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20190323 pre-final

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A presentation of HACCP, advanced workshop held in Taoyuan, Taiwan.

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20190323 pre-final

  1. 1. 1 HACCP 進階班 1. 實務演練一 ( 以第一天便當作危害分析 ) 2. 食品製程品質管制操作案例分析 下載本簡報、補充資料 https://iychiang1809.blogspot.com/ 2019/03/20190323-haccp-1-2.html 20190323 講師:江易原 社會關懷者、準創業家 Email: iychiang1809@gmail.com 2 1. 阿原創作與編輯的部份,放棄著作權保護,歡迎任何人進行任何用途 ( 包括商業用途 ) ,所用的資 料可能沒有版權 ( 如美國政府的資料 ) 或自由授權 ( 如 CC 授權 ) 。 2. 但部分引用資料有其原始授權方式或版權,在著作權保護期限內阿原無權改變其版權限制,阿原 僅能合理使用或依照其授權範圍使用。若您預計將本簡報進行商業用途或再次散布時,請先移除標示 有倒三角標示『▼』的資料。 3. 本簡報使用 LibreOffice 6.2.0.3 ,在 Linux Mint 19 MATE 上進行編輯。建議使用合法免費的軟 體,如行政院國發會 ODF 工具或 Libreoffice 編輯本簡報之原始檔。 4. 阿原的講義資料等,若經他人修改,或非從阿原提供的下載點之資料,其正確性與阿原無關。阿原 喜歡讀資料、編講義,並無償公開,但難免有錯字或錯誤,歡迎來信指正。 阿原開放式課程及教學影片 本簡報版權沒有,歡迎使用 下載阿原歷年食品安全簡報或講義 https://iychiang1809.blogspot.tw/ 2016/04/blog-post_15.html 3 提醒 製程與 CCP ,是食品製造業或餐飲的重點,這類多數是多數是加熱型。 而提供冷凍肉品、水產的食材原料業者,或是低溫食品物流的業者,其 管制重點之作法,不一定在製程,而可能是運輸與倉儲的溫度 ( 低 溫 ) ,因此監控的重點預作法,就不是在製程。 對於學習 HACCP 的概念,使用食品製造或餐飲,可以讓初學者快速上 手,尤其是加熱型的 CCP ,相對容易理解。 然而食品業範圍很大,有不少領域需要去認識,這次課程阿原分享幾個 例子, 4 本次的內容,包括複習我們在基礎班的製程與品質,使用 食藥署 2013 年出版,丘志威教授等人編輯的《中央廚房 式餐飲製造業建立 HACCP 系統參考手冊》,這類阿原稱作 加熱型 CCP 監控的模式, 阿原也加入其他類型的食品製程 ( 非加熱型的 CCP) ,希 望透過不同的模式,讓大家更能體會到,如何在 HACCP 計畫 ( 戰略分析,大方向 ) 所建立的模式,並在製程與品 質 ( 戰術執行,小細節 ) ,及落實衛生管理,以達到降低 食品風險的目的。
  2. 2. 16 ○○○中央廚房 制定日期 ○○.○○.○○ 文件名稱 文件編號: G -2-2 制定單位 H A C C P 管制小組 製程及品質管制標準作業程序書 版次: 1.0 頁次: 1/5 1.目的:為建立本單位中央廚房製程及品質管制作業標準,參考食品良好衛生規範之規定訂定本作業程序, 以為本單位廚房施行衛生管理之依據。 2.範圍:有關採購驗收(含供應商評鑑)、廠商合約審查、食品添加物管理、食品製造流程規劃(前處理、製 備、供膳)、防止交叉污染、預防化學及物理危害、成品之確認等相關事宜。 3.權責: 3.1. 採購人員負責有關採購等相關事宜。 3.2. ○○○有限公司負責有關供應商合約審查等關事宜。 3.3. 單位營養師或衛生管理專責人員負責有關驗收、前處理、製備、供膳、製程規劃、防止交叉污染預 防化學及物理危害、成品之確認等相關事宜。 4.定義: 4.1. 成品:經過完整的製造過程並包裝完成之產品。 4.2. 外包裝:未與食品直接接觸之包裝材料。 4.3. 原材料:原料及包裝材料。 5.作業內容:每年或不定期由○○○公司進行供貨廠商評核、登錄供應廠商名冊、簽訂供貨合約。○○○ 依據核定後菜單訂貨,每日由衛管人員負責驗收,工作人員依規定進行前處理、清洗、貯存、 製備、供應等程序。 5.1. 供應商評鑑 5.1.1.供應商評鑑: 5.1.1.1. 由○○○有限公司召集採購人員依「供應商評核表」(G -4-2-01B )進行評核,並決議是否可成 為合格供應商。 5.1.1.2. 合格時由採購、食材部及營養師將供應商評核表呈主管核准後並登錄於「食材供應商名冊」 (G -4-2-01A )。 5.1.1.3. 評核不合格之業者則取消其採購資格。 5.2. 廠商合約審查 5.2.1.原料需購自合法且信譽佳之供應商,建立廠商資料,包括名稱、地址、電話負責人等,並與廠商 簽訂採購合約(G -4-2-01C )。 5.2.2.合約內容需明訂原物料之品質要求,需符合本廚房採購驗收規格,並訂定罰則規定。 5.2.3.其他小型未能簽訂採購合約之供應商仍需依原物料之驗收標準進行驗收,不合格者予以退貨。 5.3. 採購驗收 5.3.1.冷凍食品、豬肉和雞肉、米及調味料均以 C A S 或 G M P 產品為優先。 5.3.2.其他原料均需向合格廠商購買以符合相關之食品衛生標準。並要求原料供應商提供原料合法文 件,包括產品規格或衛生檢驗報告或送貨單或收據等。 5.3.3.每批原料及包裝材料需原物料於進貨時,由驗收人員負責點驗收。檢查品名、數量、規格是否符 合採購標準,並依「食材驗收標準」(G -3-1)進行驗收(見附錄一)。生鮮食品驗收時需量測溫度, 冷藏食品中心溫度≦7˚C 或表面溫度≦10˚C;外觀與包裝均需完整。經檢查合格後方可使用,乾 9-2 阿原的學長當時擔任半導體上游產業之廠長, 一般採購至少有三家,不能只有一家。而且三家 比重要適當調整。 在食品業,不確定是否適用 農委會要求 2017-09 起 學校午餐採用四章一Q 理想上採購與驗收不能是同一人 驗收標準 p92, 93 p65 p66 TQF
  3. 3. 17 ○○○中央廚房 制定日期 ○○.○○.○○ 文件名稱 文件編號: G -2-2 制定單位 H A C C P 管制小組 製程及品質管制標準作業程序書 版次: 1.0 頁次: 2/5 料並需標示進貨日期。驗收不合格者,需標示「不合格」,並迅速通知廠商取回,以免遭誤用。每 日填寫「食材驗收紀錄表」(G -4-2-02)記錄驗收及退貨情形(G -4-2-03)。 5.3.3.1. 乾物料:外包裝完整無損毀,且乾淨,沒有碰撞痕跡。 5.3.3.2. 冷藏品:外包裝完整無損毀,產品符合驗收標準,否則拒收。 5.3.3.3. 冷凍品:外包裝完整乾淨,且在冷凍狀態。 5.3.4.原材料(食材)之暫存需避免污染製造過程中之半成品或成品,須建立避免交叉汙染之管制。冷凍 原料解凍需採用流水解凍方式。 5.3.5.驗收後視需要將物料拆箱,儘快進行後續前處裡與烹調作業。 5.4. 食品添加物管理 本廚房不使用食品添加物。 5.5. 食品製造流程規劃 5.5.1.製程動線: 人流動線:(高清潔度區→低清潔度區),清潔區→準清潔區→污染區。 物流動線:污染區→準清潔區→清潔區。(低清潔度區→高清潔度區) 5.5.2.廚師及作業人員應事先預備好將烹調之材料,一旦開始烹調,即不得隨意來回於清潔區、準清潔 區、一般作業區各區,必要時,須依標準程序洗手、泡鞋,更換不同之作業圍裙,以免造成交叉 污染。 5.5.3.不得回收之包裝材質使用過者不得再使用;回收使用之容器需以適當方式清潔,必要時需經有效 殺菌處理。 5.5.4.生產中所使用之刀具、砧板、鏟子、不鏽鋼盆等容器器具,其操作使用與維護需避免食品遭受污 染。 5.5.5.蔬菜清洗後以綠色塑膠籃盛裝,立即送至烹調區使用。 5.5.6.肉類以冷藏或流水解凍方式解凍,亦由前處理區送至冷藏櫃暫存,再送至烹調區使用。 5.5.7.熟食以不鏽鋼盆盛裝,儘速進入配膳室,由配膳室人員進行配膳。 5.5.8.前處理 5.5.8.1. 原材料驗收後先換裝各類食材專用籃框,蔬菜類用藍色籃框、水果類用黃色籃框、肉類用大 黃色籃框、墊底籃框則為墨綠色等,立即送至前處理區作業。 5.5.8.2. 原材料於前處理過程,皆置放於砧板或台車上,不可與地面直接接觸,以免污染。 5.5.8.3. 蔬菜、肉類各有其專用清洗槽分開處理,充分清洗,清洗完使用固定顏色之籃框盛裝。 5.5.8.4. 清洗結束後立即清理現場固體廢棄物。 5.5.8.5. 採流水解凍前,水槽需清洗乾淨再進行解凍,以 2 小時為限。流水解凍控制在烹調當天進行, 並於烹調前完成。 5.5.8.6. 生鮮肉類及海鮮處理完後,盛裝容器須立即清洗。 5.5.8.7. 需醃漬或泡水的原物料,若於烹調前一天處理,需完整覆蓋。 紙箱容易躲病媒,因此避免紙箱進入 倉庫與廚房 承辦學校營養午餐的公司相對少用食品添加物,但是一般餐飲業 還是常用,尤其是色素與烘焙會用到的食品添加物 重要,但沒到現場看過,不容易懂。 人員單方向離開,要回工作現場,重新洗手消毒後進入 這是慣例與內規 p68 p69
