Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Current Practices, Trends and Emerging roles in Learning and Development

4 673 vues

Publié le

What are the current practices of L&D and how trends shape what roles the L&D specialists occupy in an organisation? These are the questions I tried answering as part of my preparation for my CIPD Intermediate Level 5 Diploma in Learning and Development.

Publié dans : Formation
  • Login to see the comments

Current Practices, Trends and Emerging roles in Learning and Development

  1. 1. Current practice, trends and emerging roles in learning and development Activity 1.1 – Irina Ketkin
  2. 2. AGENDA 2 Define Human Resource Development and current HRD practices HRD Examine new and emerging trends in Learning and Development TRENDS Identify the existing and up- and-coming roles within Learning and Development ROLES
  3. 3. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 3 HRD definitions in chronological order Human resource development is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills, and the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In political terms, human resource development prepares people for adult participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives, less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human resource development unlock the door to modernization. (Harbison and Myers, 1964) 1964
  4. 4. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 4 HRD definitions in chronological order Human resource development is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills, and the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In political terms, human resource development prepares people for adult participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives, less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human resource development unlock the door to modernization. (Harbison and Myers, 1964) HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness. (McLagan and Suhadolnik, 1989) 19891964
  5. 5. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 5 HRD definitions in chronological order Human resource development is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills, and the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In political terms, human resource development prepares people for adult participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives, less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human resource development unlock the door to modernization. (Harbison and Myers, 1964) HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness. (McLagan and Suhadolnik, 1989) Human resource development is concerned with learning and with how it might be managed. It is concerned with interventions that might facilitate learning. It is concerned with change – of behaviour, as reflected in the demonstration of new or enhanced skills, new knowledge and understanding and new attitudes. It is concerned with both intentional and accidental learning. It has a vocational aspect to it. Thus its focus is vocational learning. (Walton, 1999) 199919891964
  6. 6. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 6 HRD definitions in chronological order Human resource development is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills, and the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In political terms, human resource development prepares people for adult participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives, less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human resource development unlock the door to modernization. (Harbison and Myers, 1964) HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness. (McLagan and Suhadolnik, 1989) Human resource development is concerned with learning and with how it might be managed. It is concerned with interventions that might facilitate learning. It is concerned with change – of behaviour, as reflected in the demonstration of new or enhanced skills, new knowledge and understanding and new attitudes. It is concerned with both intentional and accidental learning. It has a vocational aspect to it. Thus its focus is vocational learning. (Walton, 1999) HRD is a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individuals, team, work process, and organisational system performance. (Swanson and Holton, 2009) 2009199919891964
  7. 7. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 7 HRD definitions in chronological order 2011 Human resource development is the process of increasing the knowledge, the skills, and the capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. In political terms, human resource development prepares people for adult participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives, less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human resource development unlock the door to modernization. (Harbison and Myers, 1964) HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness. (McLagan and Suhadolnik, 1989) Human resource development is concerned with learning and with how it might be managed. It is concerned with interventions that might facilitate learning. It is concerned with change – of behaviour, as reflected in the demonstration of new or enhanced skills, new knowledge and understanding and new attitudes. It is concerned with both intentional and accidental learning. It has a vocational aspect to it. Thus its focus is vocational learning. (Walton, 1999) HRD is a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individuals, team, work process, and organisational system performance. (Swanson and Holton, 2009) HRD encompasses planned activities, processes and/or interventions designed to have impact upon and enhance organisational and individual learning, to develop human potential, to improve or maximise effectiveness and performance at either the individual, group/team and/or organisational level, and/or to bring about effective, beneficial personal or organisational behaviour change and improvement within, across and/or beyond the boundaries (or borders) of private sector (for profit), public sector/ governmental, or third/voluntary sector (not-for-profit) organisations, entities or any other type of personal-based, work-based, community-based, political-based or nation-based host system. (Hamlin and Stewart, 2011) 2009199919891964
  8. 8. HRD vs LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT 8 The term human resource development retains its popularity among academics but it has never been attractive to practitioners. They tend to dislike it because they see its reference to people as a ‘resource’ to be demeaning. Putting people on a par with money, materials and equipment creates the impression of ‘development’ as an unfeeling, manipulative activity, although the two terms are almost indistinguishable. (Harrison, 2009)
  9. 9. PURPOSE OF HRD 9 LEARNING The purpose is to enhance individual development, growth and potential through learning. (Rigg et al 2007) [Learning] must be inferred at some point after instruction. (Soderstrom and Bjork, n.d.) PERFORMANCE The purpose of HRD is to improve organisational performance through enhancing individual and collective competence. (Rigg et al 2007) [Performance] is what can be observed and measured during instruction or training. (Soderstrom and Bjork, n.d.) [Research has shown that] learning could occur without changes in performance, […] improvements in performance can fail to yield significant learning. Conditions that induce the most errors during acquisition are often the very conditions that lead to the most learning! (Soderstrom and Bjork, n.d.)
