Solar System Assignment

About solar system...

Solar System
Table of Contents
1. What is Solar System?
2. Inner and Outer Planets
3. The Sun
4. Types of Planets
5. Mercury
6. Venus
7. Earth
8. Mars
9. Jupiter
10. Saturn
11. Uranus
12. Neptune
1. What is Solar System?
The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the
objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the
Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being
significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System
bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than
the smallest planet, Mercury.[1]
2. Inner and Outer Planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are known as the inner planets. The four inner
planets are called terrestrial
planets because their
surfaces are solid.
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune are the outer
planets. The outer planets are
called Jovian Planets.
3. The Sun
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most
important source of energy for life on Earth.
It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with
internal convective motion that generates a magnetic
field via a dynamo process. Its diameter is
about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about
330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about
99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About
three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen;
the rest is mostly helium, with much smaller quantities of heavier elements,
including oxygen, carbon, neon and iron. [2]
The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on spectral class and it is
informally referred to as a yellow dwarf. It formed approximately 4.6
billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a
large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest
flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. The central mass
became increasingly hot and dense, eventually initiating nuclear fusion in its core.
It is thought that almost all stars form by this process.
The Sun is roughly middle aged and has not changed dramatically for over four
billion years, and will remain fairly stable for more than another five billion
years. However, after hydrogen fusion in its core has stopped, the Sun will
undergo severe changes and become a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will
become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury, Venus, and
possibly Earth.
4. Types of Planets
There are two types of the planets of the solar system:
 Small rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Pluto)
 Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune)
5. Mercury
Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the one closest to
the Sun, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days, which is much faster than
any other planet in the Solar System. Seen from Earth, it appears to move around
its orbit in about 116 days.
Partly because it has almost no atmosphere to retain heat, Mercury's surface
temperature varies diurnally more than any other planet in the Solar System,
ranging from 100 K (−173 °C; −280 °F) at night to 700 K (427 °C; 800 °F) during
the day in some equatorial regions. The poles
are constantly below 180 K (−93 °C; −136 °F).
Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any
of the Solar System's planets (about 1⁄30 of
a degree). However, Mercury's orbital
eccentricity is the largest of all known planets in
the Solar
System. At aphelion, Mercury is about
1.5 times as far from the Sun as it is
at perihelion. Mercury's surface is heavily
cratered and similar in appearance to
the Moon, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years.
Mercury is tidally or gravitationally locked with the Sun in a 3:2 resonance, and
rotates in a way that is unique in the Solar System. As seen relative to the fixed
stars, it rotates on its axis exactly three times for every two revolutions it makes
around the Sun. As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the
orbital motion, it appears to rotate only once every two Mercurian years. An
observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two years.
Also, like Venus and the Moon, it displays a complete range of phases as it moves
around its orbit relative to Earth. Although Mercury can appear as a bright object
when viewed from Earth, its proximity to the Sun makes it more difficult to see
than Venus. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in the
1970s; and MESSENGER, launched in 2004, orbited Mercury over 4,000 times in
four years, before exhausting its fuel and crashing into the planet's surface on April
30, 2015.
6. Venus
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, which it orbits every 224.7 Earth days. It
has the longest rotation period rotation period (225 days) of any planet in the Solar
System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets. It has no natural
satellite. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. It is the second-
brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, reaching an apparent
magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast
shadows. Because Venus orbits within
Earth's orbit (inferior planet), it never
appears to venture far from the Sun; the angle
between Venus and the Sun (elongation)
subtends a maximum arc of 47.8°.
Venus is a terrestrial planet and is
sometimes called Earth's "sister planet"
because of their similar size, mass, proximity
to the Sun, and bulk composition. It is
radically different from Earth in other respects.
It has the densest atmosphere of
the four terrestrial planets, which consists
of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface
is 92 times that of Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System,
with a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), even though
Mercury is closer to the Sun. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly
reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space
in visible light. It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have
vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water
has probably photo dissociated, and the free hydrogen has been swept into
interplanetary space by the solar wind due to a lack of a protective planetary
magnetic field. Venus's surface is a dry deserts cape interspersed with slab-like
rocks and periodically resurfaced by volcanism.
As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been a major fixture in human
culture for as long as records have existed. It has been made sacred to gods of
many cultures, and has been a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the
"morning star" and "evening star". Venus was the first planet to have its motions
plotted across the sky, as early as the second millennium BC, and was a prime
target for early interplanetary exploration as the closest planet to Earth. It was the
first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft (Mariner 2) in 1962, and the first
to be successfully landed on (by Venera 7) in 1970. Venus's thick clouds render
observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did
not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. Plans have been
proposed for rovers or more complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus's
hostile surface conditions.
7. Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the
largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical
object known to harbor life.
According to radiometric dating and other sources
of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion
years ago. Earth gravitationally
interacts with other objects in space, especially the
Sun and the Moon. During one orbit around the Sun,
Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times,
creating 365.26 solar days or one sidereal year. Earth's
axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from
the perpendicular of its orbital plane,
producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical
year (365.24 solar days). The Moon is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. Its
gravitational interaction with Earth causes ocean tides, stabilizes the orientation of
Earth's rotational axis, and gradually slows Earth's rotational rate.
Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across
the surface over periods of many. 71% of Earth's surface is covered with
water, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands that together have
many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
Earth's Polar Regions are mostly covered with ice, including the Antarctic ice
sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a
solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the magnetic field, and a
convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.
Within its first billion years, life appeared in Earth's oceans and began to affect its
atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic
organisms. Since then, the combination of Earth’s distance, its physical
properties and its geological history have allowed life to thrive and evolve. The
earliest undisputed life on Earth arose at least 3.5 billion years ago. Earlier physical
evidence of life includes biogenic graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old met sedimentary
rocks discovered in southwestern Greenland, as well as "remains of biotic life"
found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. Earth's biodiversity has
expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions. Although
scholars estimate that over 99% of all species of life (over five billion) that ever
lived on Earth areextinct, there are still an estimated 10–14 million extant
species, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% have not
yet been described. Over 7.3 billion humans live on Earth and depend on
its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Earth's human population is divided
among about two hundred sovereign states which interact through diplomacy,
conflict, travel, trade and communication media.
8. Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar
System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often referred to
as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a
reddish shade. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface
features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys,
deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.
The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of
Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons,
the largest volcano and second-highest Known Mountain in the Solar System, and
of Vales, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis
basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant
impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and
irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka,
a Mars Trojan.
Until the first successful Mars flyby in 1965 by Mariner 4, many speculated about
the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. This was based on observed
periodic variations in light and dark patches, particularly in the polar latitudes,
which appeared to be seas and continents; long, dark striations were interpreted by
some as irrigation channels for liquid water. These straight line features were later
explained as optical illusions, though geological evidence gathered by uncrewed
missions suggests that Mars once had large-scale water coverage on its surface at
some earlier stage of its existence. In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of
large quantities of water ice at the poles and at mid-latitudes. The Mars
rover Spiritsampled chemical compounds containing water molecules in March
2007. The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on
July 31, 2008. On September 28, 2015, NASA announced the presence of briny
flowing salt water on the Martian surface.
Mars is host to seven functioning spacecraft: five in orbit—2001 Mars
Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,MAVEN and Mars Orbiter
Mission—and two on the surface—Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and
the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity.
Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance
Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water during the
warmest months on Mars. In 2013, NASA's Curiosity rover
discovered that Mars's soil contains between 1.5% and 3%
water by mass (albeit attached to other compounds and thus not freely accessible).
There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars,
as well as the possibility of extant life. In situinvestigations have been performed
by the Viking landers, Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander,
and Curiosity rover. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars
2020 and ExoMars rovers.
Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring.
Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus,
the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to
resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are
closest because of Earth's atmosphere
9. Jupiter
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is
a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times
that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant,
along with Saturn. (Uranus and Neptune are ice giants.) Jupiter was known
to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god
Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of
−2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, and making it on
average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.
Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium,
though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may
also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter
lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape
is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the
equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different
latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A
prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed
since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding
Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has
at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galilean
1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the
planet Mercury.
Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably
during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by
the Galileo orbiter. Jupiter was most recently visited by a probe in late February
2007, when Horizons used to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route
to Pluto. The next probe to visit the planet will be Juno, which is expected to arrive
in July 2016. Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the
probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.[3]
10. Saturn
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System,
after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that
of Earth. Although only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger
volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after
the Roman god of agriculture; its astronomical (♄) represents the god's sickle.
Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock
(silicon and oxygen compounds). This core is surrounded by a deep layer
of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium,
and finally outside the Frenkel line a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow
hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Electrical current within the
metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field,
which is weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth
due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth
of Jupiter's. The outer atmosphere is generally bland and lacking in contrast,
although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach
1,800 km/h (500 m/s), higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune.