  4. 4. 18 ○○○中央廚房 制定日期 ○○.○○.○○ 文件名稱 文件編號: G -2-2 制定單位 H A C C P 管制小組 製程及品質管制標準作業程序書 版次: 1.0 頁次: 3/5 5.5.9. 製備: 5.5.9.1. 食品於製造過程中不可與地面直接接觸。 5.5.9.2. 廚師試味時以小碗或紙湯杯進行品嚐。 5.5.9.3. 食物需烹調到達所設定之中心溫度方可起鍋,並記錄於「食品中心溫度紀錄表」(G -4-2-05)。 測量中心溫度所使用溫度計須於使用前以 75% 酒精加以消毒,並置於冰水杯中,使用後以擦 拭紙加以擦拭。由廚師負責偵測每道菜餚之第一鍋成品的中心溫度,衛生管理人員則每週執 行監測並確認。 5.5.9.4. 本廚房使用油炸用油頻率不高,若油炸用油的酸價大於 2,則更換並記錄之(G -4-2-06)。 5.5.9.5. 切割或接觸熟食需戴手套,不得以手直接接觸。 5.5.9.6. 食品在製造作業過程中不得直接置於地面。需置於推車或棧板上。 5.5.9.7. 配膳人員所使用之手套為拋棄式手套且置於盒中定點存放,在作業中有破損及更換工作時即 應重新更換。 烹調好的菜餚,置入不鏽鋼盆送入配膳室進行配膳。 5.5.10.配膳 5.5.10.1.衛生管理專責人員:每日作業期間依據「衛生管理日誌」中所列各項目,負責檢查糾正與填 報「衛生管理日誌」(G -4-1-01)及「異常處理紀錄表」(G -4-1-02)。負責烹調前、中、後之看 餐,看餐重點:配膳之正確性(包括普通伙、素食),作業人員衛生習慣、菜餚口味、檢查菜餚 有無異物、異味等,若有違反食品衛生安全,馬上處理與糾正。 5.5.10.2.單位營養師抽查配膳之正確性、作業人員衛生、菜餚口味與衛生安全等;若有違反食品衛生 安全,馬上糾正或依合約處理。 5.5.10.3.作業人員:遵守「衛生管理標準作業程序-5.3 從業人員衛生管理」所列項目,進行配膳;若 有違反食品衛生安全,馬上糾正。 5.5.10.4.各類伙食配膳順序素食與普通伙獨立烹調,不致有交叉汙染情況。 5.6. 防止交叉污染 5.6.1.廠房依清潔程度共分為清潔作業區、準清潔作業區、一般作業區及非食品作業區,並於作業時間 內做好人員及原料的動向管制,以避免交叉污染。 5.6.2.作業人員進入作業區前,須更換工作衣帽、雨鞋並徹底清潔手部。進入配膳區需配戴口罩,並再 以 75% 酒精噴灑手部。 5.6.3.未經拆箱處理之原物料及包材不得進入準清潔區、清潔區。 5.6.4.或配膳區使用完之抹布需立即丟入個別區域之抹布收集桶。 5.6.5.熟食與生食之處理器具與盛裝容器應明顯標示或區隔,並加以分開存放。 5.6.5.1. 生食盛裝容器採用塑膠籃材質,熟食盛裝採用不銹鋼盆。 5.6.5.2. 醃製食材採不鏽鋼容器。 5.6.5.3. 砧板及刀具-生鮮肉類(紅砧板,刀柄紅膠帶)、蔬菜類(綠砧板,刀柄綠膠帶)、水果類(黃砧板, 刀柄黃膠帶)、熟食類(白砧板,刀柄白膠帶) 、素食類(藍砧板,刀柄籃膠帶) 改不過來的習慣 ★★★ ★★★與 CCP 點連動。 請翻到本手冊 p45, 47, 52 產品流程圖,危害分析, p71 法規規定總極性物質不超過 25%,非規定 酸價,但兩者有相關性 可能用醋等酸性物質醃製,怕塑膠容器會溶出有害物質 請注意,刀柄上的膠帶不能脫落掉入食物中 以本手冊,中央廚房導入 HACCP 系統為例子,其執行 CCP 點的作法,寫在 9-2 製程與品質 (但是不同行業,其 CCP 管制作法可能在不同單元)
  5. 5. 19 ○○○中央廚房 制定日期 ○○.○○.○○ 文件名稱 文件編號: G -2-2 制定單位 H A C C P 管制小組 製程及品質管制標準作業程序書 版次: 1.0 頁次: 4/5 5.6.6.流水解凍有專用水槽,使用前後需將水槽清洗乾淨。 5.6.7.容器具清洗後,應存放於容器具架上,避免再遭受污染。 5.6.8.各區所適用之圍裙:前處理區使用藍色防水圍裙,配膳區/烹調區使用白色圍裙。 5.7. 化學性及物理性危害侵入之預防 5.7.1.破損之器具須立即更換,以避免碎物摻入食物中。 5.7.2.原物料以水洗或人工篩檢防止其他外來夾雜物混入食品中。 5.7.3.人員工作時必須戴髮帽並完整包覆,以防止頭髮掉入食物中。 5.7.4.原料、調味料與成品均適當覆蓋或包裝,以防止異物或滴落物侵入。 5.7.5.全區使用自來水,以確保與食品及食品接觸面之用水安全衛生。 5.7.6.每週實施餐具澱粉、脂肪殘留檢測,記錄於「餐具檢測紀錄表」(G -4-2-07)。 5.8. 成品之確認 5.8.1.食物加熱過程中,溫度控制屬重要管制點者,依管制標準記錄於「食品中心溫度紀錄表」(G -4-2-05)。 5.8.2.採探針式(或筆型)溫度計使用前後需以 75% 酒精消毒。 5.8.3.風味之確認以紙湯杯或小碗進行品嚐。 5.8.4.廚師:依菜單飲食內容,進行烹調不同菜餚,並於每道菜烹調完畢後,進行試吃,先行確認口味 正常無異味後,待供膳營養師及衛生管理專責人員,進行試吃,口味正常始可出餐。 5.8.5.單位營養師或衛生管理專責人員除督導試餐外;需隨機抽查餐食,檢查配膳內容與桶餐標示是否 吻合,發現錯誤立即糾正更換,始可出餐,並記錄於督餐紀錄表(G -4-2-08)。 5.8.6.作業人員:依菜單與桶餐標示之飲食種類,進行配膳。配膳過程需注意不同菜餚種類的正確配膳。 5.8.7.每道菜需留樣二份,標示日期、品名,保存於 0-7˚C 專用冰箱,48 小時,並記錄之(G -4-2-09)。 5.8.8.每半年配合當地衛生主管機關到本單位抽樣檢驗大腸桿菌與大腸桿菌群,並將檢驗結果存檔 (G -4-2-10)。 6.參考文件: 食品良好衛生規範 (G H P)(行政院衛生署 2000) 7.附件: G -4-2-01A : 食材供應商名冊 G -4-2-01B : 供應商評核表 G -4-2-01C : 採購合約 G -4-2-02: 食材驗收紀錄表 G -4-2-03: 退貨紀錄表 G -4-2-04: 食品添加物使用及貯存紀錄表 G -4-2-05: 食品中心溫度紀錄表 G -4-2-06: 油炸用油更換紀錄表 G -4-2-07: 餐具檢測紀錄表 G -4-2-08: 督餐紀錄表 肉、魚要保留包裝或是適當包覆,不能裸肉 進行流水解凍,以免擴大汙染 看 foodsafety.gov 的影片就更清楚 不少食品廠還是有用到地下水 來看幾家學校把過程以 google blogger 公開的樣子,很棒的教材 各縣市教育局、衛生局有留樣的詳細規定 (可能各地有些微差異) 準則 2014 p73 p74 p75 p76 ★★★
  6. 6. 71 ○○○中央廚房 頻率:每餐 ★成品中心溫度≧80℃ 日期 (年月日) 菜餚名稱 中心溫度(o C ) 量測人員 備註 衛生管理人員: 單位營養師: 制定日期 ○○.○○.○○ 文件名稱 文件編號: G -4-2-05 制定單位 H A C C P 管制小組 食品中心溫度紀錄表 版次:1.0 頁次:18/38 ★★★ 就是監控的 CCP 點 1. 在 GHP 9-2 程序書有提到加熱中心溫度 2. 在 HACCP計劃書 p47, 49, 52 有提到 上述兩文件是原則說明,而此處是表單,在執行之後記錄,這表單是稽查時一定會查的地方 發現有問題,就會回追上述兩個文件。 3/28 竹筍炒肉絲 82℃ 江易原 阿原曾經遇過,一道菜有 7 個 CCP 點,阿原就請工作人員 出示 7 個 CCP 點的紀錄表單,結果.....零零落落 3/29 竹筍炒肉絲 78℃,再加熱83℃ 小林
  7. 7. Product Description This recommended guidance is for sushi and related products (raw or cooked) either in the form of individual slices or combined in rolls made with acidified rice, seafood and vegetables, or similar rolls with vegetables alone, prepared in the retail establishment by combining the necessary ingredients, and packaged for display in refrigerated cases for public sale. Related terminology: Approved source - a source that has been determined to conform to principles, practices, and standards that protect public health. Identifiable source - can include the name and address of the immediate supplier and the actual source or location of the supplies. Potentially hazardous food - means a food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms or the growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum. Potentially haz- ardous food includes an animal food that is raw or heat-treated, shell eggs, or a food of plant origin that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed spouts, cut melons, and garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support growth as specified in this definition. Sushi - ready-to-eat cooked rice that has been acidified with vinegar solutions formed with raw or cooked fish and other seafood such as imitation crabmeat made from surimi, fresh chopped vegeta- bles, pickles, tofu, etc. Product forms can include; Nigiri, small balls of rice with raw fish held in place with strips of dried seaweed (nori); Maki Rolls, layers of rice and nori sheets rolled with a bamboo mat to form cylinders that contain various seafood, vegetables and other ingredients, i.e., California roll (cucumber, avocado and surimi crab), Philly roll (with cream cheese), Tekka maki (raw tuna); and Hand rolls, cone shaped rolls formed by a sheet of nori filled with various ingredients. Sashimi - thin slices or slabs of raw fish that are presented ready-to-eat. Surimi - a type of gelled fish paste that can be used to make simulated seafood products such as fab- ricated crab meat that can be used in sushi. Shamoji - Japanese term for the spatula or spoon used to turn and spread the sushi rice. Wasabi - Japanese hot mustard-type paste used to accompany sushi and sashimi. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 4 資料來源: 2004 年美國 USDA 及 FDA所出版的 Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 作者:W. Steve Otwell, Keith R. Schneider, Victor Garrido, and Ray Mobley 下載點:https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117
