Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the management of human resources. Commonly
referred to as the HR Department, it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of
an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people
within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for
overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development,
performance appraisal and rewarding as example is managing pay and benefit systems. HR also
concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of
organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from
HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers
began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the
workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work such as payroll and benefits
administration but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances and
future research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions,
talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations and diversity and
inclusion. Human resources focus on maximizing employee productivity. HR professionals
manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes.
They can specialize on recruiting, training, employee-relations or benefits.
Recruiting specialists find and hire top talent. Training and development professionals ensure
that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training
programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deal with concerns
of employees when policies are broken, such as in cases involving harassment or discrimination.
Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family-leave programs, discounts and
other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources
Generalists or business partners. These human-resources professionals could work in all areas or
be labor-relations representatives working with unionized employees.
2 JOB ANALYSIS
Job analysis contains a simple term called "analysis", which means detailed study or examination
of something (job) in order to understand more about it (job). Therefore job analysis is to
understand more about a specific job in order to optimize it. Job analysis is a systematic process
of collecting complete information pertaining to a job. Job analysis is done by job analyst who is
an officer have been trained for it. Job analysis is a procedure through which you determine the
duties and responsibilities, nature of the jobs and finally to decide qualifications, skills and
knowledge to be required for an employee to perform particular job.
Job analysis helps to understand what tasks are important and how they are carried on. Job
analysis forms basis for later HR activities such as developing effective training program,
selection of employees, setting up of performance standards and assessment of employee (
performance appraisal) and employee remuneration system or compensation plan. One of the
first industrial-organizational psychologists to introduce job analysis was Morris Viteles. In
1922, he used job analysis in order to select employees for a trolley car company.
Job analysis is the process of obtaining information about jobs by determining what the duties,
tasks, or activities of jobs are. It is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job
duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. The
judgements are made about data collected on a job. HR managers use the data to develop job
descriptions and job specifications that are the basis of recruitment, training, employee
performance appraisal and career development. The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to
improve organizational performance and productivity. In other words, it refers to the anatomy of
the job. Job analysis is performed upon ongoing jobs only. It contains job contents.
For example, what are the duties of a supervisor, grade 2, what minimal knowledge, skills and
abilities are necessary to be able to adequately perform this job? How do the requirements for a
supervisor, grade 2, compare with those for a supervisor, grade 1? These are the questions that
job analysis answers. A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment,
relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The
Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.
3 JOB DESCRIPTION
Job Description is a broad and written statement of a specific job in the organization, based on
the findings of the job analysis. Job Description generally includes duties, purpose,
responsibilities, scope, and working conditions of a job along with the title of the job, and the
name or designation of the person to whom the employee will report. Job description usually
forms the basis of job specification. Job description is prepared on the basis of data collected
through job analysis. Job description is a functional description of the contents what the job
It is a narration of the contents of a job. It is a description of the activities and duties to be
performed in a job, the relationship of the job with other jobs, the equipment and tools involved,
the nature of supervision, working conditions and hazards of the job and so on. All major
categories of jobs need to be spelled out in clear and comprehensive manner to determine the
qualifications and skills required to perform a job. Thus, job description differentiates one job
from the other. In sum, job description is a written statement of what a job holder does, how it is
done, and why it is done.
Job description is the most important thing which a candidate gets about a job listing. Job
description gives all the relevant and necessary details about a job. The details which can help
one decide whether the job is relevant or not. Qualifications, roles, responsibilities etc are
included in the job description document which paints a clear picture of what is expected from
the particular role. There are many benefits of having a comprehensive job description given by a
company. Some of the advantages of job description are mentioned below:
1. Helps companies understand the type of candidate they should search for based on title,
position and location
2. Employees are well aware about their job roles & duties
3. Job description helps in understanding the workplace environment, benefits etc for a
4. Helps in better recruitment & selection
5. Job description clearly highlights all the requirements, objectives & goals that it wants
an employee to perform
A Job description will include the following:
- Roles and responsibilities of the job
- Goals of the organization as well the goals to be achieved as a part of the profile
- Qualifications in terms of education and work experience required have to be clearly mentioned
- Skill sets required to fulfill the job
- Salary range of the job
Job description is done for fulfilling the following purposes:
1. Grading and classification of jobs
2. Placement and Orientation of new employees
3. Promotions and transfers
4. Outlining for career path
5. Developing work standards
6. Counselling of employees
7. Delimitation of authority
4 JOB SPECIFICATION
While job description focuses on the job, job specification focuses on the person like example is
the job holder. Job specification is a statement of the minimum levels of qualifications, skills,
physical and other abilities, experience, judgment and attributes required for performing job
effectively. In other words, it is a statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an
incumbent must possess to perform a given job. It sets forth the knowledge, skills and abilities
required to do the job effectively.