  10. 10. 10 Strategic human resource development (SHRD) An approach to helping people to learn and develop that is concerned with how the organization’s goals will be achieved through its human resources by means of integrated L&D strategies, policies and practices. Critical human resource development (CHRD) A learning perspective considered to be an alternative to conventional views of HRD as a ‘tool’ of management justified only in helping to meet managerial goals and objectives. Vocational education and training (VET) Policies and interventions of national governments to promote, support and shape investment in and approaches to education and training undertaken by employers and citizens. An alternative term for NHRD. National human resource development (NHRD): Policies and interventions of mainly national governments to promote, support and shape investment in education and training undertaken by employers and citizens. The term can also encompass similar activities of supranational bodies such as the European Union and the United Nations. PERSPECTIVES ON HRD
  11. 11. 11 CORE PURPOSES OF HRD Based on Hamlin and Stewart, 2011 Improving individual or group effectiveness and performance PURPOSE 01 Improving organizational effectiveness and performance PURPOSE 02 Developing knowledge, skills and competencies PURPOSE 03 Enhancing human potential and personal growth. PURPOSE04
  12. 12. 12 TRENDS Let’s explore the trends in L&D from the perspective of these 3 areas PEOPLE This includes L&D professionals, managers, team members, C-Level team, leaders and other stakeholders. ORGANISATION This would include more intangible things like the culture, the values, the mind-set and behaviours exhibited by senior managers and team members alike, objectives, short- and long-term strategies, policies and processes. RESOURCES A number of resources can be considered here: budgets, time, number of L&D professionals and SME , available knowledge and many others. It would also include software, Learning Management Systems, integration with any Talent Management and Performance management systems and others. TRENDS
  13. 13. Employees 13 TRENDS – PEOPLE For ease, let’s break the PEOPLE element into 3 sub-sections TRENDS Leadership / Management L&D Professionals TRENDS
  14. 14. 14 TRENDS – PEOPLE Let’s start with the Learning and Development Professionals TRENDS L&D Professionals TRENDS
  15. 15. CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) 15 L&D Professionals engage in CPD themselves, as well as act as agents for other people’s CPD What is CPD? “Ongoing learning and improvement in the specific professional requirements of an individual’s role” Can be “a condition of continuing membership of professional bodies” “A combination of approaches, ideas and techniques that will help you manage your own learning and growth” “The focus of CPD is firmly on results – the benefits that professional development can bring you in the real world.”
  16. 16. 16 The CIPD policy is that members of the CIPD shall: • maintain professional knowledge and competence • seek appropriate support if business needs require involvement in new areas of activity • ensure that they provide a professional, up to date and insightful service • upon request will provide evidence of compliance with this CPD policy. The Institute will audit CPD. CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) The CIPD policy
  17. 17. 17 While the responsibility for CPD falls under the L&D professionals, it is of crucial importance that the organisations encourage and enable the development of L&D capability as well. The latest CIPD survey Report on Learning in Development (2015) shows that the higher the role in the hierarchy, the more the organisation actively encourages the development of L&D capability (45% of HR Directors and 44% of Heads of Learning and Development are encouraged to a great extent to develop, while only 25% of the talent, training, learning and development specialists are supported in the same way). CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) What are the current trends?