  8. 8. 5 Flow Diagram of Operations Receiving Food Storage Preparation Display Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 到貨與驗收 儲存 製備 展示
  9. 9. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 6 Check List for Operations Receiving All food is obtained from an identifiable, approved source. The source or supplier should be operating in accordance with applicable food safety requirements. Source identity can include the name and address of the immediate supplier that will be the first link to the actual source or location of the sup- plies. Identity of the supplier provides traceability of the food sources which can be important in food safety decisions. For seafood, this can include identity for approved harvest waters, prior handling con- ditions, and duration and methods of transport. No seafood from a recreational fisherman or other non- approved sources is used in the sushi operations. All seafood, including fish, shellfish, crustaceans, eggs (roe) and surimi comes from a source that operates under a HACCP plan. Evidence for such a source can include a letter from the supplier that indicates compliance with any pertinent HACCP requirements. In some instances, this HACCP information can be obtained upon request. The HACCP information and prior supplier agreements with the sushi oper- ation should provide controls to prevent potential food safety hazards due to parasites in certain raw fish, elevated histamine levels in certain fish, and other seafood safety concerns (Appendix 1 - Food Safety Hazards). Certain fish will require freezing either by the suppliers or retail operations prior to serving as a raw ready- to-eat item due to potential parasite problems (see controls for parasites in Appendix 1 - Food Safety Hazards). Vegetables, both whole and pre-cuts, and other edible products, i.e., seaweed (nori), vinegar, and spices, are obtained from approved and identifiable sources. If commercially prepared, pre-acidified sushi rice is used, it should be obtained from an approved and iden- tifiable source operating under a HACCP plan which includes records for the rice production within limits outlined in this guide. If pre-acidified rice or flavored vinegar is provided from a source outside the sushi operations, this source should be approved, identifiable and able to provide processing records that document proper acidification, and the duration and temperature for storage similar to the recom- mended guidelines for sushi operations (Appendix 2 - Sushi Rice). All potentially hazardous foods are delivered at or below 41°F (5°C) or solidly frozen. A calibrated ther- mometer is used to monitor the internal and/or surface temperature of the incoming foods before acceptance (Appendix 3 - Calibrations). Retail establishment actively manages a program for routine inspection of incoming products for approved sources, product condition and temperature as necessary, integrity of packaging and proper label informa- tion, and documents product acceptance or rejection with dates, times and the person making the deci- sion, plus any necessary comments. Food Storage All foods should be protected from contamination and stored in a manner to reduce or prevent bacterial growth that could promote spoilage or potential food safety problems. Food storage can involve items held at room temperature or in refrigeration or freezers. These items may require further preparation or packaging, or they could be ready-to-eat as raw or previously cooked foods. Raw ingredients and raw, unprepared foods should be stored segregated from finished products or ready-to-eat foods. It is best to segregate these items in separate storage units. Proper packaging and placement is necessary when these items have to be stored in the same unit. Storage can include temperature control units used to hold perishable foods. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 食材儲存 到貨與驗收
