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Impact assessment of IDEI's treadle pump project in Assam

  1. Bangalore Bangkok Beijing Boston Chicago Chennai London Los Angeles Melbourne Milan Mumbai Munich New Delhi New York Paris San Francisco Shanghai Singapore Sydney Tokyo Wroclaw S T R A T E G Y + E X E C U T I O N Impact Assessment of Treadle Pumps April 28, 2014 Universal Consulting India Pvt Ltd | Shivsagar Estate D | Dr Annie Besant Rd | Worli | Mumbai 400 018 | India Tel + 91 22 66222100 | Fax + 91 22 66222111 | www.universalconsulting.com The materials contained in this document are intended to supplement a discussion between IDEI, Universal Consulting and TNS. These perspectives are confidential and will only be meaningful to those in attendance. Universal Consulting India Pvt Ltd; H11/ H12 Ground Floor, New Bridge Business Centre, Technopolis Tower B, Golf Course Road, Sector 54, Gurgaon 122002 India t: +91 124 4626090/91/6000, f: + 91 22 66222111 www.universalconsulting.com
  2. 20 Years (estd. 1994) 4 Offices (Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore) 60 Staff 300+ Clients 800+ Cases 76% Repeat & Referral work Strategic equity partnership with global Consulting Firm, L.E.K. Consulting Universal Consulting is India’s Boutique Strategy Execution Consulting Firm San Francisco, 2000 Los Angeles, 1987 Chicago, 1993 New York, 2007 Boston, 1986 London, 1983 Paris, 1989 Munich, 1988 Wroclaw, 2008 Milan, 1991 Tokyo, 2008 Beijing, 2000 Bangalore, 2014 New Delhi, 2008 Shanghai, 2000 Bangkok, 1999 Singapore, 1990 Melbourne, 1993 Sydney, 1987 Seoul, 2013 Chennai, 2012 Sao Paulo, 2013 Mumbai, 1994
  3. CONFIDENTIAL IDEI – Income Impact Assessment of KB Treadle Pumps in Assam 3 We have experience of ~19 years, ~850 engagements, over 320 clients and deep strategy expertise (~600 engagements) with client satisfaction rating of 8.4/ 10 and repeat ratio of over 76% Practical recommendations We differentiate ourselves by being a strategy consulting firm, being able to leverage our Tipping Point study knowledge and also talk to government of India for future initiatives, if needed We have done ~ 20 Income Impact assessment studies across different consumer and industrial strategy studies Global experience pool We understand Not for Profit Organizations issues having done ~80 engagements worldwide for them Efficient and experienced project management We have done ~40 engagements in semi urban and rural markets Value Creation UC’s Non Profit Experience
  4. CONFIDENTIAL IDEI – Income Impact Assessment of KB Treadle Pumps in Assam 4 We have done ~12 engagements for non-profit organisations in South Asia and Middle East • Creating Impact Through Corporate Social Responsibility • Strategy for a High School in Mumbai • Feasibility Study for a Charitable Trust • Business Plan for a NGO that Promotes Western Classical Music • Defining the Tipping Point Penetration Level and means of reaching the Tipping Point Efficiently for an NGO • Assessing the impact of using treadle pumps • Blueprint for the Largest Conservation Organisation Engaged in Wildlife and Nature Conservation • Developing a Strategy UC’s Non Profit Experience
  5. CONFIDENTIAL IDEI – Income Impact Assessment of KB Treadle Pumps in Assam 5 We have done ~80 engagements for non- profit organiszations globally (1/ 3)…. • U.S. Motorsports Economy Assessment • Support the Organizations and its Members in Ongoing Advocacy Efforts • Assessing the Specific Economic Impact of their Operations in Research Efforts • Defining a Strategic Plan for an Education off site • Facilitated Workshop and Session Summary of Key Themes, Issues and Questions for Further Development. • Evaluation of Potential Acquisition of an UK Charity • Clear Understanding of the way forward • Service and Channel Strategy for a Brain Tumor Foundation • Enhance Web Content, Provide Online Social Networking, Provide Financial Support, etc. • Business Strategy for a Health Care Services Provider • Strategic Plan for a School Association UC’s Non Profit Experience
  6. CONFIDENTIAL IDEI – Income Impact Assessment of KB Treadle Pumps in Assam 6 We have done ~80 engagements for non- profit organisations globally (2/ 3)…. • Membership Structuring and Pricing Strategy • Development and Implementation of Based Strategy for Organization-wide Knowledge Management Platform • Aligning Health Services to Micro-enterprise Financing • Action Plan for the Development of PMI in the International Market • Strategic Framework for allocating Tsunami Relief Funds • Value Chain Analysis for a Pharmacy Company UC’s Non Profit Experience
