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Towards Cleaner India
PROVIDING DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION TO ALL
Availability of proper drinking water and sanitation is a major concern today in India. It is
estimated that around 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually, 1.5
million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone.
Access to Drinking Water in India:
Access To Drinking Water
Lack Safe Water
Access To Drinking Water on
Use improved Santation
Do not use Sanitation
• 97 Million people in India lack safe water.
• World Bank estimates that 21% of communicable diseases
in India are related to unsafe water.
• In India, Diarrhea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths
• 814 Million people in India have no sanitation services.
• Only 14% of the rural population has access to a latrine.
• In India majority of the girls drop out of school because of
lack of toilets. Only 22% of them manage to even
complete class 10. This effects development of nation.
Effortshavebeenmadeby government ,schemes havebeenimplemented,croresof rupees
havebeenspent,resultingonlyin 23 % accessto drinkingwater!WHY?
Government Scheme: NRDWP
Aim of this program is to ensure permanent drinking water security in rural India.
Problems Reasons Solution
Government says 96% area is covered .
But only 23% access to drinking water.
Infrastructure is there but there is no
supply of Water , water sources are
Local water bodies must be used and
these water bodies must be saved
from encroachment, cleaned and used
No infrastructure for water supply at
many places .
Lack of Awareness of the people or
difficult to reach .
A small scale centralised distribution
system of pure drinking water with
multiple outlets at relevant places .
Government spend 45000 Crore Rs. still
only 23% access to drinking water.
Ineffective Monitoring System at each
level of the system and also lack of
awareness in people .
A more effective monitoring system
can be used and a portal can be setup
Sustainability and workability of these
Water sources are not sustainable
and investments are also not
Instead of using water from distant
sources local body sources can be used
and rain water harvesting should be
used to secure these sources.
• Providing environmentally-safe sanitation to millions of
people is a huge challenge, especially in the second
most populated country of the world.
• An estimated 55% of all Indians, or close to 600 million
people, still do not have access to any
kind of toilet
• The task is rendered further difficult by the fact that
new technologies, which challenge people’s traditions
and beliefs, are generally not accepted well
• To address the problem of sanitation, we need a multi-
pronged strategy with changes in policy, introduction of
new technologies and changing the mind-set of public
and policy makers.
1% 2% 5%4% 9%
1991-1992 1998-1999 2005-2006
Poorest quntile 2nd poorest Middle 2nd Richest Richest Quntile
“Sanitation services for the lowest income
group improved the least between 1992–93
and 2005–06. Instead, much of the advances
have been enjoyed by the middle and upper-
: Asian Development Bank
Old Way of thinking
• Sanitation is of high cost
• The poor have more important
needs than sanitation so they can
• Sanitation is not a high priority for
New way of thinking
• Sanitation is affordable when right
kind of technology is installed and
reasonable financing is offered.
• Households –even poor ones are
willing to pay for sanitation.
• Making Sanitation a priority
provides benefits to the country
SANITATION DRINKING WATER
Generating investments into field of Sanitation and Drinking Water through innovative
partnerships between Government and NGOs and different organizations.
The Proposed Solution For Solving Sanitation Crisis in India.
Or are Willing
to Pay for
Can’t Pay Or
Are Not to
Willing to Pay
Pay Per use
Schemes for people.
Payment can be
through Cash or
The Proposed Solution for Solving Drinking Water Crisis in India.
To improve the drinking water condition we have to
do certain things :
• Change the existing policies e.g. Use of local
• Using existing technology like rain water
harvesting to make the water sources
• Developing new cost effective technologies like
Details of The Model
The solution involves participation of community-government-private sector. It seeks the
establishment of an autonomous body, free from bureaucratic red-tape, which can build
economical toilets and water drinking facilities on pay per use model.
There will be multiple phases of implementation:
Phase-I begins with construction of toilets and water drinking facilities at small railway stations so as to test its working
and do away with any flaws. To manage the waste generated, we seek the involvement of people/students from
technical institutes as well as various NGOs. Thereafter, it will be formed as a public utility and be expanded as a
corporation. The revenue model of this set-up is going to be self-sustaining as shown in the infographic. The surplus
revenue will be sent to a central location and can be used as per the need. The amount that remains after all this will be
used for expansion and awareness generation.
Phase-II involves bringing about policy changes to start rainwater harvesting and replenish the groundwater which is a
fast depleting source of drinking water. This will be done by using new as well as age old technologies like “johads”,etc.
Phase-III involves improving the local water-bodies in the cities so that they can be used for meeting the demands of
cities. This will reduce dependency of transported water which will be a relief to people of area from where water is
drawn. This phase will also involve working on the nullahs by cleaning them and introducing fish species that feed on
nymphs of flies.
Phase-IV involves introduction of new technologies like parchment filtration, etc. This is a cost-effective technology
working on reverse osmosis where a parchment is pressed over a column of water. This phase will see setting up of
centralized purification plants in villages with outlets at centers of public importance. Here also, the maintenance of the
utility will be through community participation with technical expertise being provided by private-government
Problems, Challenges and Solutions:
• The government departments, with some
exceptions, are famous for their inefficiency
• Involvement of women is important but
difficult to implement in certain parts.
• Obtaining funding will be challenging as many
policy makers still have negative idea regarding
“Universal Sanitation Campaign”.
• Awareness campaigns for public can be
• Monitoring of problems is difficult.
• We plan to build an independent organization through
community-government-private participation with
minimal interference from existing government
bureaucracy and political influences.
• The accounts will be audited time to time by external
• Involving women is challenging but it can be done with
the help of village elders and existing NGOs working in
• Funding can be obtained as when the people see the
benefits, they will be happy to participate. Besides, our
initiative also generates employment which can be used
for getting funding from other sources.
• Reaching out to public through talks, etc. is definitely not
a viable option. Instead, we are going to stage street plays
(“nukkad natak”), competitions, etc. through
collaboration with societies in order to inculcate values
like saving drinking water and promoting sanitation.
SOLUTIONSPROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTATION
• For monitoring, we plan to use TECHNOLOGY:
A website will be developed where people can register their problem. Each toilet
will be having a distinct number like TDeCND12345 where T means combined toilet
(for urinals its U) De is for Delhi state, C is for zone C (each state will be divided into
zones), ND is for New Delhi district and 12345 is the unique number of that toilet.
Similarly, each water outlet will have an identification number. This data will be
segregated by means of a program that looks for codes at particular places and
sends to concerned person. The realtime status of problem will be shown.
If there are any problems and the local staff isn’t helpful, a complaint can be directly
In case, we miss some area, a picture can be clicked with geo-tagging enabled and
uploaded by means of an app. For basic phones, an SMS can be sent from that
location and the location can be obtained by the nearest cell tower.
MONITORING : Solution to a BIG problem
• Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Website .
• UNICEF facts on water sanitation.
• ADB report on sanitation.
• Water.org Facts on DRINKING WATER in INDIA
• NSSO – National Sample Survey Organisation survey
• NRDWP Guidelines