  10. 10. 7 The storage unit(s) are clean and orderly. Products are contained and/or covered for protection. Containers of sushi products or ingredients that are removed from the original (identified) packages are relabeled, marked for identification and dated. Ready-to-eat items and items ready-for-display are segregated from products that require further handling or processing. Products are not stacked without adequate support and means to prevent any leakage between products. Drippage is prevented in or on packaged products due to condensation, cooler pan leaks or other wet sources. Products are stored above the floor (approx. 6 inches) and away from walls and the ceiling. Storage includes containers, shelves, supports, pallets or other materials that do not absorb water and can be easily cleaned. The schedule for product rotation should use a ‘First-in First-out’ rule (FIFO). Display counters are not considered storage units and should not be used to store raw ingredients. Display counters for sushi should be maintained at or below 41°F (5°C). Refrigeration unit(s) are operating to assure the food can be maintained at or below 41°F (5°C). Frozen storage unit(s) are operating to assure the frozen foods are solidly frozen and maintained preferably at or below 0oF (-18°C). Freezing to kill potential parasites requires frozen storage at -4°F (-20°C) or below for 7 days (total time), or freezing at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -31°F or below for 15 hours, or freezing at -31oF or below until solid and stored at -4°F or below for 24 hours. Routine monitoring for proper refrigerated storage unit temperatures involves use of a continuous time-temperature recording device or by periodic checks with a calibrated thermometer. All recorders and thermometers are calibrated periodically or as needed (Appendix 3 - Calibrations). When storage conditions above 41°F (5°C) are detected, an evaluation is conducted of all products stored in the unit. The evaluations will record considerations for the actual temperature of the products and duration of exposure. All unacceptable temperature abused, off-color, off-odor, off-condition, out-of-date or other- wise suspect product is discarded. Frozen products are thawed under refrigeration at or below 41°F (5°C). Thaw in a manner that prevents cross-contamination with other refrigerated foods. If more rapid thawing is necessary, the products are placed in clean flowing water no warmer than 70°F (21°C) only until thawing is complete. Once product is thawed and before exceeding 41°F (5°C), it should be processed or returned to proper refrig- erated storage. Packaging is recommended to protect the product from direct contact with the thaw water. If thawing requires direct contact of water with the food, the procedure should be conducted in a clean and sanitized sink or container that is designated and dedicated to this operation. Thawing is not conducted in standing water, at room temperature or in running water warmer than 70°F (21°C) or at room temperature. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117
  11. 11. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 8 Preparation – Sushi The work area, facilities and utensils should be designated or dedicated to the sushi operations. If it is necessary to share work space and facilities, a schedule of operations, personnel traffic, product traf- fic and cleaning should be planned to prevent potential cross-contamination of the ready-to-eat sushi products. Standard Operating Procedures for basic sanitation and food safety are used and documented daily (Appendix 5 - Daily SOP’s Check List). Bamboo and plastic mats are lined with plastic film and rewrapped within 4 hours of continuous use and between contact with different sushi products. All mats are cleaned and sanitized daily. The preparation schedule should be arranged to prevent the exposure of potentially hazardous foods for more than 4 hours outside of refrigeration. Fruits and vegetables should be washed before cutting for use in sushi. Any cutting surface should be cleaned to avoid cross-contamination before proceeding with further processing for the sushi. On-Site Preparation of Sushi Rice Special care is taken in preparation of the rice used with sushi to prevent potential bacterial growth while assur- ing the rice can still be formed into balls and rolls. Bare hand contact should be minimized to prevent cross- contamination of the ready-to-eat product. Heat during the cooking of rice can activate certain bacterial spores that can grow and release toxins unless the rice is preserved or refrigerated. Refrigerated rice is more difficult to form for sushi. For this reason, sushi rice should be carefully protected during handling without refrigeration. Proper acidification of cooked rice with vinegar recipes helps preserve the rice for temporary handling at