Job specification specifies the physical, psychological, personal, social and behavioral charac-
teristics of the job holders. It is a statement in which we explain the qualities required by people
applying for the job.
Job specification as a statement of minimum qualification that person must possess to
perform a given job successfully --- Stephen. P. Robbins & Marry Coutler
Job specification is a statement of employee characteristics and qualifications required
for satisfactory performance of defined duties and tasks comprising a specific job or
function. Job specification is derived from job analysis.
While the job description describes activities to be done, it is job specifications that list the
knowledge, skills, and abilities an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily. Knowledge,
skills, and abilities (KSAs) include education, experience, work skill requirements, personal
abilities, and mental and physical requirements. Job specifications for a data entry operator might
include a required educational level, a certain number of months of experience, a typing ability
of 60 words per minute, a high degree of visual concentration, and ability to work under time
pressure. It is important to note that accurate job specifications identify what KSAs a person
needs to do the job, not necessarily what qualifications the current employee possesses.
Components of a Job Specification
Number of years of experience in the job you are seeking to fill. Number of years of work
experience required for the selected candidate. Note whether the position requires
progressively more complex and responsible experience, and supervisory or managerial
State what degrees, training, or certifications are required for the position.
3) Required Skills, Knowledge and Characteristics
State the skills, knowledge, and personal characteristics of individuals who have
successfully performed this job. Or, use th` 1e job analysis data to determine the
attributes you need from your “ideal” candidate. Your recruiting planning meeting or
email participants can also help determine these requirements for the job specification.
Usages of Job Specification: The usages of job specification include:
1. Personnel planning
2. Performance appraisal
4. Training and development
5. Job evaluation and compensation
6. Health and safety
7. Employee discipline
8. Work scheduling
9. Career planning
Recruitment (hiring) is a core function of human resource management. It is the first step of
appointment. Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, shortlisting, selecting and
appointing suitable candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization.
Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid positions,
such as voluntary roles or unpaid trainee roles. Managers, human resource generalists and
recruitment specialists may be tasked with carrying out recruitment, but in some cases public-
sector employment agencies, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies
are used to undertake parts of the process. Internet-based technologies to support all aspects of
recruitment have become widespread.
The recruitment process is an important part of human resource management (HRM). It is not
done without proper strategic planning. Recruitment is defined as a process that provides the
organization with a pool of qualified job candidates from which to choose. Before companies
recruit, they must implement proper staffing plans and forecasting to determine how many
people they will need. The basis of the forecast will be the annual budget of the organization and
the short to long-term plans of the organization as for example is the possibility of expansion.
Methods of Recruitment
5.1 Newspaper advertisement
The newspaper job advertisement is the most traditional recruitment source. The newspaper
job adverts were almost dead, but they are still one of the best performing recruitment
sources. The newspaper advertisement is easy to use, and each small company can start
advertising of job vacancies. Many professionals do not share their lives on the Internet, and
the traditional recruitment source like newspaper job advertising is the only way how to
The newspapers are still a powerful source of information. Many people start the day with
coffee and newspapers. They browse the news from the world or neighborhood. They see the
advertisement. Many people look quickly at the job opportunities advertised on the relevant
pages. The newspapers have specialized sections for the job adverts. The advertisers compete
for the visibility. The challenging task for the company is to cross the gap between reading
the job adverts and sending the job application. The people tend to forget. They do not react.
The newspaper advertisement has to be attractive enough to make them send the job resume.
The newspaper job advertising is one of the best recruitment sources for the mass recruitment
around the country or region. The newspaper advertisement builds a massive visibility and
potential applicants can be motivated to visit a specialized website to apply online. The
collaboration of the online recruitment and the newspaper job advertising is highly
advantageous. The newspaper attracts and the online recruitment answers details and makes
the job application simple.
The newspaper job advertising needs a robust support from the recruitment process in the
company. The people start to call, and they have additional questions. The people do not look
for information on the website provided; they usually call the phone number immediately.
The HR Recruiter has to be ready to answer questions from potential job applicants and has
to keep them motivated to send the job resume.
The newspaper job advertising is not targeted. Everyone who reads newspapers can apply for
the job vacancy. The recruitment process has to be ready to process and eliminate many
useless job resumes. Each unsuccessful job applicant has to receive the rejection letter or
email. The newspaper job advertising can generate thousands of applicants within several
days, but most of the applicants do not fit the needs of the company. The HR Recruiter has to
implement a quick prescreening process, as the best candidates are not lost during the
The prescreening criteria have to be finished before the job advertising campaign starts. The
HR Recruiter cannot set the criteria flexibly. The criteria are the key success factor for the
newspaper advertising. The HR Recruiter has just one chance to fill the vacancies. The
newspaper advertising is expensive to be run on a regular basis. However, the smart
newspaper job advertising campaign brings tremendous results.
