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Accelerating Farmer-Led Irrigation (FLI)
Development in Sub-Saharan Africa:
Lessons from Asian Experience
Tushaar Shah
Int...
TO ACHIEVE 6%/YEAR GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE,
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA MUST ACCELERATE SMALL-
HOLDER IRRIGATION DEVELOPENT..
49.6 51.7
4.2
72.1
56
6.1
98
73.9
8.2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1 2 3 4
Growth in Irrigated Area (m ha) 1973-2003
Series1 Seri...
IN SOUTH ASIA, FLI ADDED MORE IRRIGATION IN
PAST 50 YEARS THAN GOVERNMENT INVESTMENTS
ADDED IN 200 YEARS.
IN SOUTH ASIA, FLI ADDED MORE IRRIGATION IN
PAST 50 YEARS THAN GOVERNMENT INVESTMENTS
ADDED IN 200 YEARS.
Figure 1 Spread ...
FARMER LED IRRIGATION
• FARMER: OWNER, ARCHITET, BUILDER, MANAGER
• SMALL (1-15 HA) FOR INDIVIDUALS OR SMALL GROUPS
• COST...
IRRIGATED AREA MAP OF ASIA & SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA:
IMPACT IN SSA OF ASIA-STYLE MOTOR-PUMP BASED FLI:
2012 IWMI SURVEY IN 9 SSA COUNTRIES
Rainfed
(399)
Gravityflow
(366)
Manu...
50 YEARS AGO, ASIAN AGRICULTURE ALSO SUFFERED MISSING MARKETS FOR
INPUTS AND OUTPUTS, LAND TENURE, INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT IS...
SSA HAS MORE RENEWABLE SHALLOW
GROUNDWATER THAN ASIA..
AND ITS IRRIGATION DEMAND IS SMALLER..
WATER SCARCE
NORTH AFRICA
HA...
EXCESSIVE PRECAUTION TOWARDS MOTOR-PUMP
IRRIGATION IN SSA IS MISFOUNDED..
SUB
SAHARAN
AFRICA
SOUTH
ASIA
CULTIVATED AREA AS...
FLI IS THE LOWEST HANGING FRUIT
THAT ASIA PICKED AND SSA IGNORED
ASIA
GROUNDWATER FOR PRO-POOR
IRRIGATION
PROACTIVE PROMOT...
ACCELERATING FLI DEVELOPMENT IN SSA
• SHED EXCESSIVE PRECAUTION.
• PROACTIVE PROMOTION OF FLI BY GOVERNMENTS &
DONORS.
• G...
SSA should leapfrog from bucket and treadle
pump to solar irrigation pump (SIP)
SOLAR IRRIGATION PUMPS (SIP) CAN CREATE
JOBS FOR YOUTH AND GROW FLI
• SIPS ENTAIL HIGH CAPITAL INVESTMENT BUT ZERO
OPERATI...
THANK YOU
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Accelerating Farmer-Led Irrigation (FLI) Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Asian Experience

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Presented by IWMI's Tushaar Shah at the African Green Revolution Forum in Kigali, Rwanda during the FRAMING SESSION – Technical Findings from Recent Research on Farmer-led Irrigation and Its Significance for the Transformation of Agriculture in Africa.
September 5, 2018

International Water Management Institute (IWMI)

Publié dans : Sciences
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Accelerating Farmer-Led Irrigation (FLI) Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Asian Experience