Saturn has a prominent ring system that consists of nine continuous main rings and
three discontinuous arcs and that is composed mostly of ice particles with a smaller
amount of rocky debris and dust. Sixty-two moons are known to orbit Saturn, of
which fifty-three are officially named. This does not include the hundreds
of moonlets comprising the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and the second-
largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less
massive, and is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial
atmosphere.[4]
11. Uranus
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius
and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in
composition to Neptune, and both have different bulk chemical composition from
that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often
classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the gas
giants. Uranus's atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary
composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as
water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons. It is the
coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of
49 K (−224.2 °C), and has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to
make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds. The interior
of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock.
Uranus is the only planet whose name is derived from a figure from Greek
mythology, from the Latinized version of the Greek god of the sky Ouranos. Like
the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and
numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among those of
the planets because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its
solar orbit. Its north and south poles, therefore, lie where most other planets have
their equators. In 1986, images fromVoyager 2 showed Uranus as an almost
featureless planet in visible light, without the cloud bands or storms associated
with the other giant planets. Observations from Earth have shown seasonal change
and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind
speeds can reach 250 metres per second (900 km/h, 560 mph).
12. Neptune
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third-largest by mass. Among
the giant planets in the Solar System, Neptune is the densest. Neptune is 17 times
the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus, which is
15 times the mass of Earth and slightly larger than Neptune. Neptune orbits the
Sun once every 164.8 years at an average distance of 30.1 astronomical
units (4.50×109 km). Named after the Roman god of the sea, its astronomical
symbol is ♆, a stylised version of the god Neptune's trident.
Neptune is not visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System
found by mathematical prediction rather than byempirical observation. Unexpected
changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was
subject togravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was
subsequently observed with a telescope on 23 September 1846 byJohann
Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier. Its largest
moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet's
remaining known 14 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. The
planet's distance from Earth gives it a very small apparent size, making it
challenging to study with Earth-based telescopes. Neptune was visited by Voyager
2, when it flew by the planet on 25 August 1989. The advent of Hubble Space
Telescopeand large ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics has recently
allowed for additional detailed observations from afar.
Neptune is similar in composition to Uranus, and both have compositions that
differ from those of the larger gas giants, Jupiter andSaturn. Like Jupiter and
Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composedprimarily of hydrogen and helium,
along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, but contains a higher
proportion of "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane. However, its interior,
like that of Uranus, is primarily composed ofices and rock, and hence Uranus and
Neptune are normally considered "ice giants" to emphasise this distinction. Traces
of methane in the outermost regions in part accountfor the planet's blue
appearance.
In contrast to the hazy, relatively featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptune's
atmosphere has active and visible weather patterns. For example, at the time of
the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989, the planet's southern hemisphere had a Great Dark
Spotcomparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are
driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, with
recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 kilometres per hour (580 m/s;
1,300 mph).[14] Because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune's outer
atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at
its cloud tops approaching 55 K (−218 °C). Temperatures at the planet's centre are
approximately 5,400 K (5,100 °C). Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring
system (labelled "arcs"), which was first detected during the 1960s and confirmed
by Voyager 2.
References
1. Anders, E. and M. Ebihara, Solar-system abundances of the elements. Geochimica et
Cosmochimica Acta, 1982. 46(11): p. 2363-2380.
2. Hawking, S. and M. Jackson, A brief history of time. 1993: Dove Audio.
3. Fernandez, D.L. and J.B. Jupiter, Fractures of the distal radius: a practical approach to
management. 2002: Springer Science & Business Media.
4. Abramowicz, M.A. and W. Kluźniak, A precise determination of black hole spin in GRO
J1655-40. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2001. 374(3): p. L19-L20.