5.2 Social Media Advertisement
LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter have over 535 million combined users. That equals a lot of
potential talent for the companies. But we have to find the right person for the job that we
have available using social media. By now people should be familiar with LinkedIn,
Facebook, and Twitter. "LinkedIn is an interconnected network of experienced professionals
from around the world, representing 170 industries and 200 countries. We can find, be
introduced to, and collaborate with qualified professionals that we need to work with to
accomplish our goals," states the company's website. That is the corporate way of saying they
are a giant jobs board and people can connect to other professionals. There are over 65
million professionals on LinkedIn.
Facebook is the largest of the social networking sites with over 400 million users. Facebook
is a social utility that connects people with friends and others who work, study, and live
around them. It is intended to connect friends, family, and business associates. The model has
expanded to include connections to organizations, businesses, and interests that is not just
individual people. Twitter is a microblogging social networking service. Messages, better
known as tweets, are no more than 140 characters. According to their website, "Twitter is a
simple tool that helps connect businesses more meaningfully with the right audience at the
Whatever the number is it does not come close to how many potential candidates are on
Facebook. Facebook provides easy and affordable ways to increase an applicant pool. First
utilize the Facebook Directory to search for users, pages, groups and applications. We can
post a job for free in the Facebook Marketplace. The ad requires basic information such as
location, job category, subcategory, title, why we need to fill this position, description and if
we want to post our photo with the job posting or another image. The limitation of a free job
posting is that we cannot target it to a specific group of people like we can with a Facebook
Facebook Pages are another free resource within Facebook. A Facebook Page is a public
profile that enables us to share our business and products with Facebook users. If we do not
have a Facebook Page, we can search other Facebook pages to find people both active and
interested in our field or that would be interested in our available position. If our company
has a Facebook page we may want to use it as a recruiting tool. Make sure the information
about our company is relevant and up-to-date. We can also post job openings for our fans to
see. These people are passionate about our company and can be just as passionate about
working for our company.
Another option is to post a Facebook Ad if we are not getting the results we want from
searching. The advantage of the ad platform on Facebook over its rivals Google AdWords
and Yahoo! Advertising is that Facebook has laser targeting ability. With a Facebook Ad we
can choose the exact audience that we are looking to target. The system will ask a series of
questions about the characteristics of the people we want to see our job posting ad. We will
be asked about the group's age, sex and specific keywords related to the position. Facebook
will then calculate how many users fit those criteria. We have the choice to pay per click
(how many people clicked on our job ad), pay per impression (how many people potentially
saw our ad) and set how much we are willing to pay. We can decide whether to run the job
ad continuously or only during a certain time.
For example, if our company is in Minneapolis and we are not including relocation in the
budget for this position, we can target the job posting to only be shown to people that live in
Minnesota or bordering states. If the position is an entry-level position we can target the job
posting to a younger age demographic. It is normally a violation of EEOC to target for or
against a specific gender but a Facebook Ad is a loophole to bypass that. Because if we know
a woman would be better suited for our position, we can target our job posting to only be
seen by women. The options are endless to how narrow a field we can define. We have to be
careful to not make the criteria too specific or we may not get the applicants that we want.
Selection is the process of picking up individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with
requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. A formal definition of
Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire
those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Selection on the other hand is negative in
its application in as much as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible
in order to identify the right candidates.
Selection is the process of choosing a qualified person for specific role who can successfully
deliver valuable contributions to the organization. The term selection can be applied to many
aspects of the process, such as recruitment, hiring, and acculturation. However, it most
commonly refers to the selection of workers. A selection system should depend on job
analysis. This ensures that the selection criteria are job related and propose value additions
for the organization.
Methods of Selection
6.1 Preliminary Screening
Preliminary screening is the next step in HR’s recruitment process. Recruiters and
employment specialists conduct preliminary screening through telephone interviews used to
verify work history and basic qualifications and skills. A telephone interview is the first point
at which an employer expresses its interest in a candidate. The telephone interview also is the
first chance an employer’s representative has to make a good impression on prospective
employees. Therefore, employers who want to improve their business reputation use
preliminary screening opportunities to suggest that they’re employers of choice and
companies for whom applicants are excited about being considered for employment.