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19 CIPD PROFESSION MAP CIPD conducts research that helps identify a comprehensive overview of the HR profession, which results in the development of the CIPD Profession Map (Wilson and Wilson, 2012) 2009 The CIPD Profession Map sets out standards for HR professionals around the world: the activities, knowledge and behaviours needed for success (CIPD, 2015) TODAY
  20. 20. 20 CIPD PROFESSION MAP 10 Professional Areas: Describes what you need to do (activities) and what you need to know for each area of the HR profession at four bands of professional competence. 8 Behaviours: Describes the behaviours and HR professional needs to carry out their activities. Each behaviour is described across four bands of professional competence. 4 Bands of Professional Competencies: Describes the four bands of professional competence and the transition challenges faced when moving from one band to the next. How their contribution and success is measured.
  21. 21. THE ROLE AND PURPOSE OF THE L&D FUNCTION 21 How does L&D fit in? (Based on the CIPD 2015 survey report) L&D is a specialist function/role within the HR department L&D is part of generalist HR activities L&D activities are split between HR and another area of the business OR are completely separate from the HR function 40% 20% 40% L&D is not aligned at all with the business needs L&D is extremely aligned to the needs of the business, the L&D and business strategy are fully integrated L&D is broadly aligned, with some discrepancies L&D is somewhat aligned 25% 42% 27% 6%
  22. 22. THE FUTURE OF THE L&D FUNCTION 22 In the area of learning, the world has totally changed from that of “instructor delivered” to “informal” to now “employee-owned.” We, as employees, now have total control of our own learning, so we expect our companies to offer us video content, massive open online courses6 (MOOCs), and lots of external access whenever we need it. The role of curation and content management is becoming central to L&D; people who used to be called “instructional designers” are now “learning experience designers” because they no longer “teach” as they “design learning experiences.” (Bersin, 2016)
  23. 23. THE FUTURE OF THE L&D FUNCTION 23 Learning and development issues exploded from the No. 8 to the No. 3 most important talent challenge in this year’s study, with 85 percent of survey participants rating learning as a “very important” or “important” problem. Despite this demand, capabilities in learning dropped significantly; the gap between importance and readiness was more than three times worse in 2015 than in 2014. (Bersin, 2016) !
  24. 24. 24 TRENDS – PEOPLE Let’s explore what is being done in L&D for employees Employees TRENDS
  25. 25. 25 PEOPLE IN-HOUSE Top 3 most used practices: on-the-job training (48% of respondents), In-house development programmes (46%), Coaching by line managers or peers (32%) Top 3 most effective practices: on-the-job training (47% of respondents), Coaching by line managers or peers (40%) In-house development programmes (34%), Top 3 methods expected to grow: Coaching by line managers and peers (65% of respondents), in- house development programmes (53%), On-the-job training (48%)
  26. 26. 26 PEOPLE 27% of respondents use external conferences, workshops and events 15% of respondents believe external conferences, workshops and events are effective 22% believe usage of external conferences, workshops and events will increase, 25% think it will decrease in the next 2 years EXTERNAL
  27. 27. 27 PEOPLE eLearning is the 4th most used method in organisations, but 8th (out of 10) in terms of effectiveness 59% of respondents believe eLearning will increase in usage in the next 2 years Other eLearning methods that are believed to increase in the next 2 years: Virtual classrooms and webinars (36% of respondents), Mobile device-based learning (25%), User-generated content (25%), Massive open online courses (MOOCs) (13%) and Gamified learning (11%) E-LEARNING
  28. 28. PEOPLE 28 What’s trending in People development in 2015? IN-HOUSE COACHING CONTENT NON-EMPLOYEE Remains most common method used Most organisations expect to increase their use of coaching and mentoring Most L&D content is developed from scratch Approx. two-thirds of organisations offer training to students, clients or volunteers,
  29. 29. PEOPLE 29 What the employee actually wants? Learn at weekends or evenings Know what learning they need to do their job Like to be able to learn at their own pace Want to be able to do their job better/faster 42% 87% 88% 76%
  30. 30. 30 TRENDS – PEOPLE Finally, what’s happening in Leadership and Management development TRENDS Leadership / Management TRENDS
  31. 31. TOP 3 PRIORITIES OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 31 IMPROVE STAFF PERFORMANCE (50%) CHANGING/ENHANCING THE ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE (45%) STRATEGIC AND FUTURE-FOCUSED WAY OF THINKING (40%) 18% in 2014 No data for prev. years 57% in 2014 19% in 2012 23% in 2011 25% in 2010 No data for 2014 54% in 2012 39% in 2011 42% in 2010 80% of organisations report they will be carrying out leadership development activities in the next 12 months.