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Solar System Assignment

  • 1. Solar System Table of Contents 1. What is Solar System? 2. Inner and Outer Planets 3. The Sun 4. Types of Planets 5. Mercury 6. Venus 7. Earth 8. Mars 9. Jupiter 10. Saturn 11. Uranus 12. Neptune
  • 2. 1. What is Solar System? The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system comprising the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets, with the remainder being significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly, the moons, two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.[1] 2. Inner and Outer Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are known as the inner planets. The four inner planets are called terrestrial planets because their surfaces are solid. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the outer planets. The outer planets are called Jovian Planets. 3. The Sun The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen; the rest is mostly helium, with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon and iron. [2] The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on spectral class and it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf. It formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. The central mass
  • 3. became increasingly hot and dense, eventually initiating nuclear fusion in its core. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process. The Sun is roughly middle aged and has not changed dramatically for over four billion years, and will remain fairly stable for more than another five billion years. However, after hydrogen fusion in its core has stopped, the Sun will undergo severe changes and become a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury, Venus, and possibly Earth. 4. Types of Planets There are two types of the planets of the solar system:  Small rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Pluto)  Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) 5. Mercury Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the one closest to the Sun, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days, which is much faster than any other planet in the Solar System. Seen from Earth, it appears to move around its orbit in about 116 days. Partly because it has almost no atmosphere to retain heat, Mercury's surface temperature varies diurnally more than any other planet in the Solar System, ranging from 100 K (−173 °C; −280 °F) at night to 700 K (427 °C; 800 °F) during the day in some equatorial regions. The poles are constantly below 180 K (−93 °C; −136 °F). Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System's planets (about 1⁄30 of a degree). However, Mercury's orbital eccentricity is the largest of all known planets in the Solar System. At aphelion, Mercury is about 1.5 times as far from the Sun as it is at perihelion. Mercury's surface is heavily cratered and similar in appearance to the Moon, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years. Mercury is tidally or gravitationally locked with the Sun in a 3:2 resonance, and rotates in a way that is unique in the Solar System. As seen relative to the fixed
  • 4. stars, it rotates on its axis exactly three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the orbital motion, it appears to rotate only once every two Mercurian years. An observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two years. Also, like Venus and the Moon, it displays a complete range of phases as it moves around its orbit relative to Earth. Although Mercury can appear as a bright object when viewed from Earth, its proximity to the Sun makes it more difficult to see than Venus. Two spacecraft have visited Mercury: Mariner 10 flew by in the 1970s; and MESSENGER, launched in 2004, orbited Mercury over 4,000 times in four years, before exhausting its fuel and crashing into the planet's surface on April 30, 2015. 6. Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun, which it orbits every 224.7 Earth days. It has the longest rotation period rotation period (225 days) of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets. It has no natural satellite. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. It is the second- brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows. Because Venus orbits within Earth's orbit (inferior planet), it never appears to venture far from the Sun; the angle between Venus and the Sun (elongation) subtends a maximum arc of 47.8°. Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition. It is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, which consists of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), even though Mercury is closer to the Sun. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have
  • 5. vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water has probably photo dissociated, and the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind due to a lack of a protective planetary magnetic field. Venus's surface is a dry deserts cape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically resurfaced by volcanism. As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been a major fixture in human culture for as long as records have existed. It has been made sacred to gods of many cultures, and has been a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the "morning star" and "evening star". Venus was the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky, as early as the second millennium BC, and was a prime target for early interplanetary exploration as the closest planet to Earth. It was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft (Mariner 2) in 1962, and the first to be successfully landed on (by Venera 7) in 1970. Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. Plans have been proposed for rovers or more complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus's hostile surface conditions. 7. Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earth gravitationally interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times, creating 365.26 solar days or one sidereal year. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days). The Moon is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. Its gravitational interaction with Earth causes ocean tides, stabilizes the orientation of Earth's rotational axis, and gradually slows Earth's rotational rate.
  • 6. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many. 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. Earth's Polar Regions are mostly covered with ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within its first billion years, life appeared in Earth's oceans and began to affect its atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Since then, the combination of Earth’s distance, its physical properties and its geological history have allowed life to thrive and evolve. The earliest undisputed life on Earth arose at least 3.5 billion years ago. Earlier physical evidence of life includes biogenic graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old met sedimentary rocks discovered in southwestern Greenland, as well as "remains of biotic life" found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia. Earth's biodiversity has expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions. Although scholars estimate that over 99% of all species of life (over five billion) that ever lived on Earth areextinct, there are still an estimated 10–14 million extant species, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% have not yet been described. Over 7.3 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Earth's human population is divided among about two hundred sovereign states which interact through diplomacy, conflict, travel, trade and communication media. 8. Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often referred to as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish shade. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest Known Mountain in the Solar System, and of Vales, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant
  • 7. impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars Trojan. Until the first successful Mars flyby in 1965 by Mariner 4, many speculated about the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. This was based on observed periodic variations in light and dark patches, particularly in the polar latitudes, which appeared to be seas and continents; long, dark striations were interpreted by some as irrigation channels for liquid water. These straight line features were later explained as optical illusions, though geological evidence gathered by uncrewed missions suggests that Mars once had large-scale water coverage on its surface at some earlier stage of its existence. In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles and at mid-latitudes. The Mars rover Spiritsampled chemical compounds containing water molecules in March 2007. The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on July 31, 2008. On September 28, 2015, NASA announced the presence of briny flowing salt water on the Martian surface. Mars is host to seven functioning spacecraft: five in orbit—2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,MAVEN and Mars Orbiter Mission—and two on the surface—Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity. Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. In 2013, NASA's Curiosity rover discovered that Mars's soil contains between 1.5% and 3% water by mass (albeit attached to other compounds and thus not freely accessible). There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. In situinvestigations have been performed by the Viking landers, Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander, and Curiosity rover. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers. Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere
  • 8. 9. Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn. (Uranus and Neptune are ice giants.) Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, and making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galilean 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. Jupiter was most recently visited by a probe in late February 2007, when Horizons used to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. The next probe to visit the planet will be Juno, which is expected to arrive in July 2016. Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.[3] 10. Saturn Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. Although only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture; its astronomical (♄) represents the god's sickle.
