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School as organization by Mr. Jefferson Lerona

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School as organization by Mr. Jefferson Lerona

  1. 1. School as an Organization Educators as Managers Participatory Management by: Jefferson Lerona Discussant
  2. 2. School as an Organization
  3. 3. It refers to how schools arrange the resources of time, space, and personnel for maximum effect on student learning (Jeba, 2017). School as an Organization
  4. 4. The school as an organization is about the actual organization of resources, events, personnel of a school (Danielson, 2018). School as an Organization
  5. 5. In a school, different people are assigned duties and made responsible for the same. They are also given due powers to discharge their duties effectively. The co-ordination between different personnel is also ensured to organize the activities of the school properly. School as an Organization
  6. 6. School as an Organization Structure Goals Functions Bureaucratic Aspects Professionals Growth Control of Schools
  7. 7. School organization means: Organization of different types of activities of a school. Organization of Material resources of a school. Organization of a school personnel Organization of Ideas and Principles into school system which includes building relationships, creating conducive climate for work at the school etc. School as an Organization
  8. 8. Aims and Objectives of School Organization 1.The basic aim is that schools are the betterment of societies. 2.To provide efficient life of the school children and prepare them for the art of learning together. 3. To bring school and community close to each- other. 4. To prepare the students according to the interest and ability of the students School as an Organization
  9. 9. 5. To help the students to unfold their personality (mental development) inner part. 6. To enable the students to have the right type of psychology of life. 7. To conserve all the group practical values, heredity and culture of our society. School as an Organization
  10. 10. Need for School Organization: •to ensure smooth functioning of a school. •to avoid under and over utilization of the resources of a school there by ensuring optimum and judicious use of the resources. School as an Organization
  11. 11. Need for School Organization: •to make best use of the capabilities of the school personnel because if they are allotted the work depending upon their area of expertise, interest, experience they are likely to deliver work at the best of their abilities. •to save time, increase clarity and efficiency of work as there is clarity of duties to be performed and responsibilities School as an Organization
  12. 12. Principles of School Organization Interest of individual differences of child- all children in school does not have equal abilities so this factor should be kept in mind. Organization should be made in such away that each child get opportunity to develop their inner potentials. Co-operation with Society A school can never go through progress until the individual of the society develop a positive attitude toward the school. School as an Organization
  13. 13. Principles of School Organization The organization must be flexible: it should be flexible and balanced because the society always tends to changes and the need of the human being also changes with time. Comprehensiveness: each and every aspect of the activity should be comprehensive and a clear picture of the organization should be presented. Utility: utilization of all the possible resources help in achieving the goals. School as an Organization
  14. 14. Principles of School Organization Adaptability: it can facilitate our activities. The power of adaptability is the key of success. Accountability: analysis of the activities of the staff give a positive result to organization. Professional Growth: teacher and other worker should be given a proper training facilitation for better performance. School as an Organization
  15. 15. Element of School as an Organization Raising the professional status of teaching Reducing disparities in schools Designing a 21st-century curriculum Promoting flexible learning arrangements focused on growth Identifying and meeting the needs of children School as an Organization
  16. 16. Challenges in School Organization Time Management issues Finding proper resources Adapting class activities Ease communication with parents Problems with Technological Advancement School as an Organization
  17. 17. Challenges in School Organization Problems With Funding Psychological issues Leadership Problems Interference of government Lack of devotion among teachers Lack of cooperation among parents Lack of initiative by the school administrators. School as an Organization
  18. 18. Educators as Managers
  19. 19. Literature Review The teacher as an educational manager can be considered at global, institutional and classroom level. He/she faces different situations which are specific to the educational process, situation when the relationship student – teacher can be considered an indicator for the educational management appliance (Cristea, 2003). Educators as Managers
  20. 20. Literature Review Cosmovici, Iacob, and Luminița, (2005) in the educational process, the teacher uses different managerial dimensions, meaning the roles to coordinate the activity of teaching – learning – evaluating, to support the students, to involve in the educational partnership and research. Educators as Managers
  21. 21. Literature Review The main roles of the teacher are: orientation, guidance and rational management of the human and material resources in order to achieve the objectives. Educators as Managers
  22. 22. Literature Review In present time the teacher has to take into account the available human resource, which is like a “dough” that has to be “shaped”, and has to establish cooperation relationship with other factors (parents, business environment, job offers, etc). Educators as Managers
  23. 23. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders (Harrison and Killion, 2007) 1. Resource Provider 2. Instructional Specialist 3. Curriculum Specialist 4. Classroom Supporter 5. Learning Facilitator 6. Mentor 7. School Leader 8. Data Coach 9. Catalyst for Change 10. Learner Educators as Managers