  7. CONFIDENTIAL IDEI – Income Impact Assessment of KB Treadle Pumps in Assam 7 We have done ~80 engagements for non- profit organisations globally (3/ 3) • Marketing Plan for Italian SMEs • Improving the Competitiveness of Italian SMEs • Strategic Implementation of New Business Plan UC’s Non Profit Experience
  8. CONFIDENTIAL Contents 1 Research objectives and approach 03 2 Impact of treadle pump on income 07 3 Impact of treadle pumps on crop productivity 12 4 Incremental income post treadle pump purchase 16 5 Change in farmer lifestyle post treadle pump usage 20 6 Income sources besides farming 26 7 Treadle pump usage 31 8 Practices among non users of treadle pump 35 9 General agricultural practices and lifestyle 38 10 Executive Summary 44 8
  9. 1 Research objectives and approach
  10. CONFIDENTIAL Background of IDEI IDEI, is a not-for-profit organisation registered u/s 25 of the Indian Companies Act, 1956. IDEI Vision-IDEI is a social enterprise committed to providing long term solutions to poverty, hunger and deprivation. The company employs a market-development model that envisages the integration of small and marginal farmers with markets, both as buyers of inputs and as vendors of high-value agricultural produce. In order to deliver the technologies to smallholders, IDEI has adopted an innovative “Profit for Progress” methodology, creating and nurturing private sector supply chains engaged in the manufacture and distribution of the technologies, at fair prices which incorporate a profit margin for the manufacturers and distributors. By adopting this approach IDEI has promoted its technologies with over 1.3 Million households (7 million people) in India. The user farmers have generated over US$ 1 Billion as net additional income. IDEI promoted irrigation devices are environmentally friendly and have contributed to saving 672 Million litres of diesel and 2.5 Million tCO2 eq carbon emission reduction and 6.5 Billion cubic meters water and 872 million kWh electricity savings. Employment of over 647 million person days on farm and 2.32 Million person days in supply chain have been generated.
  11. CONFIDENTIAL Research background and objective Background on treadle pumps - Treadle Pumps are driven by human energy with a combination of lifting and pumping device. – Used in regions with high water table – Reliable, low maintenance – Replacing diesel pumps, thereby saving fuel & reducing carbon emission; each pump offsets 0.477 tonne of CO2 emissions per year – 3,500-4,000 litre/ hour discharge depending on body weight. – Irrigates up to 1 acre of vegetable farm Treadle pumps were sold to marginal farmers in Assam under a social initiative by IDEI and Voxtra Through this initiative of selling of treadle pumps at marginal price IDEI aims to improve the livelihood of these farmers. The objective of the study is to find out whether the use of a treadle pumps - Has increased the agricultural income of the farmer - Has increased the crop production from the same amount of land - Has yielded the marginal farmers a better livelihood 11
  12. CONFIDENTIAL Research approach Approach: Face to face interviews after purposive identification of the farmers in four districts of Assam. Both users and non users of treadle pumps were approached for the study. Target group: A total sample of 203 farmers was achieved in Assam Both treadle pump users and non users above 18 years were interviewed 12 Districts/ Field offices Number of treadle pump users Number of treadle pump non users Barpeta 31 31 Golaghat 31 31 Nagaon 19 20 Sonitpur 21 19 Total 102 101
  13. CONFIDENTIAL Demographics 62 62 39 40 Users Barapeta Golaghat Nagaon Sonitpur Districts Base: 203 (all) 13 All figures are in nos 9 76 64 44 10 Users 18-25 26-35 36-45 46-55 More than 55 Age break up Base: 203 (all)
  14. 2 Impact of treadle pump on income
  15. CONFIDENTIAL15 Unit of Currency/ PPP Overall Treadle pump users Treadle pump non users INR 19,902 29,296 10,414 USD 318 469 162 PPP 49,755 73,240 26,035 Exchange rate for USD = 62.5 Treadle pump users earn ~200% i.e. ~Rs. 20,000 more than the non users through agriculture