tem- peratures above 41°F (5°C), but the acid level, measured by pH, should be carefully monitored for each batch. It is best to acidify the rice when it is warm to assure better mixing and penetration of the acid solution. The production time and final acid level (pH) is recorded for each batch of sushi rice. Acidified rice has an initial measurable, targeted pH of 4.1 and should be thoroughly mixed to assure the rice does not exceed an equilibrium pH of 4.6 (Appendix 2 - Sushi Rice). Properly acidified rice is not considered a potentially hazardous food. Display Display involves holding the finished products in temperature control units for a specified duration and condi- tion for public sale. Originally, preparation of sushi was for immediate consumption. Retail preparation and dis- play introduces more prolonged holding that should be controlled and monitored to assure product safety before consumption. The display unit maintains the sushi products at or below 41°F (5°C). Packaged product should be properly labeled and include instructions for proper storage and shelf-life (Appendix 4 - Product Labels). Typically the product is displayed for less than 24 hours in the retail establishment before discarding. Displayed product is not placed in storage for later display. Lot and/or date coding is recommended. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 製備壽司 現場製作壽司 展示壽司
  12. 12. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 10 Appendix 1 Food Safety Hazards – Sushi The following information and list of fish species with potential seafood safety hazards is based on FDA’s “Fish & Fisheries Products Hazards & Controls Guidance” available in third edition (June 2001) from <www .ifasbooks.ufl.edu> or by phone 800-226-1764 as publication no. SGR-121 ($20) or it can be viewed at www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/haccp4.html. The retail processing of sushi must assure the use of proper controls to prevent, eliminate or reduce these potential hazards. The controls are often a shared responsibility between the supplier and retailer. Fish: The list of potential fish hazards includes live parasites, elevated histamine, the natural toxin, ciguatera, and no hazard listed. The listing is by common names of certain related fish species. Retailers should consult the FDA Hazards Guide for the specific fish species in question. Species listed with concerns for live parasites would require freezing either by the supplier or retailer prior to serving a raw ready-to-eat food.* For tuna, the concern for parasites is distinguished by species. The larger tuna (yellowfin, bluefin, blackfin, bigeye, and alba- core) do not present a significant parasite problem that would require freezing prior to use in sushi. parasites histamine ciguatera no hazard Bass, Sea √ Bluefish √ Cod √ Corvina √ Eel √ Flounders √ Grouper √ √ Halibut √ Jacks √ √ √ Mackerels √ √ Mahi-Mahi √ Marlin √ Perch, Ocean √ Pollock √ Pompano √ Salmon √ Sea Trout √ Snappers √ √ Sole √ Rainb. Trout √ Tuna - small* √ √ Tuna - large* √ Turbot √ Wahoo √ Yellowtail √ √ Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 寄生蟲 組織胺 珊瑚礁魚毒素 無前述危害 壽司用的魚極可能之危害類型 濱鯛 鮪魚 鮪魚 紅甘/鰤 鮭魚 wa 鱒魚 黃線狹鱈 鰺 鱸魚 旗魚 鬼頭刀 鯖魚 鰹魚 石斑 鰻魚 鱈魚 棘鰆 翻譯參考資料來源: 中研院 台灣魚類資料庫 fishdb.sinica.edu.tw 農委會漁業署 漁業統計「魚類學俗名對照表」 https://www.fa.gov.tw/cht/Announce/ content.aspx?id=327&chk=9f53f4ee-f153-4184-9a01-ec8417129e33&param=pn=2 比目魚 虹鱒 比目魚 比目魚 鮸仔魚 扁鰺 金目鱸 比目魚
  13. 13. 11 Crustaceans (Shellfish): Crab, Lobster and Shrimp - typically supplied as previously cooked items that are subject to bacterial cross-con- tamination after cooking. These items can include surimi based products such as imitation crab meat made from fish. Retailers should question the processing procedures, post-processing conditions, and sanitation records prior to selecting a supplier. Mollusk (Shellfish): Clams, Oyster and Mussels - must be harvested from approved waters and handled by certified dealers that maintain harvest tags on shellstock or labels on the shucked products to identify the product harvest locations and dates. Retailers must check for the tags or label information on all deliveries of shellstock or shucked meats (meat removed from the shell). The shellstock tags must be stored in their retail establishment for 90 days. Abalone is included in this group but does not require tags. Conch, Whelks, Octopus, Squid and Urchin - typically supplied as raw shucked meat (meat removed from the shell) that is subject to bacterial contamination during processing. Harvest tags are not required but suppliers should assure harvest from safe sites. Retailers should determine the