilde, IFR

  1. 1. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Less fat, salt and sugar in sauces Monica Trif, Natalia Perez-Moral, Eva Csutak, Didier Pintori, Malte Bethke and Peter Wilde FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 289397 (TeRiFiQ project).
  2. 2. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 What are Multiple Emulsions? Emulsion Oil in Water (o/w) Water in Oil (w/o) Milk Butter Water in Oil in Water (w/o/w) Multiple Emulsion (double, duplex, triple etc) Oil in Water in Oil (o/w/o) w/o/w emulsions more widely studied Limited application in food for o/w/o emulsions
  3. 3. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Applications Food • Reduced Fat content • Taste masking • Encapsulation • Flavour/aroma release Pharmaceutical • Controlled Encapsulation / delivery • Taste masking Research • Nano-scale reaction systems • High throughput reactions
  4. 4. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 How are they made  2 stage homogenisation process eg – w/o/w emulsion W1 O = W1 O Primary w/o emulsion W1 O = W2 1 2 W1 O W2
  5. 5. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Multiple Emulsion Stability Coalescence events: primary (W) droplets Coalescence events: secondary (O) droplets YIELD = % of w1 remaining intact within oil droplets
  6. 6. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Interfacial Stability The importance of curvature Hydrophobic Hydrophilic HLB = Hydrophilic:Lipophilic Balance Hydrophobic Low HLB Hydrophilic High HLB o/w w/o High HLB Low HLB Stable Unstable StableUnstable Size, structure, charge
  7. 7. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Low HLB Emulsifiers for w/o CITREM Span 80 /  85 SSL MG Lecithin PGPR Initial  droplet  stability Flocc and  Coal  below  1 wt% Flocculation  and  coalescence  Unstable  below  5 wt% Unstable  below 5  wt% Unstable  below  2 wt% Some  coalescence  below 1wt% Storage  stability  (7 days)  xx x x   Water in Oil (w/o) (A) (B) (C)
  8. 8. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/gras_notices/grn000266.pdf PGPR: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476) 2% PGPR 1% PGPR 0.5% PGPR Only permitted in a certain range of food products Water loving Oil loving
  9. 9. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Improving WOW Stability • Gelling internal water phase • Gelling agents:  alginate, crosslinks with Ca ++  Carageenan, crosslinks through heating Gel in Oil in Water (GOW) emulsion W1 O Primary W/O emulsion Ca++ Ca++ Heat Improving stability of W/O droplets: W/O Smaller droplets in G/O due to reduced re-coalescence G/O
  10. 10. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 A B C D E F Heat Stability Whey Protein WOW Lecithin WOW Lecithin GOW 25°C 100°C 5 mins
  11. 11. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015  W/O/W emulsion using Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) was reproduced using 3%w of emulsifiers (1,5% PGPR and 1,5% MDG ) After 15 days, the emulsion is stable 10-30 µm  0,21% of PGPR in the overall emulsion (reduction by a factor 2,7 of the quantity of PGPR in the emulsion compare to the model systems) Lipid Phase Solidification W1 O (AMF, PGPR + MGD) W2 Lumifuge: Accelerated stability test
  12. 12. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Pizza Sauce Sweet Creams for cakes Real Food Systems Standard = 4 - 13.5% fat, 1.5% salt  20% salt reduction achieved using added herbs and garlic aroma and novel salt replacers.  30% Fat reduction achieved using GOW multiple emulsions and added pea or rice starch Standard = up to 35% fat and 30% sugar  30% reduction using GOW emulsion and pea starch  30% sugar replaced by Stevia extract
  13. 13. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Sensory assesment of pilot scale formuations Sensory evaluation was performed by trained assessors:  sensory laboratory by Expergo Sensory Research, Romania / samples were evaluated regarding colour attribute on 5500 K light  6 assessors / four training sessions before the sensory evaluation  sensory attributes  evaluated by rating the intensity of each attribute on a bipolar scale with 10 points
  14. 14. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Sensory assesment of pilot scale formuations Differences in rating of each assessor for replicates were measured by calculating the tolerance between ratings for each attribute. Acceptable tolerance was considered below 10% of scale. Acceptable tolerance: ± 1 unit (Kemp et al., 2009). The value set for acceptance tolerance was not exceeded. Small differences only were registered, all < ±2, and 40% of comparisons scored ≤ ±1. Small and marginal differences can easily be masked with minor adaptations of the recipe (e.g. adding a natural pigment/food colorant etc.).
  15. 15. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 SWEET CREAM I do not  like I like  very  much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 How tasty do you consider? 17.9% 14.3% 42.9% 10.7% 14.3% 0.0% 0.0% 10.5% 28.9% 60.5% Extremely do not like it Do not like it Neutral Like it Extremely like it 6.5% 6.5% 19.4% 41.9% 25.8% 7.1% 0.0% 25.0% 46.4% 21.4% Extremely do not like it Do not like it Neutral Like it Extremely like it Reformulated Standard PIZZA SAUCE
  16. 16. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 SWEET CREAM Do you perceive any unpleasant aftertaste? Non Very strong 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 48.1% 25.9% 11.1% 7.4% 7.4% 92.9% 0.0% 7.1% 0.0% 0.0% Non Neutral Very strong PIZZA SAUCE 73.3% 16.7% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 72.4% 13.8% 0.0% 6.9% 6.9% Non Neutral Very strong Reformulated Standard
  17. 17. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 SWEET CREAM Overall Consumer Acceptance PIZZA SAUCE I do not like                                                           I like very much p 0.0% 10.3% 10.3% 69.0% 10.3% 0.0% 3.6% 39.3% 39.3% 17.9% Extremely do not like it Do not like it Neutral Like it Extremely like it Reformulated Standard 3.3% 40.0% 26.7% 23.3% 6.7% 0.0% 2.6% 21.1% 28.9% 47.4% Extremely do not like it Do not like it Neutral Like it Extremely like it
  18. 18. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Summary  Multiple emulsions offer an effective method of reducing fat content in sauces and ready prepared meals  Stability of W/O droplets is key to stability  Other strategies can improve stability to processing and formulation changes.  Consumer and sensory analysis show generally good acceptability of reformulated products  Milder flavour of sweet creams more sensitive to reformulation and affect of sweetener on aftertaste  Further reformulation strategies developed to fine tune the sensory properties of products
  19. 19. TeRiFiQ Final Conference – Milan, Italy, 27 Oct. 2015 Acknowledgements Eva Csutak Natalia Perez-Moral Fiona Husband Didier Pintori, Monica Trif Malte Bethke FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 289397 (TeRiFiQ project).

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