  24. 24. Wallace (2012) stated that most successful principals perform five key functions well: 1. Shaping a vision of academic success for all students 2. Creating a climate hospitable to education 3. Cultivating leadership in others 4. Improving instruction 5. Managing people, data, and processes to foster school improvement Educators as Managers
  25. 25. University of Georgia Study (2013) A recent study conducted by the University of Georgia theorizes that today’s principals need to be engaged in at least five key functions to facilitate reforms and improvements in schools. These include: •Vision •Planning and goal-setting – •Sharing the decision-making process •Empowering and taking initiative •Development of faculty and staff Educators as Managers
  26. 26. Major Functions of Administration in a School 1.Planning of school programs and activities 2. Directing school work and formulating and executing educational policies 3. Coordinating administrative and supervisory activities 4. Providing the necessary leadership. 5. Evaluating the teaching personnel and school program 6. Keeping records and reporting results Educators as Managers
  27. 27. Educators as Managers
  28. 28. Educators as Managers
  29. 29. Educators as Managers
  30. 30. Schools of management though that are relevant to Educators as managers (Sridhar, 2014). ● Scientific Management – worked task performance ● Administrative Management- best way to perform a job ● Bureaucratic Organization – larger and more complex, authoritarian-paternalistic pattern. ● Classical Management – profitable business / school ● Human Relations School – interrelationships among members and conflict free. Educators as Managers
  31. 31. Participatory Management
  32. 32. What is participatory management? ● Including relevant stakeholders in the management of a resource. − Definition of stakeholder – those who are directly or indirectly affecting or being affected by a management decision (Glicken, 2000). ● Extending the range of people and organizations involved in management to those who would not normally be involved Participatory Management
  33. 33. Literature Review (Shagholi & Hussin, 2009) ● Participatory management may positively impact job satisfaction (Kim 2002; Spence-Laschinger et al 2004), ● Organizational commitment (Spence-Laschinger et al 2004), ● Perceived organizational support (Rhoades & Eisenberger 2002; Lau & Lim 2002), ● Organizational citizenship behavior (VanYperen et al 1999), ● Labor-management relations (Ospina & Yaroni 2003) and job performance (Lau & Lim 2002; Ming 2004) ● Positive work outcomes (Siegall & Worth, 2001). Participatory Management
  34. 34. Participatory management as multidimensional approach contains fifteen components as follow: 1-Trust: PM enhancing the levels of trust (Blase & Blase, 2001; Tschannen-Moran, 2001) and high levels of trust hastens the establishment of strong networks among the members (Hargreaves, 2001). 2-Decision making: PM is key decision-making processes (Saxton, 2004) and it is the practice of empowering employees to participate in organizational decision making (Marzano, 2003). Participatory Management
  35. 35. 3-Team work: PM increase decision making that it is accomplished by group participation (Robert & Moran, 1998). 4-Share power: PM is a process in which influence is shared among individuals who are otherwise hierarchically unequal (Kim, 2002; Marzano, 2003). 5-Motivation: participative approaches to decision making mainly out of pragmatic motives to achieve valued organizational results (Somech, 2002) Participatory Management
  36. 36. 6-Communication: PM causes Communication effectively with subordinates (Albanese, 1975). 7-Involvement: PM encompasses various employee involvement schemes in co-determination of working conditions (Kim, 2002; Marzano, 2003). 8-Collaboration: Through a judicious use of participatory management, leaders may make sound decisions by drawing upon the collective expertise, experience, and wisdom of their employees (Lichtenstein, 2000). Participatory Management
  37. 37. 9-Democracy: Democracy is a benefit of participatory management (Bartle, 2007). 10-Transparency: Transparency is a benefit of participatory management (Bartle, 2007). 11-Innovation: PM encourage innovations (Walker & Dimmock, 2000). 12-Respect: PM prepare a situation for expressing appreciation when a subordinate does a good job (Albanese, 1975). Participatory Management
  38. 38. 13-Problem solving: PM promotes the adoption of problem solving, flexibility and change (Marchant, 1982). 14-Identify common goal: PM is an co-operation between manager and subordinates in the setting up of objectives (Dutton, 1973). 15-Equalitarian: In PM power inequities are balanced (Harchar & Hyle, 1996). Participatory Management
  39. 39. Types of participants ● Organized stakeholders − organisations and their representatives, normally have a high degree of interest and expertise − individuals of particular power within a community e.g. local land owners Participatory Management
  40. 40. Types of participants ● Public − general public who tend to be un-organised and who are normally non-experts (in a technical sense) ● Competent authority − organization who is responsible for planning and implementation of the participatory process Participatory Management
  41. 41. Different Levels of Participation (Evolving from Arnstein 1969, Mostert, 2003, Drafting Group 2002). --Information provision ● stakeholders are informed about management plans − Consultation ● stakeholders are asked their opinion ● stakeholders provide data/knowledge Participatory Management
  42. 42. Different Levels of Participation (Evolving from Arnstein 1969, Mostert, 2003, Drafting Group 2002). − Active involvement (co-designing) ● stakeholders share responsibility and activities in creating possible plans, implementation and/or maintenance − Decision making (co-deciding) ● stakeholders participate in final decision making Participatory Management
  43. 43. Classes of Participatory Method ● Public information provision ● Education ● Interviews ● Surveys ● Forums ● Meetings ● Workshops ● Events Participatory Management
  44. 44. “Management is the opportunity to help people become better people. Practiced that way, it‘s a magnificent profession."
  45. 45. Thank you and God bless! 

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