  32. 32. 32 TRENDS – ORGANISATION How does the organisation affect the L&D function from the perspective of these 3 areas? TRENDS Policies and Processes Strategy Culture and Values TRENDS
  33. 33. 33 TRENDS – ORGANISATION Let’s start with Culture and Values. In this current context, those are considered as one and the same thing. TRENDS Culture and Values TRENDS
  34. 34. Continual learning and improvement Expenditure encourages where there is benefit Target key performance needs Cover other aims Delivered efficiently and effectively Investment for the future Personal career development 34 CULTURE AND VALUES As well as reflecting business aims, the L&D strategy should align with organisational culture and also address operational realities and constraints. Some examples might include:
  35. 35. 35 TRENDS – ORGANISATION Just like a backbone, policies and processes are fundamental to building a strong organisation and an L&D function in particular. TRENDS Policies and ProcessesTRENDS
  36. 36. PROCESSES 36 To what extent are your L&D processes integrated into other aspects of HR management (such as recruitment, performance management, reward)? (% of respondents) PROCESSES Not at all 12% To little extent 24% To some extent 43% To a great extent 21% If L&D is to become more strategic and aligned with the business, as the research suggests, then the L&D processes need to help and encourage business needs and strategy, not hinder it.
  37. 37. 37 TRENDS – ORGANISATION How does the overall strategy interact and affect L&D? TRENDS Strategy TRENDS
  38. 38. STRATEGY 38 What is strategic Learning and Development? STRATEGIC L&D Strategic L&D is an approach to helping people to learn and develop that is concerned with how the organization’s goals will be achieved through its human resources by means of integrated L&D strategies, policies and practices. (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014) The starting point for an effective L&D strategy is to understand the both the internal and external context of the business, including the industry, business needs and the rationale that drives organisational strategy. The factors governing this are many, but some examples might be: • the unique offer of the business and what gives it competitive advantage • changes predicted in the business environment – the rate of growth or decline, the competition and the degree of technological change • the need to change and adapt to economic circumstances • how customers are served and the nature of their expectations.
  39. 39. STRATEGY 39 What’s the case at hand? Research shows that “high-impact” learning organizations deliver 30 percent higher customer service and show similar high performance in innovation. Lack of clarity regarding the business strategy is one of the most common barriers hindering business alignment. Approximately a third experience ‘apathy’, ‘lack of insight and understanding’ or ‘interest’ from senior management. A quarter feel constrained by lack of resources. A quarter report that L&D strategy is extremely aligned with the needs of the business and a further two-fifths that they are broadly aligned with some discrepancies.
  40. 40. 40 TRENDS – RESOURCES Finally, we’ll look at how resources affect the L&D Function. TRENDS Technology People Budget TRENDS
  41. 41. 41 TRENDS – RESOURCES Let’s explore how budgets affect the L&D activities. TRENDS Budget TRENDS
  42. 42. BUDGET 42 How are the economic/funding circumstances this year, as compared the past 12 months? Worse than before Better than before 17%34% The median annual L&D budget range is £201–250 per employee, there is considerable variation in L&D budgets. Just over a quarter have an annual budget of less than £100 per employee, while one in seven have a budget of more than £700. (CIPD, 2015)
  43. 43. BUDGET 43 What money buys? The below graph shows 51% to 100% of budget will be allocated to these activities (% of respondents) Improving individuals’ performance in existing roles Meeting compliance regulations (including health and safety) Self-development for future roles Non-role-specific personal development 38% 18% 6% 3%
  44. 44. 44 TRENDS – RESOURCES Let’s explore how Technologies of the 21st century shape the L&D function. TRENDS Technology TRENDS
  45. 45. TECHNOLOGY 45 What technologies are being used? Mobile Learning Game-based learning Bring your own device (BYOD) programmes Open educational resources Massive Open Online Classes (MOOCs) Flipped Classrooms
  46. 46. TECHNOLOGY 46 How does eLearning usages stack up against effectiveness? Most effective Most used 29%12% Just a quarter of respondents feel ‘extremely’ or ‘very’ confident in their ability to harness technology to increase the effectiveness of their L&D interventions (CIPD, 2015). If L&D has the technology to increase engagement but lacks confidence to use it, this creates a clear knowledge gap that needs to be addresses by organisations.