Once an employer has received what it considers sufficient interest in the position, the
recruiter starts screening the applications or resumes determining which applicants to contact
for the preliminary screening interview. Employers determine sufficient interest based on the
number of applications or the amount of time the job is posted. Many times, employers take
down the job posting when they receive a manageable number of applications, such as 100,
to review for a handful of qualified candidates. Small businesses that do not have a lot of
time to devote to screening applicants should screen based on discrete criteria, such as
minimum number of years' experience or verifiable credentials. Preliminary screening is an
effective method for narrowing the selection to candidates who meet the basic requirements
for the job.
Preliminary screening of employment applications and resumes is the first selection tool to
determine whether an applicant meets the requisite qualifications for a job. A cursory review
of application materials reveals whether applicants meet the basic criteria or if they've
adhered to the application instructions. For example, if applicants were instructed to include
salary history in a cover letter, applications without the required information would be
eliminated during the first round of screening.
The following personal traits and qualities are the important things to consider in the
preliminary screening process:
a) Aptitude and interest indicate natural abilities, capacity for learning and desires to do
b) Attitudes and needs indicate an applicant’s frame of mind, emotional and mental
maturity, sense of responsibility and authority, and future motivation.
c) Analytical and manipulative abilities indicate our thinking process, intelligence level,
and ability to use knowledge effectively in any assigned task.
d) Skills and technical abilities indicate ability to perform specific operations and
technical aspects of the job.
e) Health, energy and stamina indicate physical ability to perform the assigned task
satisfactorily, especially those involving manual and managerial duties.
f) The person’s value system provides a clue to motivation, goals, objectives and work
values and perseverance
6.2 In-Person Interviews
Face-to-face interviews take time, which is one of the reasons the applicant pool should be
narrowed by conducting preliminary screening and telephone interviewing. The recruiter is a
conduit for providing the hiring manager with the best-suited candidates, a process that
streamlines the selection process. For example, out of 10 applicants interviewed by phone,
the recruiter should select three to four candidates. The hiring manager further narrows the
selection to two finalists. In a small business, although the hiring manager may be doing the
work of a recruiter, best practices for HR selection methods dictate that at least one face-to-
face interview is conducted before making a decision.
This type of interview normally takes place in the office. It consists of the interviewer and
the candidate, and a series of questions are asked and answered. For many jobs, candidates
go through two interview stages after the preliminary screening. The first interview stage
involves a face-to-face interview with either the recruiter or manager. The next stage may be
with a hiring manager or high-level executive, depending on the position. Interviewers use a
combination of methods to determine the candidate who appears to be a good fit for the job
and the organization. In addition, interview responses shed light on candidates’ ability to
perform the actual job duties and articulate their skills and qualifications.
Whenever there is a panel interview, interviewers generally reach a consensus on the
candidate whose qualifications and ethics match the job requirements as well as the
organizational philosophy. In an unstructured interview, questions are changed to match the
specific applicant; for example, questions about the candidate’s background in relation to
their resume might be used. In a structured interview, there is a set of standardized questions
based on the job analysis, not on individual candidates’ resumes. While a structured
interview might seem the best option to find out about a particular candidate, the bigger
concern is that the interview revolves around the specific job for which the candidate is
HR managers assess the candidate based of knowledge displayed by the candidate, and on
visual cues such as eye contact, type of speech, and the general rapport the candidate
establish. In a structured interview, the expected or desired answers are determined ahead of
time, which allows the interviewer to rate responses as the candidate provides answers. This
allows for a fair interview process, according to the US Office of Personnel Management.
The traditional face-to-face interview is the most common of the selection interviews. This
method entails a one-to-one conversation between the candidate and the company’s
representative, usually the human resource personnel. The objectives of such interviews
assessing the candidate’s personality, communication skills and test his or her basic
probing into achievements and accomplishments mentioned in the resume and
delving in-depth into skills or experience listed in the resume relevant to the job in
understanding the candidate’s outlook and orientation and evaluating if the candidate
is a fit to the organizational culture
7. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and development is one of the key HR functions. Most organizations look at
training and development as an integral part of the human resource development activity.
Many organizations have mandated training hours per year for employees keeping in
consideration the fact that technology is deskilling the employees at a very fast rate. Training
may be described as an endeavor aimed to improve or develop additional competency or
skills in an employee on the job one currently holds in order to increase the performance or
productivity. Training and development is a subsystem of an organization and core function
of human resource management. It ensures continuous skill development of employees
working in organization and habituates process of learning for developing knowledge to
Training and Development is a structured program with different methods designed by
professionals in particular job. It has become most common and continuous task in any
organization for updating skills and knowledge of employees in accordance with changing
environment. The HR Training and Development Manager are responsible for the
organization's staff training requirements, programs, and career development needs. They
supervise training staff, plan and administer training seminars, and manage conflict
resolution, team building, and employee skill evaluations.