processing and sanitation conditions. Biological Hazard: Parasites Problem: Consumption of certain raw seafood that may contain ‘live’ parasites that are naturally found in certain fish and could infect consumers. Controls: Freezing or cooking of the fish or seafood product before consumption. According to the FDA’s Food Code, seafood is properly cooked when it reaches an internal temperature of 145°F (63°C) for 15 seconds. Freezing to kill potential parasites requires frozen storage at -4°F (-20°C) or below for 7 days (total time), or freezing at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -31°F or below for 15 hours, or freezing at -31°F or below until solid and stored at -4°F (-20°C) or below for 24 hours. Hazards: Bacterial and Viral Pathogens Problem: Certain bacteria, i.e., Salmonella, Listeria and Vibrio spp. and certain viruses, i.e., Hepatitis A, noroviruses and others, can contaminate and, in the case of bacteria, grow on ready-to-eat sushi products due to previous handling of the ingredients. Controls: Ensure that ingredients come from approved sources, monitor condition of incoming products, main- tain and monitor proper temperatures and time in storage and preparation; properly acidify the sushi rice, practice proper hygiene, and monitor SOP’s for sanitation. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 甲殼類:螃蟹、龍蝦、蝦子 軟體動物:蛤蜊、牡蠣、蚌 海螺、章魚、烏賊、海膽 防治寄生蟲的危害:冷凍處理 防治細菌與病毒類的病原:
  14. 14. 13 Appendix 2 Sushi Rice Special care is taken in preparation of the rice used in sushi to prevent potential bacterial growth while assur- ing the rice can still be formed into balls and rolls. Heat during the cooking of rice can activate certain bacter- ial spores that can grow to be toxic unless the rice is preserved or refrigerated. Refrigerated rice is more diffi- cult to form for sushi. Acidification of cooked rice with vinegar recipes helps preserve the rice for temporary handling at temperatures above 41°F (5°C), but the acid level, measured by pH, must be carefully monitored for each batch. Preparation of the Sushi Rice (white) The work area should include: A dedicated or designated sink and table for preparation of the rice and sushi should be cleaned and sanitized before handling the food. A designated sink should be segregated from other concurrent food handling activities. Use of single-use gloves to prevent bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food. Clean and properly supplied hand washing facilities. Orderly storage of clean, sanitized containers and utensils, i.e., rice bowls and shamoji for handling the rice. A written recipe that specifies: the amount of rice and water prior to cooking, and the cook schedule. The cooked rice and vinegar solution is to be thoroughly mixed to acidify the rice to an initial target pH of 4.1. It is best to acidify the rice when it is warm to assure better mixing and penetration of the acid solu- tion. the vinegar solution, with salts and sugar. It should be made fresh for use or from a designat- ed container labeled to identify the contents, concentration and age of the vinegar solution to assure a proper acidifying formulation. a clean mixing bowl deep enough to allow adequate mixing without clumping, yet shallow enough to allow proper cooling. It is best to have less than 4 inches depth in the rice for proper cooling. Special Note: The initial pH of the sushi rice should be measured within 30 minutes after addition of the vinegar solution. The sushi rice with an initial pH greater than 4.6 should be re-acidified with more vinegar solution and rechecked to assure a targeted pH of 4.1 and an equilibrium pH that does not exceed 4.6. Sushi rice must be mixed, measured for pH, and comply with the limits prior to being used in a sushi robot device. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117
  15. 15. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 14 Measuring & Recording pH of the Sushi Rice Conduct the pH test within 30 minutes after acidi�cation of the cooked rice and as often as necessary to assure a targeted pH of 4.1 and an equilibrium pH of 4.6. Make a rice slurry by gathering a 1/4 cup sample of the cooked, acidi�ed rice taken from various loca- tions in the batch and add 3/4 cup of distilled water in a clear plastic or metal blend cup (Do not use glass containers in the food preparation area). Blend the slurry for approximately 20 seconds to create a thorough mix. Insert a pH probe or paper into the liquid portion of the slurry. Repeated measurements with a new slurry from the same batch of rice are recommended to assure a proper reading (Appendix 3 - Calibrations) Record the measurement(s). Brown Rice Typically this rice is not acidi�ed since the harder surface coating on the brown rice is di�cult to penetrate with typical acid solutions. In the non-acidi�ed condition, cooked rice is considered a potentially hazardous food that must be maintained at a temperature greater than 135°F (57.2°C) or at or below 41°F (5°C). For cooling, this potentially hazardous food should be cooled within 2 hours from 135°F (57.2°C) to 70oF (21°C); and within 4 hours from 70°F (21°C) to 41°F (5°C) or below. The cooked brown rice should be chilled immediately after preparation to reduce the chance of foodborne illness. 