  16. CONFIDENTIAL Treadle pump users in Sonitpur and Naogon earn Rs. 20,000+ more than the non users, while Barpeta and Golaghat users earn Rs. 15,000+ more than the non users 16 Agricultural Income – treadle pump usage and user/non user in districts Average agricultural income Overall Districts/ Field Offices Users Non users Net incremental income in Rs Barpeta 31246 13342 17904 Golaghat 24467 7625 16842 Nagaon 31817 11307 20510 Sonitpur 31264 9249 22015 All figures are in nos
  17. CONFIDENTIAL 26 24 25 16 6 2 1 0 1 26 29 31 20 38 18 16 10 15 Less than 5,000 rupees 5001 - 10,000 rupees 10,001 - 15,000 rupees 15,001 - 20,000 rupees 20,001 - 25,000 rupees 25,001 - 30,000 rupees 30,001 - 35,000 rupees 35,001 - 40,000 rupees More than 40,000 rupees 0 5 6 4 32 16 15 10 14 A significantly higher proportion of treadle pump owners falling in the higher income category clearly indicates the contribution of treadle pumps in increasing the agricultural income. 17 Agricultural Income Overall User Non-User n=203 n=102 n=101 Average earning Rs 19902 29296 10414 Significantly higher All figures are i nosn
  18. CONFIDENTIAL Among those treadle pump users who earn less than Rs. 15,000, 6 farmers grew only 1-2 crops in the last year with all of them growing rice for self consumption and one additional crop leading to low income; 5 of them have also been using the treadle pump for less than 2 years. 18 * Low base: results directional in nature • 11 farmers earning less than Rs 15,000 through agriculture are dependent on other work for income and see an increase in income through non agricultural means post treadle pump purchase. • According to these farmers they were able to save time due to use of treadle pump and use it for their other income generating activities and thus their non-agricultural income increased because of the treadle pump. Time since using treadle pump for irrigation Time since using treadle pumps for irrigation Users with agricultural income of less than 15K Base 11* Last 1 year 0 More than 1- 2 years 5 More than 2- 3 years 4 More than 3 years 2 All figures are in nos No of crops planted Crops planted in the last year Users with agricultural income of less than 15K Base 11* 1 1 2 5 3 2 More than 3 3 Ways in which treadle pump helped in increasing productivity 3 8 Gives sufficient water when required Saves time n=11*
  19. CONFIDENTIAL Higher agricultural income is a direct result of using treadle pumps as treadle pump users are able to cultivate a larger variety of crops as compared to the non users; a significantly higher proportion of users also grow multiple crops at the same time. 25 1 24 52 13 39 55 26 29 71 62 9 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) 1 Crop 2 Crops 3 Crops 4 Crops No of crops grown in the last year 19 25 1 24 178 101 77 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) We grow a single crop at a time We grow multiple crops at the same time Single/multiple crop grown Significantly higher Avg no of crops 3 3 2 All figures are in nos
  20. 3 Impact of treadle pumps on crop productivity
  21. CONFIDENTIAL n=203 n=102 n=101 125 15 15 7 96 80 50 30 28 25 22 22 17 17 16 13 9 8 6 11 Rice Wheat Mustard Peas Egg plant Chilli Potato Tomato Ridge gourd Cucumber Cauliflower Onion Pumpkin Okra Cabbage Garlic Bottle Gourd Radish Watermelon Others 61 4 12 1 42 29 21 7 8 4 9 9 5 1 2 4 0 0 1 4 64 11 3 6 54 51 29 23 20 21 13 13 12 16 14 9 9 8 5 7 Users grow more cash crops when compared with non-users; this demonstrates that the use of treadle pump is associated with adoption of more cash crops thereby contributing to their higher agricultural income. 21 Types of crops cultivated Overall User Non-User Others include til, carrot, pulses, dhaniya, jute, corn All figures are in nos Users of treadle pump show a higher cultivation of cash crops including fruits and vegetables
  22. CONFIDENTIAL 4 27 7 3 6 12 30 2 2 10 39 37 5 2 Upto 500 kgs 501-1000 kgs 1001 - 1500 kgs 1501-2000 kgs More than 2000 kgs 34 (~65%) treadle pump users harvest more than 1000 kg of egg plant whereas only 10 (~25%) non users harvest more than 1000 kg 22 Average harvest of Egg plant from up to 1/3 acre land Overall User Non-User n=93 Average harvest 1058 kgs 1084 kgs 1024 kgs n=52 n=41 All figures are in nos