Methods of Training and Development
7.1 On-the-Job Training
On-the-job training also known as OJT, is teaching the skills, knowledge, and competencies
that are needed for employees to perform a specific job within the workplace and work
environment. Employees learn in an environment in which they will need to practice the
knowledge and skills taught in the on-the-job training. On-the-job training uses the regular or
existing workplace tools, machines, documents, equipment, knowledge, and skills necessary
for an employee to learn to effectively perform his or her job. It occurs within the normal
working environment that an employee experiences on the job. It may occur as the employee
performs actual work, or it may occur elsewhere within the workplace using training rooms,
training workstations, or training equipment.
A coworker frequently supplies on-the-job training. The coworker qualification is that she
can competently perform the job that he or she is teaching. But interpersonal skills, company
policies, company requirements, leadership training, and more are also topics that Human
Resources staff, managers or coworkers can show on-the-job or in the workplace. An
external provider occasionally performs OJT in the case of specialized equipment. In another
example, a vendor might train employees in a marketing system that a group of marketing
employees is adopting as their work procedures. A vendor might educate the members of an
HR team on the capabilities of an HRIS.
In another frequent use of a vendor for OJT, the vendor comes onsite and trains one or a few
employees who are then expected to train all of the other employees performing a similar job.
This is a common OJT model in activities such as Hi-Lo driving, computer software
adoption, and the appropriate operation of any new equipment. While the goal of OJT is
often to teach basic workplace skills, it also instills aspects of the workplace
culture and performance expectations in the new employee. OJT is also the approach
organizations use to provide new employee onboarding information. OJT is provided
internally by both experienced coworkers and managers.
Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group
When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort
As part of an overall professional development program
As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in
role in the organization
To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system
To train about a specific topic
Coaching/mentoring gives employees a chance to receive training one-on-one from an
experienced professional. This usually takes place after another more formal process has
taken place to expand on what trainees have already learned. A mentoring relationship is a
win-win for all parties: the employee who seeks a mentor, the mentor, and organizations that
employ the mentoring pair. Mentoring is also a powerful form of job training and can
contribute experience, skills, and wisdom to a mentored employee to increase and expand
employee development. Mentoring, whether with the boss or another experienced employee,
is key in employee development within your organization.
Coaching/mentoring gives trainees the chance to ask questions and receive thorough and
honest answers that is something they might not receive in a classroom with a group of
people. Executives, managers, and others interested in career growth and employee
development increasingly turn to a business coach, either internal or external, for a
personally tailored development process for themselves or reporting employees. Coaching
from a boss or other interested manager is always useful job training. Coaching is also a
different delivery system for training, since training, especially with long term managers and
people who are further along in their careers, is not working.
The coach works with the manager to tailor the job training program in skill areas that need
an impact. Mentoring programs help professionals grow develop and learn new skills under
the direction and advice of a seasoned expert. Organizations implement mentoring programs
to align the goals of the company with the professional development of its employees.
Coaching and mentoring provides benefits for the "mentee," the mentor and the organization.
A coach or mentor can help a new employee adjust to the culture in an organization. Young
professionals may not be accustomed to an organization's practices and acceptable behaviors.
The coach can provide the new worker with information on the corporate culture,
organizational structure and procedures that will help the younger professional settle into his
role in the business. Coaching and mentoring programs provide the mentee with real-world
knowledge that bridges the gap between educational theory and actual business practices.
Mentors also grow in a mentoring position by honing leadership skills and remaining in
touch with other professionals. In an ideal coaching relationship, both parties learn from one
another. Companies can assign a mentor or coach to new employees during the adjustment
period to help them get up to speed on company procedures and policies.
Mentoring also provides the worker with a leader he can turn to with questions. Companies
can align the goals of the business with a mentoring program to gain a competitive edge. For
example, the mentoring program can target new employees in product development when the
goal of the organization is to bring new products to the market. Developing employees in
weak areas of the company can also benefit the business’s organizational goals.
Here are three examples of coaching/mentoring:
Hire professional coaches for managers
Set up a formal mentoring program between senior and junior managers
Implement less formal coaching/mentoring to encourage the more experienced
employees to coach the less experienced.
8. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance appraisal is a part of performance management system. Personal appraisal is the
process by which a manager or consultant examines and evaluates an employee's work
behavior by comparing it with preset standards, documents the results of the comparison, and
uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed
Performance appraisals are employed to determine who needs what training, and who will be
promoted, demoted, retained, or fired. Normally performance appraisal is an exercise which
typically done once a year to identify and discuss job-relevant strengths and weakness of
individuals or work teams of an organization. On other hand, performance appraisal is
evaluating an employee’s past and current performance relative to his or her performance
Methods of Performance Appraisal
8.1 360-Degree Evaluation
360-degree evaluation is a personal appraisal method that involves evaluation input from
multiple levels within the firms as well as external sources. In a 360-degree appraisal, a staff
member's work for a specific period of time, often a year is discussed and critiqued by other
employees. The 360-degree process is different, in that it obtains feedback from co-workers
and subordinates, instead of just from the direct supervisor. 360-degree feedback allows you
to use multiple raters such as supervisors, peers, direct reports, subordinates and external
raters (clients or vendors) to leave feedback on an employee.