  1. 1. Accelerating Farmer-Led Irrigation (FLI) Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Asian Experience Tushaar Shah International Water Management Institute t.shah@cgiar.org
  2. 2. TO ACHIEVE 6%/YEAR GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE, SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA MUST ACCELERATE SMALL- HOLDER IRRIGATION DEVELOPENT..
  3. 3. 49.6 51.7 4.2 72.1 56 6.1 98 73.9 8.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 2 3 4 Growth in Irrigated Area (m ha) 1973-2003 Series1 Series2 Series3 EXPERIENCE OF ASIA AND ELSEWHERE IN FARMER- LED IRRIGATION (FLI) CAN OFFER USEFUL LESSONS. ASIA ACCELERATED FARMER-LED IRRIGATION WITH MOTOR PUMPS AND LAY- FLAT PIPES.
  4. 4. IN SOUTH ASIA, FLI ADDED MORE IRRIGATION IN PAST 50 YEARS THAN GOVERNMENT INVESTMENTS ADDED IN 200 YEARS.
  5. 5. IN SOUTH ASIA, FLI ADDED MORE IRRIGATION IN PAST 50 YEARS THAN GOVERNMENT INVESTMENTS ADDED IN 200 YEARS. Figure 1 Spread of Diesel and Electric Tubewells in South Asia (circa 2010)
  6. 6. FARMER LED IRRIGATION • FARMER: OWNER, ARCHITET, BUILDER, MANAGER • SMALL (1-15 HA) FOR INDIVIDUALS OR SMALL GROUPS • COSTS A FRACTION OF DAM & CANAL IRRIGATION • IS COMMISSIONED IN A WEEK • USES MOTOR PUMPS, LAY-FLAT PIPES, GROUND OR SURFACE WATER • ON-DEMAND IRRIGATION, YEAR ROUND • INTENSIFICATION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF SMALL- HOLDER FARMING • MADE FAMINES HISTORY IN ASIA • TURNED SOUTH ASIA FROM ENDEMIC FOOD- IMPORTER TO FOOD EXPORTER IN TWO DECADES.
  7. 7. IRRIGATED AREA MAP OF ASIA & SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA:
  8. 8. IMPACT IN SSA OF ASIA-STYLE MOTOR-PUMP BASED FLI: 2012 IWMI SURVEY IN 9 SSA COUNTRIES Rainfed (399) Gravityflow (366) Manuallift (413) Motorpump (362) Level ofyear-round on-farmwatercontrol Low seasonal Moderate seasonal High seasonal Highperennial Farmerinvestmentin irrigation nil nil US$49 (15-155) US$1016 (350-2650) #ofcropstakenperyear 1-2 1-2 3-5 3-9 Kindofcrops Subsisten cegrains Subsistence grains Vegetables formarket Vegetablesfor market Inputintensification(cash US$/acre 59 72 84 178 Valueofoutput/acre(US$) 405 414 398 1413 Valueadded/family worker(US$) 319 325 307 1092 %whofeltsecuretenure 62 45 67 65 ETHIOPIA KENYA TANZANIA MALAWI NIGER NIGERIA MALI BURKINA FASO GHANA
  9. 9. 50 YEARS AGO, ASIAN AGRICULTURE ALSO SUFFERED MISSING MARKETS FOR INPUTS AND OUTPUTS, LAND TENURE, INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ISSUES. SUBSI- STENCE MARKET LIVELIHOOD & INCOME FARM INPUT MARKETS CREDIT TENURE INFRASTR -UCTURE OUTPUT MARKETS FLI AS LEADING INPUT LIVELIHOODS & INCOME MARKET PRODUCTS AS A ‘LEADING INPUT’, FLI BOOM EASED THESE CONSTRAINTS BY GROWING THE MARKETABLE SURPLUS OF SMALLHOLDERS.
  10. 10. SSA HAS MORE RENEWABLE SHALLOW GROUNDWATER THAN ASIA.. AND ITS IRRIGATION DEMAND IS SMALLER.. WATER SCARCE NORTH AFRICA HAS MORE FLI THAN WATER ABUNDANT SSA
  11. 11. EXCESSIVE PRECAUTION TOWARDS MOTOR-PUMP IRRIGATION IN SSA IS MISFOUNDED.. SUB SAHARAN AFRICA SOUTH ASIA CULTIVATED AREA AS % OF CELL AREA 5-7% 30-70% RENEWABLE GROUNDWATER/NET SOWN AREA 80,000 m3/HA 3100 m3/HA
  12. 12. FLI IS THE LOWEST HANGING FRUIT THAT ASIA PICKED AND SSA IGNORED ASIA GROUNDWATER FOR PRO-POOR IRRIGATION PROACTIVE PROMOTION OF FLI BY GOVERNMENTS INCENTIVES TO SCALE FLI DREW IN MARKET PLAYERS INTERNATIONAL FI’S ACTIVELY FUNDED FLID ECONOMIES OF SCALE & SCOPE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA GROUNDWATER A FRAGILE RESOURCE TO BE PROTECTED GOVERNMENTS LFFT FLID TO NGOS AND SMALLHOLDERS MARKET PLAYERS LUKEWARM TO FLI INTERNATIONAL FI’S INACTIVE IN FLID ABSENCE OF FLI ECO-SYSTEM
  13. 13. ACCELERATING FLI DEVELOPMENT IN SSA • SHED EXCESSIVE PRECAUTION. • PROACTIVE PROMOTION OF FLI BY GOVERNMENTS & DONORS. • GOVT. ROLE CRITICAL IN PILOTING TECHNOLOGIES AND INSTITUTIONAL MODELS • INCENTIVES/SUBSIDIES NEEDED TO CREATE ECONOMIES OF SCALE & SCOPE. • INTENSE COMPEITION AMONG PUMP DEALERS AND BOREWELL DRILLERS IS CRITICAL. • RESOURCE MONITORING FROM THE START.
  14. 14. SSA should leapfrog from bucket and treadle pump to solar irrigation pump (SIP)
  15. 15. SOLAR IRRIGATION PUMPS (SIP) CAN CREATE JOBS FOR YOUTH AND GROW FLI • SIPS ENTAIL HIGH CAPITAL INVESTMENT BUT ZERO OPERATIONAL COST; 1500-1700 HOURS OF ANNUAL OPERATION MUST FOR VIABILITY • MINIATURE SIPS HAVE NEGLIGIBLE IMPACT; 5-6 KWP SIPS CAN CATALYSE IRRIGATION SERVICE MARKETS • USE SIPS TO CREATE JOBS AND GROW FLI; PROMOTE YOUNG MEN/WOMEN AS SOLAR-IRRIGATION SERVICE PROVIDERS (S-ISP) • A SOLAR IRRIGATION SERVICE PROVIDER WITH 5 KWP SIP AND 1500 FEET OF LAY-FLAT PIPE CAN IRRIGATE 15-20 HA; • PILOT GRID-CONNECTED SIPS WITH OPTION TO SELL OFF-SEASON POWER TO GRID • NEEDED: HIGH VOLUME-LOW MARGIN SUPPLY CHAIN FOR SIPS
  16. 16. THANK YOU

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