  23. CONFIDENTIAL 10 21 21 18 7 Upto 200 kgs 201 -300 kgs 301 -400 kgs 401 -500 kgs More than 500 kgs 4 17 5 0 3 6 4 16 18 4 38 (~80%) treadle pump users harvest more than 300 kg of chilli whereas only 8 (~28%) non users harvest more than 300 kg 23 Average harvest of chilli from upto 1/3 acre land Overall User Non-User n=77 Average harvest 385 kgs 420 kgs 326 kgs n=48 n=29* * Low base: results directional in nature All figures are in nos
  24. 4 Incremental income post treadle pump purchase
  25. CONFIDENTIAL Almost all treadle pump users find it useful for their irrigation requirements with a need to improve crop productivity being the prime reason behind the purchase of the treadle pump 42 29 26 21 6 4 4 3 2 2 Reasons for buying treadle pump 25 Irrigation requirement satisfied through treadle pump 96 6 Yes No n=102 (users) n=102 (users) To improve productivity Inadequacy of rain water Cost effectiveness of treadle pump Desire to grow multiple crops in a year Awareness about the benefits of treadle pumps Need for hiring diesel pumps for irrigation Benefits of treadle pumps seen at neighbourhood farms Saving of time To avoid pulling water manually from the well Need to bring more land under cultivation Only 6 farmers get extra water through other machines or canals. Their reason for the need of extra irrigation is to irrigate a larger size of land All figures are in nos
  26. CONFIDENTIAL 98 farmers feel that treadle pump has increased the productivity of their farm whereas 63 believe that the increase in income is due to savings in time or freeing up of time Increase in farm productivity through treadle pump usage 26 Ways in which treadle pump helped in increasing productivity n=102 (users) 98 4 Yes Not sure n=98 (users) 31 31 15 13 11 Gives sufficient water when required Saves time Requires less labour Low investment and running cost Different crops can be cultivated All figures are in nos Reasons for increase in income post treadle pump usage 33 30 8 2 Saves time I get time for other work Water can be given in the field any time Anyone can run it n=65 (users)
  27. 5 Change in farmer lifestyle post treadle pump usage
  28. CONFIDENTIAL Although there is a similar frequency of illness between the users and non users, treadle pump owners are able to spend more on doctors as compared to non users, indicating an improvement in lifestyle and therefore a higher spending on healthcare 139 71 68 64 31 33 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) No Yes Illness in the house 28 * Low base: results directional in nature All figures are in nos Spend on the doctor Average Spend in Rs Overall (n=55) 2512 User (n=27*) 3104 Non – user (n=25) 1941 District wise spend on the doctor Average Spend in Rs. Barpeta (n=15*) 2353 Golaghat (n=17*) 932 Nagaon (n=11*) 6045 Sonitpur (n=12*) 1708
  29. CONFIDENTIAL 56 11 9 41 17 15 Treadle pump users spend ~Rs.1200 on school fees for their children, ~35% more than non users; the average agricultural income of users who spend more than Rs.1000 on school fees is ~Rs. 30,000 54 29 25 149 73 76 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) No Yes School going children 29 Spend on the school fees Overall User Non-User n=149 Average spend 1026 1199 861 n=73 n=76 95 28 26 Upto 1000 1000 -1500 More than 1500 All figures are in nos Users spending more than INR 1000 on school fees Average agricultural income Barpeta (n=12*) INR 34,907 Golaghat (n=7*) INR 24, 650 Nagaon (n=5*) INR 20,474 Sonitpur (n=8*) INR 30, 004 * Low base: results directional in nature
  30. CONFIDENTIAL 37 47 7 16 62 16 The users also spend ~Rs. 1300 on vegetables fruit and milk as compared to non users who spend ~Rs. 1100 on it; the average agricultural income of users who spend more than Rs. 1000 on vegetables, fruits & milk is ~Rs. 30,200 30 Spend on vegetables, fruits and milk 53 110 22 Upto 1000 1000 -1500 More than 1500 Overall User Non-User n=185 Average spend 1211 1328 1090 n=95 n=92 All figures are in nos Users spending more than INR 1000 on vegetables, fruits & milk Average agricultural income Barpeta (n=24*) INR 32,017 Golaghat (n=23*) INR 25,463 Nagaon (n=11*) INR 33,845 Sonitpur (n=20*) INR 31,785 All figures are in nos
