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  1. 1. Manthan Topic -FutureCities: Ensuring world class civic amenities in urban India Financial inclusion: A bridge that refuses to be built We All Can’t Be Stars, But We All Can Twinkle. All civic amenities will be ensured if India achieve inclusive growth to prevent the gap between rich and poor from widening. TEAM DETAILS: SIDDHARTH MEHROTRA (TEAM LEAD),HIMENDRA KUMAR,VEDANSHI JAIN,NIDH I JHA,RICHA SISODIA GALGOTIAS UNIVERSITY, INDIA.
  2. 2. The traditional role of municipal bodies had been one of providing basic amenities of civic life. Services such as water supply and sanitation, roads and drains, street-lights, collection and disposal of solid waste, maintenance of public places, burial grounds and crematoria, cattle pounds, registration of births and deaths, maintenance of markets have long been seen as the function of municipal bodies. In addition, they performed certain regulatory functions relating construction of buildings, public health areas such as eating places, slaughter houses and tanneries, etc. We have be discussing the amenities which are always given less importance. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1900-1950 1950-1980 1980-2002 2002-2007 Average Annual GDP Growth Growth Rate
  3. 3. • Opportunity of India's Urbanisation to 2030 • 5 times – the number by which the GDP will have multiplied by 2030 • 590 million people will live in cities, nearly twice the population of US today • 270 million people net increase in working-age population • 70% of net new employment will be generated in cities • 91 million urban households will be middle class, up from 22 million today • 68 cities will have population of 1 million plus, up from 42 today • $1.2 trillion capital investment is necessary to meet projected demand in India's cities • 700-900 million square meters of commercial and residential space needs to be built – or a new Chicago every year • 2.5 billion square meter of roads will have to be paved, 20 times the capacity added in the past decade • 7,400 kilometers of metros and subways will need to be constructed – 20 times the capacity added in the past decade
  4. 4. Neglected Reasons Lack of Education Lack of Healthcare Malnutrition Improper functionality of PDS Corruption Lack of Education - According to the data of 2004-05 the crude literacy rate of India is 63% with male literacy rate 78% and female literacy rate 51%. So we can see that the literacy rate is very low and apart from that the female literacy rate. The female education is very important in the sense that when one female is educated then a whole family is being educated as she is the backbone of a family. The value possessed by her would be transmitted to her children who would be future citizens of India, so it is very important for females to be educated. Lack of Healthcare Facilities at Nominal Prices – According to the 2009-2010 data 70% of all the hospitals in India is privately owned. The number of doctors in public service is also not very encouraging, about 25% of doctors are in public service, whereas rests 75% are doing private practice. These two factors constitute about 77.4% of the healthcare expenditure of the country. We can easily imagine about the condition of the healthcare facilities that are available for the lower strata of the society that live hand to mouth.
  5. 5. • Malnutrition – According to a study by the ministry of women and child development (WCD) in 2010 50% of the child deaths were due to malnutrition and approximately half of the population of the children in India is underweight. This can be attributed to the improper functioning of the Public Distribution System because Government of India sanctioned Rs 55,578.18 crores as food subsidy in 2010 - 2011 as opposed to its previous year’s subsidy of Rs 56,000 crores. • Improper Functioning of the Public Distribution system (PDS) – We all know about the recent rise in price of the wheat , onion and other necessary households, whereas on the other hand tons of onion , wheat etc were being rotten in the government ware houses , being source of food for rodents. According to a study conducted by FAO in 2001 there are 217.05 million people in India who are undernourished which is highest at that time and the condition worsens from that time. So there is a major flaw in the public distribution system which certainly needed a big changeover. • Corruption –Last but not the least, corruption as we all know is a chronic disease in India which creeps into the roots of the country to such an extent that no one can even think of getting his or her job getting done without paying bribe. According to a study carried out by Transparency International in 2005 it had been come into the fact approximately 75% of the population engages in bribing to get their work done in any public office.
  6. 6. ”The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, But in ourselves, that we are underlings.” • Development of the Education Framework – As discussed earlier the literacy rate of India is low , even the literacy rate of countries like Guyana is 99% , Estonia 99.8 %. So we can see that how much the country is lacking in terms of literacy rate. The public expenditure on education is presently of the order of 1200 thousand million Rs which in no way can be stated as less, the need for the hour is: • Strict check should be there to ensure the proper working of the public school. • Strict control to ensure proper student to teacher ratio. • Opening of new schools in the remote areas. According to 2005-05 data approximately 230 million students are enrolled and still more are there who need just a little push. Education can play a pivotal role in achieving success to attain our goal.