The feedback is often used as a benchmark within the employee’s development plan. In a
team-focused atmosphere, 360-degree feedback surveys can be very effective. It lets the
employee know how his/her team members view the effectiveness of their performance. It is
important that the feedback remain anonymous to the person who was rated. If employees are
allowed to see the comments and ratings and who left them, feelings of resentment can arise
along with tension among the employee and the raters.
If you plan to implement the 360-degree feedback process, make sure that you have a
strong performance management system in place before doing so. 360-degree feedback and
performance reviews are often used in conjunction with one another to form a powerful one-
two punch for employee coaching and development.
There are a few Advantages of 360-degree:
One of the most important benefits to an employee receiving 360-degree feedback is
increased self-awareness. Participants are given a complete report that includes their
strengths and areas for improvement. This gives the employee insight into their
behavior and into how they are perceived by others in the organization. A deeper
understanding is reached when the individual compares their self-assessment with
those of the raters.
360 feedback reviews are useful to the employee as they provide a well-rounded and
balanced view of their skills and behaviors. In this model, feedback isn’t just given
from the individual’s supervisor but from a variety of people in the organization. This
provides a fair and more accurate picture of the employee’s demonstrated behavior.
360 reviews are the key to identifying employee strengths. Unearthing strengths is
important for acknowledgement and also for personal improvement. Identifying
strength in a particular company allows for the creation of a tailored development and
training plan. An employee may exhibit strength in an area and when given additional
development will excel. Developing strengths is important for an employee’s career
growth and for the company’s effectiveness.
But there is also have the disadvantages of 360-degree:
This point is entitled ‘inadequate’ as there are many ways in which feedback can be
inadequate. As with all reviews, there is a chance that the feedback might have been
filtered or edited in some way and therefore isn’t 100% honest. This can happen often
as Managers will ask to receive (or be able to access) all feedback, even if it is not
directed towards them. This can result in people being less frank because they are
aware their manager might read it. Additionally, people often misunderstand the
purpose of the 360-degree feedback exercises. The aim of feedback is to be
constructive, not personal.
If a manager does not get on-board with, or is not enthusiastic about a 360-degree
feedback program, it is unlikely that it would be successfully implemented. Whatever
the boss gives importance to, gets the attention of his/her subordinates. 360 data are
only helpful if it gets acted upon and used. A main reason for the failure of 360
programs is that feedback is given, but then swiftly forgotten. If no plan to implement
the feedback is made there is no change in behavior, and the feedback is redundant.
Too often the priority for managers using a 360 program is to uncover their
employees’ weaknesses. While, this is intended to be a consequence of use, there
should be more of an emphasis on praise and positive feedback. If 360 programmers
are used only to highlight negative aspects of an employee’s work, it is likely that the
employee will foster a negative attitude towards the feedback culture, and then
ultimately disengage from it. This leads on to the final disadvantage that there are not
enough participants in the 360-feedback process.
8.2 Narrative Essay
The simplest type of absolute rating system is the narrative essay, in which a rater describes,
in writing, an employee’s strengths, weakness and potential together with suggestions for
improvement. If essays are done well, they can provide detailed feedback to subordinates
regarding their performance. Essay performance appraisals are for use in addressing
performance factors in the most comprehensive manner possible. Managers who write essays
about employee performance assess virtually every aspect of the employee performance.
Essays include performance assessments concerning job knowledge and proficiency,
developmental activities, interpersonal communication and business ethics and philosophy.
The narrative method is exceedingly flexible. A narrative can be about almost anything and
can be written on a supplied form, typed into a computer, or just written longhand. It can be
composed of one single general narrative or it can be structured using pre-designated
categories. For example, a narrative form might include categories like “Punctuality and
Attendance,” “Interaction with Customers,” and “Sales Success” or use any categories
relevant to a particular employee’s work. The narrative can be structured in almost any way,
with many categories or very few.
Narratives can also include some basic rating elements, so the information recorded can be
summarized. It’s not uncommon for a narrative to contain an overall summary section, which
requires the narrator to indicate whether the person’s overall performance is in need of
improvement, satisfactory, or excellent. Those ratings, however, are not the focus of the
process. The narrative is the focus. The narrative method is exceedingly flexible. A narrative
can be about almost anything and can be written on a supplied form, typed into a computer,
or just written longhand.