1/4 cup of acidified rice mix into a slurry 3/4 cup of distilled water Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 糙米 因為醋不易穿透糙米表面結構,因此很少使用糙米製備成醋飯。 因此糙米被視為 PHF。因此需要熱藏 (57.2℃ 以上,而台灣熱藏是 65℃ 以上) 或是煮熟後立即冷卻,需要在兩小時內從 87.2℃降低到 21℃, 再於四小時內降到 5℃ 如何測量與紀錄醋飯的 pH (這是重要的管制點之一), 醋飯不易直接測量其酸鹼值,所以先要前處理成 "稀飯" (slurry) 才測量液體的 pH 取 1/4 杯的醋飯 倒入 3/4 杯的蒸餾水 均勻混合 20 秒,成 "稀飯"。使用 pH 測定儀會是酸鹼試紙
  16. 16. 15 Appendix 3 Calibrations Temperature Monitoring Devices-Thermometers Many types of thermometers and temperature recording devices are readily available for use in food handling operations. We recommend thermistors, thermocouples and infrared thermometers with either a digital or ana- log readout. All of these instruments are acceptable for use in the food processing operations as long as the operator understands how they are used and if they are calibrated for proper readings. The method and frequency of calibration for thermometers will depend on the use and temperature range where the equipment is used. In the absence of manufacture’s recommendations, thermometers should be cal- ibrated at least once a month with more frequent calibrations when the instrument is physically abused or if the readings are questionable. Temperature Monitoring Devices (TMD) - Calibration Procedures (options): a. TMD’s can be calibrated against a thermometer certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) by simply comparing both units at two preset temperatures (hot and cold). b. TMD’s can be calibrated using an ice-water slush. Insert the temper- ature probe into a mixture of ice and water slush and stir (2-3 min) until the thermometer stabilizes. The probe should be at the center of the container. The thermometer should read 32±1°F (0±1°C). Adjust accordingly or discard and replace the faulty thermometer. c. Hot point calibration is used when monitoring temperatures higher than room temperature (e.g., cooking temperatures). Heating blocks or boiling water can be used for this calibration. When using the boil- ing water procedure, the probe is placed inside a container with boil- ing water until the thermometer stabilizes (2-3 min). The probe should be at the center of the container. The thermometer should read 212±1°F (100±1°C) or appropriate temperature according to elevation (Table 1 - Altitude to Boiling Point of Pure Water Relationship). Adjust accordingly or discard and replace the faulty thermometer. d. A combination of the procedures b and c is recommended for a more accurate calibration of thermometers used to monitor a wide range of temperatures. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 溫度計校正過程 (內部校正) 冰水共存,平衡後 提供 0℃ 的環境 溫度計的誤差 應該在 ± 1 ℃ 也就是校正時顯示 不在 - 1 ~ 1 的範圍,該溫度計 不能用在溫度監控上 沸騰的水提供 1000℃ 的環境 若校正時顯示 不在 99 ~ 101 的範圍,該溫度計 不能用在溫度監控上
  17. 17. 17 Acidity Monitoring Devices - pH Meters & pH Papers Devices for monitoring acidity or pH can range from complex laboratory size units to convenient hand-held bat- tery operated units. Also, in certain situations firms can use simple pH test strips or papers. It is essential to understand the limitations and operation of these devices to assure accurate readings in food operations. The meters are preferred for their more precise readings, but the probes used with the meters should be made of unbreakable substances such as epoxys, plastics or ceramics. The pH papers are less precise and subject to interference with other substances. Selection of papers should consider reading increments of 0.2 within a pH range about the target levels to be monitored in the food operation (i.e., If the target level is 4.1, the paper should be selected for a range of 3.0 to 5.0). Calibration of pH Monitoring Devices The pH meters need to be calibrated immediately before use and when readings are suspect. The calibration is based on the readings from standard buffer solutions selected to provide specific pH readings. Only use buffers that have not exceeded the labeled expiration dates. Use buffers that provide readings that range about the targeted level of pH to be monitored in the food operations. For example, if the target pH is 4.1, two buffers for calibration should provide readings of 4.0 and 7.0. If the pH meter does not read the buffers correctly, make the necessary adjustment in the device according to the manufacturer’s instructions or replace the device. The pH papers or strips are usually not calibrated, but firms are encouraged to test their papers against results from a calibrated pH meter and buffers. Make sure that the strips used are adequate for the pH range needed and that the shelf-life of the strips does not exceed the labeled expiration date. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 酸性監控設備 使用 pH 測定儀,在測量醋飯前,需要先使用兩種標準 (pH4.0, pH7.0) 緩衝溶液進行儀器校正 使用酸鹼試紙,則不需要校正,但建議酸鹼試紙跟 pH 測定儀做比對。
  18. 18. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations 18 Appendix 4 Product Labels All sushi product sold through display in a retail setting must be in compliance with applicable state food code requirements and contain information pursuant to the requirement of 21 CFR 101. In addition, information on the product label that informs the consumer on proper handling to prevent potential food safety problems is recommended (i.e., “PERISHABLE KEEP REFRIGERATED AT 41oF OR BELOW - BEST IF CONSUMED ON DAY OF PURCHASE”). The label must identify specific seafood present and whether or not it is raw. Label Information 1. Identify specific seafood present. 2. Indicate that the product does or does not contain raw seafood. 3. Include perishable food statement to instruct consumer handling and storage (i.e., “PERISHABLE KEEP REFRIGERATED. BEST IF CONSUMED ON DAY OF PURCHASE”). 4. Lot and/or date code the product. 5. Name, address of food establishment. Disclaimer: This label is simply provided as a guide. Retailers should consult with their local authorities to assure compliance with more immediate requirements in their region. Labeling - Consumer Advisories Certain states may require use of consumer advisories either as part of the label, information and/or in signs posted about the sushi display. The cautionary message is intended for persons with weakened immune sys- tems that are at more risk from potentially hazardous foods such as raw seafood used in certain sushi. State authorities should be consulted for compliance. Typical wording in advisories state, “Consuming raw or under- cooked foods of animal origin may increase your risk of foodborne illness, especially if you have a certain med- ical condition or reduced immunity.” SUSHI – Roll Raw Seafood No Raw Seafood Ingredients: Cooked rice, seafood (see list), cucumber, vinegar, sugar, seaweed, salt Tuna Raw Salmon Smoked Salmon Shrimp Yellowtail Snapper Other PERISHABLE: Keep Refrigerated at or below 41°F Best to Consume On Day of Purchase Net Weight 8oz 10/15/03 Any Sushi Company, Inc., P.O. Box 1111, Anywhere, State, USA 11111 1 2 3 4 5 Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117 標示資訊 標示產品編號,或是標示不含生的海鮮 標示 "易腐敗,請冷藏"。以及最佳品嘗期限 鮪魚 有生的海鮮 沒有使用生的海鮮 生鮭魚 煙燻鮭魚 蝦 鰤 濱鯛
  19. 19. 19 Appendix 5 Daily SOP Check list Store Name/Number: ________________________________________ DATE: _________________ Storage Time/Temp Time/Temp Time/Temp Time/Temp Refrigerators (°F / Time) °F °F °F °F Freezers (°F / Time) °F °F °F °F Display Time/Temp Time/Temp Time/Temp Time/Temp Display temperature (°F / Time) °F °F °F °F Clean and Orderly. Food in good condition and properly labeled. Sushi Rice Preparation Prep Time Rice pH Lot # SOP CHECK LIST Work Area Comments Orderly; Clean and Sanitized tables, countertops and sinks. Orderly, all work surfaces cleared. Clean floor and drains Proper storage and labeling of chemicals and cleaning items Wet and dry trash separate and removed from work area. All utensils, pots, pans, bowls, cutting boards, cooking or heating equipment properly cleaned and sanitized. Thermometer and recorder available and calibrated Personnel Personnel Health, hand-washing practices, glove use, clean and well maintained outer garments, proper hair covering and no jewelry. Food Storage All food protected, dated and labeled properly Refrigerators and freezers clean, orderly and operating correctly. Pre-Op Time Post-Op Time Employee Initials Manager Review This particular form is not mandated but it does indicate information that should be recorded to demonstrate an appropriate process for food safety. Different and additional forms can be used to record the same information. Guidance for Processing Sushi in Retail Operations, 2004 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fs117

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