  7. 7. Water: OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY The unfinished tasks in water supply in urban areas may be summed up as augmentation to reach the prescribed norms, higher degree of reliability, assurance of water quality, a high standard of operation and management, accountability to customers and in particular special arrangements to meet the needs of the urban poor, and levy and recovery of user charges to finance the maintenance functions as well as facilitate further investment in the sector. The achievement of these tasks depends to a large on the willingness of the State Governments and ULBs to make restructure water supply organisations, levy reasonable water rates, take up reforms in billing, accounting and collection, and become credit-worthy in order to have access to market funding. In addition, measures suggested earlier for conservation, re- use, and re-charging of water sources, should be taken up. Water Consumption Cities Villages
  8. 8. URBAN SANITATION: LOW COST SANITATION Towns which do have sewerage do not often have sewage treatment plants, with the result that water sources are getting polluted. It has been assessed that 80 per cent of pollution is caused by sewage alone. In the first place, highly urbanised, industrialised and densely-populated urban centres may be provided with sewerage, with priority being given to installing sewage treatment plants to prevent pollution of water sources. For the majority of the urban centres, low cost sanitation is the appropriate technology. Low cost sanitation is not a programme solely for the urban poor or slum population. It has to be propagated as the appropriate solution wherever the costly option of underground drainage is not feasible. In this sense, there is need to offer more options to households that desire sanitation facilities which, while being based on the ‘twin-pit- pour-flush’ model, is in keeping with their needs and capacity to invest. Low cost sanitation is best propagated as a part and parcel of the maintenance of environmental health. Within a town or city, the proper approach would be to take up a co- ordinated programme covering sanitation in schools, individual households, and public places with special emphasis on the sanitation needs of the urban poor and slum-dwellers and pavement dwellers.
  9. 9. Financial Progress Schemes sanctioned - 847 No. of towns covered - 1,317 Project Cost - Rs. 1,435.51 crore Subsidy sanctioned - Rs. 486.891 crore Loan sanctioned - Rs. 592.69 crores Subsidy released - Rs. 250.67 crores Loan amount released - Rs. 309.18 crore Statistics Physical Progress Total units sanctioned - 35,53,585 Conversion - 17,05,701 Construction - 18,47,884 Community toilets - 3,966 No. of units completed - 14,58,274 No. of community toilets completed - 2,982 No. of scheme in progress Conversion - 1,05,619 Construction - 2,12,987 Community toilets - 185 Towns declared scavenger free - 387 Scavengers liberated - 37,430
  10. 10. Solid Waste Management: A Suggested Solution Given different treatment systems for compliance of the rules, individual health care establishment cannot have own arrangements for comprehensive treatment and disposal of the waste generated by them. Therefore, each town/city should have at least one common treatment facility for the management of bio-medical waste. A common treatment facility for bio-medical waste has been established at Kothur in Mehboobnagar district near Hyderabad, which is perhaps the first such facility in the country. The facility has been established by a private company on a build-own-operate basis. HUDCO has provided financial assistance for this project. The company collects bio-medical waste from health care establishments in Hyderabad and Secunderabad in specially fabricated covered vehicles with compartments for different types of waste. The waste is transported to the Kothur plant. The facility has an incinerator with double chamber, wet- scrubber and a 30 metre high chimney stack. An indigenously manufactured microwave equipment has been installed along with a small standby autoclave for certain categories of bio-medical waste. There is a shredder for shredding sterilised waste. There is a secured landfill within the premises for incinerator ash and other sterilised waste. The company is planning to install a treatment plant for the wash water generated while washing the collection vehicles. The facility caters to 6,000 beds per day at present and this is likely to increase to more than 10,000 beds within a year. The project cost for this facility was Rs 120.62 lakh.
  11. 11. URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM : PRIVATISATION The private sector has shown remarkable growth and entrepreneurial abilities in the transport industry. It is a matter of concern that the financial and managerial capabilities of the private sector are not being put to better use in urban public transport systems. There is inadequate appreciation of the importance of an efficient public transport system in the economic and social life of the city. The right course would be to de-nationalise the sector, and bring in a competitive system of road- based public transport in the cities, in a phased manner. The present systems, while subjecting the State Road Transport Corporations to losses, do not provide reliable and punctual services. With the sector being thrown open to the private organised sector, a regulator can fix the fares and determine the subsidies to be provided by the State for categories such as school-children, the disabled, and the elderly. The number of such subsidies need to be kept low. The transport systems should be operated by corporate organisations or co-operatives of bus- owners. The minimum or qualifying level of investment capabilities and experience of operators can be defined, so that the systems are run on professional lines with attention being paid to passenger comfort, safety, reliability, and punctuality.
  12. 12. REFERENCES: • Forbes India, March 19, 2010 Harvard Business Review, South Asia, January-February Forbes India, November 19, 2010. Banker to the Poor, Muhammad Yunus, Public Affairs. India’s Emerging Economy, Kaushik Basu, Oxford University Press. Economic and Political Weekly, October 2, 2010, Vol. XLV No. 40 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 [NREGA] Report of the Second Year, April 2006 – March 2007 Links to websites referred to: www.thehindubusinnessline.com http://www.cis-india.org/events/no-uid-till-complete-transparency- accountability-and-peoples-participation-a-public-campaign http://www.janpathnetwork.org http://www.fao.org/trade/docs/LDC-foodqual_en.htm http://business.rediff.com/slide-show/2009/aug/25/slide-show-1- nilekani-on-the-advantages-of-uid-number.htm