  47. 47. TECHNOLOGY 47 How will investment in Learning Technologies change? Decreased Increased 32%11% Just a quarter of respondents feel ‘extremely’ or ‘very’ confident in their ability to harness technology to increase the effectiveness of their L&D interventions. (CIPD, 2015)
  48. 48. TECHNOLOGY 48 To what extent are your L&D systems integrated into other aspects of HR management (such as recruitment, performance management, reward)? (% of respondents) SYSTEMS Not at all 23% To little extent 25% To some extent 38% To a great extent 13% If L&D is to become more strategic and aligned with the business, as the research suggests, then the integration between L&D systems and the rest of HR need to become completely integrated with one another. This will have a domino effect on all the rest of the HR management.
  49. 49. 49 TRENDS – RESOURCES Finally, let’s take a look at how people affect the trends in L&D. TRENDS People TRENDS
  50. 50. PEOPLE 50 The size of the L&D function in different sized organisations Organisation Size Average number of people in the L&D Function More than 20,000 232 29 11 5 4 3 5,000–19,999 1,000–4,999 250–999 <10 10–4950–249 2
  51. 51. PEOPLE 51 Changes to L&D department headcount and workload over the past 12 months (% of respondents) Decrease Increase 26%23% Headcount Decrease Increase 74%3% Workload If headcount stays the same, but the workload increases, the overall HR management, practices and processes need to be brought to question. Coupled with the ineffective use of learning technology, it becomes apparent that there is cause for concern in the L&D function. Perhaps further research is needed to find out how do L&D practitioners deal with the increase in workload.
  52. 52. ROLES 52 Let’s explore the role of the L&D professional from the perspective of these 3 areas. COMPONENTS of L&D L&D professionals EXPECTATIONS What CUSTOMER want How L&D needs to ADAPT
  53. 53. ROLES – COMPONENTS OF L&D 53 According to Armstrong, 2014 these are the L&D components Learning and Development Organisationa l Learning Knowledge management Individual Learning and development Workplace learning Self-directed learning eLearning Coaching and Mentoring Blended Learning Training Workplace Learning Formal off- the-job training Leadership & Management development While there might be some differences in organisations, generally all of the above would be part of the responsibilities of a Learning and Development professional. To understand the roles of L&D in more detail, we need to examine the expectations of all stakeholders – managers, employees and L&D alike.
  54. 54. ROLES 54 What are the aspirations of L&D professionals and how much do they achieve? 89% 41% Want to have Have achieved Benefits related to efficiency 88% 39% Want to have Have achieved Improved individual processes 91% 29% Want to have Have achieved Improved productivity and engagement 88% 24% Want to have Have achieved Improved business responsiveness 89% 21% Want to have Have achieved Improved learning culture
  55. 55. ROLES 55 What customer want from HR? 1 HR should engage more seriously with finding out what its customers need and their experiences of current HR services HR needs to be responsive – clear about what it is there for and what services it offers; easy to contact; and able to respond quickly, efficiently and effectively Managers want an independent-minded HR function, which understands the workforce and can help management balance employee and business needs 2 3
  56. 56. ROLES 56 What customer want from HR? 4 Customers do want an HR function with strategic business impact, but this is about solving problems that are strategically important for the business, not about separate HR strategies The customers of HR want a ‘proactive’ HR function, which spots issues ahead of time and works closely with managers to address them Customers want professional HR support from real ‘people partners’ 5 6
  57. 57. ROLES 57 How does L&D need to adapt? ALIGNMENT AND RESOURCES • Stronger alignment between L&D activity and business and learner needs • Maximise the resources they have to enhance effectiveness • Clear connections between the different functions and agreement on L&D’s purpose EVOLUTION OF ROLES L&D CAPABILITY DRIVING CHANGE • Roles are becoming increasingly multifaceted • Agility and versatility are essential • A key shift is a move away from learning delivery to performance consultancy • Need for L&D to support social learning • L&D must address key skill gaps • These include business and commercial understanding, facilitation of social learning and technological capability and robust diagnosis • L&D must first invest in their own capability • L&D needs to continue to evolve and adapt • A key priority should be to actively scan the horizon to anticipate change • L&D requires greater analytical capability to use and interpret evidence and data
  58. 58. THANK YOU