  31. CONFIDENTIAL 101 8 2 9 4 6 4 3 1 1 102 13 17 6 8 6 2 3 3 1 203 21 19 15 12 12 6 6 4 2 Putting money in the farm Repaying of loans Buying new farming equipment Renovating/constructing your house Buying of livestock Saving money for the future Buying durables for the house Entertainment Buying of gold Buying of vehicle Users invest have been able to invest in productive assets of the future than non users who spent most of their money in entertainment of items of immediate consumptions 31 Money spent on different activities in the past one year Overall User Non-User n=203 n=102 n=101 All figures are in nos
  32. CONFIDENTIAL 83 16 1 1 37 49 10 6 120 65 11 7 Less tha 5,000 rupees 5,001 - 10,000 rupees 10,001 - 15,000 rupees More than 15,000 rupees While 49 (~48%) treadle pump users are able to spend between Rs. 5,000 – Rs 10,000 on their farms only, 16 (~16%) non treadle pump users are able to invest the same amounts in their farm 32 Average amount spent on the farm in the past year Overall User Non-User n=203 Average spend 6329 8245 4394 n=102 n=101 All figures are in nos
  33. 6 Income source besides farming
  34. CONFIDENTIAL Due to higher farm incomes, a significantly higher number of treadle pump users do not need to engage in alternative livelihoods in addition to agriculture 44 33 11 159 69 90 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) We sell some/all that we grow on the farm and only depend on farming for our income What we grow on the farm is not enough for the family and we also earn money from other work besides farming Dependence on farming 34 Significantly higher All figures are in nos
  35. CONFIDENTIAL A comparatively higher proportion of treadle pump non users migrate to nearby towns during non farming season for extra income. 24 7 17 179 95 84 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) Yes No Migration to nearby towns during non farming season 35 All figures are in nos
  36. 7 Treadle pump usage
  37. CONFIDENTIAL 79% (80) of treadle pump users have been using the treadle pump for more than 2 years; majority of them use it for each crop cycle and are able to irrigate up to 0.6 acre of land. 2 20 59 21 Last 1 year More than 1- 2 years More than 2- 3 years More than 3 years Note: Time since treadle pump usage is in harvest years Time since treadle pump usage 37 Regularity of treadle pump usage n=102 (users) 100 2 I have used it for each crop cycle I have used it sometimes n=102 (users) 40 55 5 2 0.3 acre 0.6 acre 1 acre Did not answer Area irrigated through treadle pumps n=102 (users) All figures are in nos
  38. CONFIDENTIAL All the users are satisfied with the treadle pumps with low investment and running cost being the key reasons for satisfaction Level of satisfaction with the treadle pump 38 Reasons for satisfaction n=102 (users) 37 65 Extremely satisfied Very satisfied n=102 (users) 40 38 20 19 5 5 4 Low investment Low running cost Ease of use Gives sufficient water when required Increases productivity Saves time Makes me fit All figures are in nos
  39. CONFIDENTIAL 98% (100) farmers do not find any problem with the treadle pump and 96% (98) plan to use it in the future too. 39 Performance of treadle pump basis expectation n=102 (users) 100 2 Very well, there have been no problems Not too well, it requires frequent repairs Plan to use of treadle pump in future 98 4 Yes Not sure Children dropping out of school post treadle pump purchase 101 1 No No response n=102 (users) n=102 (users) All figures are in nos
  40. 8 Practices among non users of treadle pump
  41. CONFIDENTIAL 98% (99) farmers not using treadle pumps face problems in irrigating the field; non availability of means of irrigation is the main problem faced by them. Any problem faced while irrigating the field? 41 Types of problems faced n=101 (non users) 99 2 Yes No n=99 (non users) 55 17 14 13 13 3 2 Non availability of means of irrigation Unable to cultivate vegetables/other crops Lack of water at the right time Completely dependent on rain It is expensive to get water from the canals Depend on other machines for irrigation Irrigation needs lots of hard labourAll figures are in nos
  42. CONFIDENTIAL Although 98 (97%) farmers not using treadle pumps are aware of it, lack of information and money as the key inhibitors to its purchase. Awareness of treadle pump 42 Reasons for not buying treadle pumps n=101 (non users) 98 3 Yes No n=98 (non users) Purchase of any technology other than treadle pumps n=101 (non users) 54 28 8 7 5 Clear information on the benefits of treadle pumps on the productivity Lack of money to buy it Needs labour No one has recommend it to me Lack of people to use it 2 99 Yes No All figures are in nos