  • 9. Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds). This core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, and finally outside the Frenkel line a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field, which is weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's. The outer atmosphere is generally bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h (500 m/s), higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune. Saturn has a prominent ring system that consists of nine continuous main rings and three discontinuous arcs and that is composed mostly of ice particles with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. Sixty-two moons are known to orbit Saturn, of which fifty-three are officially named. This does not include the hundreds of moonlets comprising the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and the second- largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less massive, and is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere.[4] 11. Uranus Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have different bulk chemical composition from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the gas giants. Uranus's atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons. It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (−224.2 °C), and has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds. The interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock. Uranus is the only planet whose name is derived from a figure from Greek mythology, from the Latinized version of the Greek god of the sky Ouranos. Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among those of
  • 10. the planets because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its solar orbit. Its north and south poles, therefore, lie where most other planets have their equators. In 1986, images fromVoyager 2 showed Uranus as an almost featureless planet in visible light, without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giant planets. Observations from Earth have shown seasonal change and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind speeds can reach 250 metres per second (900 km/h, 560 mph). 12. Neptune Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third-largest by mass. Among the giant planets in the Solar System, Neptune is the densest. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus, which is 15 times the mass of Earth and slightly larger than Neptune. Neptune orbits the Sun once every 164.8 years at an average distance of 30.1 astronomical units (4.50×109 km). Named after the Roman god of the sea, its astronomical symbol is ♆, a stylised version of the god Neptune's trident. Neptune is not visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System found by mathematical prediction rather than byempirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject togravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed with a telescope on 23 September 1846 byJohann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier. Its largest moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet's remaining known 14 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. The planet's distance from Earth gives it a very small apparent size, making it challenging to study with Earth-based telescopes. Neptune was visited by Voyager 2, when it flew by the planet on 25 August 1989. The advent of Hubble Space Telescopeand large ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics has recently allowed for additional detailed observations from afar. Neptune is similar in composition to Uranus, and both have compositions that differ from those of the larger gas giants, Jupiter andSaturn. Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composedprimarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, but contains a higher proportion of "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane. However, its interior, like that of Uranus, is primarily composed ofices and rock, and hence Uranus and Neptune are normally considered "ice giants" to emphasise this distinction. Traces
  • 11. of methane in the outermost regions in part accountfor the planet's blue appearance. In contrast to the hazy, relatively featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptune's atmosphere has active and visible weather patterns. For example, at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989, the planet's southern hemisphere had a Great Dark Spotcomparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, with recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 kilometres per hour (580 m/s; 1,300 mph).[14] Because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune's outer atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its cloud tops approaching 55 K (−218 °C). Temperatures at the planet's centre are approximately 5,400 K (5,100 °C). Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring system (labelled "arcs"), which was first detected during the 1960s and confirmed by Voyager 2. References 1. Anders, E. and M. Ebihara, Solar-system abundances of the elements. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1982. 46(11): p. 2363-2380. 2. Hawking, S. and M. Jackson, A brief history of time. 1993: Dove Audio. 3. Fernandez, D.L. and J.B. Jupiter, Fractures of the distal radius: a practical approach to management. 2002: Springer Science & Business Media. 4. Abramowicz, M.A. and W. Kluźniak, A precise determination of black hole spin in GRO J1655-40. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2001. 374(3): p. L19-L20.