  59. 59. REFERENCES 59 Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice, 13th edition. London: Kogan Page. Bersin, J. (2016). Predictions for 2016: A Bold New World of Talent, Learning, Leadership, and HR Technology Ahead. [online] Bersin by Deloitte, p.5. Available at: http://www.bersin.com/Lib/Rs/ShowDocument.aspx?docid=19445 [Accessed 15 Jan. 2016]. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2015). ANNUAL SURVEY REPORT Learning and Development 2015. [online] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/learning-development_2015.pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2014). Annual survey report 2014 Learning and Development. [online] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/learning-and-development_2014.pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2013). Annual survey report 2013 Learning and Development. [online] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/learning-and-talent-development_2013.pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2012). Annual survey report 2012 Learning and Development. [online] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: https://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/sites/default/files/whitepaper/csod-wp_cipd-ltd-survey-final-copy- 2012.pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2011). International learning and talent development comparison survey 2011 Learning and Talent Development. [online] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/international-learning- and-talent-development-comparison-survey_2011..pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, (2015). L&D: Evolving roles, enhancing skills. [online] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, p.3. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/l-d-evolving-roles-enhancing-skills_2015.pdf [Accessed 17 Jan. 2016]. Cipd.co.uk, (2016). Continuing professional development policy - Continuing Professional Development (CPD) - CIPD. [online] Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/cpd/policy.aspx [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Cipd.co.uk, (2016). Learning and development strategy - Factsheets - CIPD. [online] Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/factsheets/learning- talent-development-strategy.aspx [Accessed 15 Jan. 2016].
  60. 60. REFERENCES 60 Cipd.co.uk, (2016). What is CPD? - Continuing Professional Development (CPD) - CIPD. [online] Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/cpd/about.aspx [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. Deloitte Development LLC, (2015). Global Human Capital Trends 2015. [online] Deloitte University Press, p.30. Available at: http://www.bersin.com//uploadedFiles/030415-global-human-capital-trends.pdf?aliId=72915399 [Accessed 15 Jan. 2016]. Docebo, (2014). E-Learning Market Trends & Forecast 2014 - 2016 Report. [online] Docebo, p.7. Available at: https://www.docebo.com/landing/contactform/elearning-market-trends-and-forecast-2014-2016-docebo-report.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2016]. Harrison, R. (2005). Learning and Development. 4th ed. [ebook] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, p.5. Available at: https://books.google.com.gi/books?id=vMFcnZiT63cC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=rosemary+harrison+learning+and+development&source=bl&ots=Y- NzSa8P9o&sig=cW- GEyFg2WEw_JQw1fpkmLBIQ4k&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwju7qSakKfKAhVDDpAKHTDJDTkQ6AEIOTAE#v=onepage&q=rosemary%20harrison%20learni ng%20and%20development&f=false [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Hirsh, W., Carter, A., Gifford, J., Strebler, M. and Baldwin, S. (2008). What Customers Want From HR: The views of line managers, senior managers and employees on HR services and the HR function. [online] Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies. Available at: http://www.employment- studies.co.uk/system/files/resources/files/453.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2016]. Parker, A. (2013). Learning Technology Trends in 2013. [online] Td.org. Available at: https://www.td.org/Publications/Magazines/TD/TD- Archive/2013/02/Intelligence-Learning-Technology-Trends-in-2013 [Accessed 15 Jan. 2016]. Soderstrom, N. and Bjork, R. (n.d.). Learning versus performance. [online] Los Angeles: University of California. Available at: http://bjorklab.psych.ucla.edu/pubs/Soderstrom_Bjork_Learning_versus_Performance.pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2016]. The CIPD Profession Map. (2015). 1st ed. [ebook] London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Available at: http://www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/the-cipd-profession-map_2015.pdf [Accessed 13 Jan. 2016]. Towards Maturity Community Interest Company, (2015). Towards Maturity - Embracing Change: Fast Facts. [online] Available at: http://towardsmaturity.org/article/2015/11/05/embracing-change-fast-facts/ [Accessed 17 Jan. 2016]. Wilson, J. and Wilson, J. (2012). International human resource development. London: Kogan Page.

×