It can be composed of one single general narrative or it can be structured using pre-
designated categories. A more productive way is for organization and the employee to
prepare for the review meeting by making notes and jotting down phrases that describe the
employee’s performance. Those notes become the basis for the review discussion. During
that discussion, we have to work with the employee to draft a narrative that the entire
employees feel is accurate, fair, and useful.
There are a few advantages of narrative essay:
The essay method is far less structured and confining than the rating scale method. It
permits the appraiser to examine almost any relevant issue or attribute of
This contrasts sharply with methods where the appraisal criteria are rigidly defined.
Appraisers may place whatever degree of emphasis on issues or attributes that they
The process is open-ended and very flexible. The appraiser is not locked into an
appraisal system the limits expression or assumes that employee traits can be neatly
dissected and scaled.
But there are also have disadvantages of narrative essay:
Essay methods are time-consuming and difficult to administer.
Appraisers often find the essay technique more demanding than methods such as
The techniques greatest advantage - freedom of expression - is also its greatest
handicap. The varying writing skills of appraisers can upset and distort the whole
The process is subjective and, in consequence, it is difficult to compare and contrast
the results of individuals or to draw any broad conclusions about organizational
9. COMPENSATION & BENEFITS
Compensation refers to this exchange, but in monetary terms. Compensation is the employer's
feedback for an employee's work. In the book Human Resource Management, Gary Dessler
defines compensation in these words "Employee compensation refers to all forms of pay going to
employees and arising from their employment." Employees today are not willing to work only
for the cash alone, they expect extra. This extra is known as employee benefits. It is also known
as fringe benefits. Compensation is a systematic approach to providing monetary value to
employees in exchange for work performed. To some extent, the availability and cost of
qualified applicants for open positions is determined by market factors beyond the control of the
While an employer may set compensation levels for new hires and advertise those salary ranges,
it does so in the context of other employers seeking to hire from the same applicant pool. Morale
and job satisfaction are affected by compensation. Often there is a balance (equity) that must be
reached between the monetary value the employer is willing to pay and the sentiments of worth
felt be the employee. In an attempt to save money, employers may opt to freeze salaries or salary
levels at the expanse of satisfaction and morale. Conversely, an employer wishing to reduce
employee turnover may seek to increase salaries and salary levels. Compensation may also be
used as a reward for exceptional job performance. Examples of such plans include: bonuses,
commissions, stock, and profit sharing, gain sharing.
Methods of Compensation and Benefit
This type of wage is customarily a set sum of remuneration over a defined period of time.
Salaries are the most commonly used tool to pay professional or licensed employees. In
general, there is an expectation from the employer of a longer-term commitment from the
employee for providing a regular uninterrupted compensation stream via a salary. When
determining what your organization will pay for wages and salaries, it is important to
understand the economic conditions of the region in which you function, the volume of
potential employees and the legislative requirements in place.
When determining what to pay, first consideration is placement of the role organizationally
which can be determined through job evaluation/classification. The second consideration is
the job relevant skills and experience the applicant possesses which may impact their
placement in the salary range upon hire. They are many situations in which you will be faced
with deciding what to pay an employee.
A new hire
An existing employee due for an increase
An existing employee moving into a new role
A valuable employee who is considering leaving because of compensation
Determining base pay is directly linked to your compensation philosophy. Having a clear
understanding of what role the position plays in the organization, including the complexity of
the required responsibilities and tasks, is factored into the equation along with data on market
and sector comparatives. Organizations that take the time to ensure they have factored in all
of the following components will be more effective in managing their competitiveness
externally as well as their consistency and credibility internally. A number of levels may
exist for a role or types of roles linked together, and for each, a dollar value would be
associated. Creation of pay structures are based on internal and/or external data.
The most basic salary structure is one in which each job class is a level with a single salary
for all incumbents within the level. This is seen as somewhat limited as employees (or
potential employees) come with a variety of experience and skills and therefore should not all
be compensated at the same rate. An alternative to the basic salary structure is to incorporate
salary ranges for each of the different job levels. Placement in the range is based on
established criteria outlining experience, skill, potential and fit. The scale is usually created
by evaluating the market comparative data however, the placement of the person in the salary
range is usually based on their skill and ability against other employees in the same role.
There is a wide variety of benefits offered to employees such as Paid Time-Off (PTO), various
types of insurance (such as life, medical, dental, and disability), participation in a retirement plan
(such as pension or 401(k)), or access to a company car, among others. Some benefits are
mandatory which are regulated by the government while others are voluntarily offered to fulfill
the need of a specific employee population. Benefit plans are typically not provided in cash but
form the basis of an employees' pay package along with base salary and bonus.