  43. 9 General agricultural practices and lifestyle
  44. CONFIDENTIAL 1 0 1 Overall User Non-user Ownership of the land farming is done on Majority of the farmers own the land that they farm on, with some farmers farming on land owned by their family 174 86 88 26 15 11 Overall (n=200) Users (n=101) Non-users (n=99) Owned by me Owned by my family Actual owner of the land 2 1 1 200 101 99 Work on own land and also part time on other people’s land I have taken the land on lease for farming I own the land that I farm on Overall (n)=203 User (n)=102 Non-user (n)=101 44 All figures are in nos
  45. CONFIDENTIAL Land is together Land is broken into 2 plots Land is broken into 3 plots Land is broken into more than 3 plots Most of the farmers have an agricultural land up to 0.3 acre and 74% (150) of the farmers have a single plot of land. 52% (53) of non treadle pump non users have farm area that is not irrigated 45 61 22 39 82 37 45 28 17 117 6 1 10 6 415 14 1 Overall User Non-user 0.3 acre 0.6 acre 1 acre Size of the agricultural landholding Fragmentation of land 67 38 29 64 47 17 16 14 2 3 3 0 53 0 53 Overall User Non-user 0.3 acre 0.6 acre 1 acre More than 1 acre Not irrigated Farm area that is irrigated Overall (n)=203 User (n)=102 Non-user (n)=101 150 71 79 44 23 21 7 6 12 2 0 Overall User Non-user All figures are in nos
  46. CONFIDENTIAL Almost all the farmers own a house and have a kitchen; however, 38% (39) of treadle pump users have more than 3 rooms in their house as compared to 21% (21) of non users. 201 101 100 2 1 1 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) Yes No Ownership of the house 46 1 1 43 15 28 99 48 51 54 34 20 6 5 1 Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) 1 2 3 4 5 No of rooms in the house All figures are in nos
  47. CONFIDENTIAL Most farmers use service latrine that is owned by the household, however users have a higher proportion of owned laterine i.e. ~92% as compared to non-users i.e. ~86%. Type of latrine facility used 47 181 22 94 8 87 14 Owned by household Shared latrine Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) 192 3 8 94 2 6 98 1 2 Service latrine Flush system latrine Septic tank latrine Overall (n=203) Users (n=102) Non-users (n=101) Ownership of latrine used All figures are in nos
  48. 10 Summary
  49. CONFIDENTIAL Executive Summary On an average treadle pump users earn an agricultural income of Rs. 20,000 or ~200% more than the non users through agriculture clearly indicating the impact of treadle pump on their livelihood. This difference in the income is a result of the higher productivity enabled by treadle pumps. Treadle pump users are able to cultivate a larger variety of vegetables and crops as compared to the non users. For those who also do other work besides farming treadle pump helps them to save time on irrigation that is utilised to earn money through other occupations. Treadle pump users have a higher standard of living as compared to non users; they are able to spend more on healthcare, education and quality of food. They are able to invest more in their land and productive assets and therefore have the opportunity to get higher returns sustainably. Treadle pump users cultivate cash crops and are also able to participate in the market thus generating higher income for themselves. Migration to nearby towns is low among treadle pump users as compared to the non users. Most treadle pump non users cultivate only what they consume, this subsistence farming along with general labour work leads to an inferior quality of life. 49
  50. Mumbai Vaswani Chambers, C 1st Floor 264-265, Dr Annie Besant Road Worli, Mumbai 400030 India Tel +91 22 66222100 New Delhi H11/H12, Ground Floor New Bridge Technopolis Tower B , Golf Course Road Sector 54, Gurgaon 122002 India Tel +91 124 4626091 Chennai 208 DBS House 31-A, Cathedral Garden Road Nungambakkam Chennai 600034 India Tel +91 44 32571208 strategy@universalconsulting.com www.universalconsulting.com Bangalore 203 DBS House 26 Cunningham Road Bangalore 560052 India Tel +91 80 4040 7203 Fax +91 22 66222111 Bangkok | Beijing | Boston | Chicago | London | Los Angeles | Melbourne | Milan | Munich | New York Paris | San Francisco | Sao Paulo | Seoul | Shanghai | Singapore | Sydney | Tokyo | Wroclaw
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