In the United States, "qualified" employee benefit plans must be offered to all employees, while
"non-qualified" benefit plans may be offered to a select group such as executives or other highly-
paid employees. When implementing a benefit plan, HR Departments must ensure compliance
with federal and state regulations. Many states and countries dictate different minimum benefits
such as minimum paid time-off, employer’s pension contribution, sick pay, among others.
9.2 Health insurance
Health insurance is the foundation of a comprehensive benefits package for employees. It is
the preferred benefit of the majority of people who work. Health insurance marks an
employer as an employer of choice when desirable candidates select job opportunities.
Health insurance is an insurance policy that will pay specified amounts of money to cover
medical expenses or treatments. Employer-provided health insurance policies, also known as
group health insurance policies, offer employees many different options for insurance
coverage. Employer-provided policies vary in their approaches to coverage
According to Healthinsurance.org, of the Americans who have health coverage, nearly 60%
obtain their coverage through an employer-sponsored plan. In these group health plans, the
employer pays the premium, or the lion's share of the premium, that covers a wide range of
health care expenses that vary by policy. Generally, group health insurance plans cover the
cost of medical office visits for illness and checkups, hospitalization, emergency room
services, ambulance transportation, operations, physical therapy, and even prescription drugs,
to provide several examples of potentially covered health care services.
But, every plan is different and it behooves an employee to become familiar with the details
of his or her employer's plan before the benefit is needed. In recent years, because of health
care cost increases, employees are paying an increased percentage of the cost of their health
insurance premiums, usually through a payroll deduction. Some plans cover the employee
who must pay the cost of insuring family members. Additionally, almost every plan have a
co-payment (co-pay) responsibility in which the employee pays a nominal fee to cover a
portion of the health care service provided, usually ranging from $10-40.00.
In addition to reducing the cost of health care coverage for employees, the second advantage
of an employer-sponsored plan is that they offer guaranteed coverage; the insurance company
must cover all applicants whose employment qualifies them for coverage. Typically,
employer-sponsored plans can include a range of plan options. From health maintenance
organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs) to plans that provide
additional coverage such as dental insurance, life insurance, short-term disability insurance,
and long-term disability insurance, employer-sponsored health plans can be comprehensive
to meet the insurance needs of employees.
There is an advantages in Human Resources Management systems which is it helps evaluate
human resource policies. The premise of strategic HRM is that the company's policies and
procedures related to employees should fit into the organization's broader strategic plan.
Developing these links between HR and strategy has the distinct advantage of helping the
organization to evaluate its current HR policies and to replace outdated or inefficient policies
with ones that promote a better workplace environment and employee relations. As the
company evaluates its HR policies, it can use the strategic plan's aims and objectives to
evaluate each HR process. Those that fall out of the strategic vision can be reformulated or
discarded in favor of better ones. Another advantage is team building. Strategic HRM also
helps to foster a sense of team spirit and camaraderie within the organization. A company's
strategic vision will ideally rely on input from a broad range of stakeholders including
managers, employees, customers and investors. Creating an HR strategy that aligns with this
sense of open communication can have the major benefit of helping stakeholders feel like
their opinions are valued and meaningful to the company's owners and executives.
There is also a disadvantage of Human Resource Management system besides of advantages
which is related to employee privacy. Our employees entrust us with personal information.
Everything from Social Security numbers to private health information and marital status
gets stored in your HR management system. Several layers of management may have access
to that information. In addition, a non-management employee may engage in identity theft
and access a fellow employee's sensitive data. Such a breach of security with our
management system can embroil us in legal problems and create poor employee relations.
Other than that, difficulty of analysis is also the one of the disadvantages of HRM. Our
system can contain so much data that we may find it difficult to analyze. We may need a
separate analysis system just to sort the data into meaningful chunks. For example, if we
want to analyze employee turnover in relation to levels of compensation and our system is
not sophisticated enough, we may have difficulty generating reports that identify patterns.
This could require the help of advanced software outside of our HR management system,
which means additional expense.
Prosthodontists are experts in the restoration and replacement of teeth - they make smiles look
beautiful and function the way they should. After completing four years of dental school,
Prosthodontists receive an extra three years of specialized training in an American Dental
Association (ADA) accredited graduate program. Prosthodontics is one of the nine dental
specialties recognized by the ADA. Many like to think of Prosthodontists as the "quarterback"
of a dental treatment plan. They regularly lead teams of general dentists, specialists, and other
health professionals to develop solutions for your dental needs. If we are loss our natural teeth,
whether in an accident or as part of the aging process, can be traumatic and affect our outlook on
Simple pleasures is like smiling or going out to eat will become a source of stress or
embarrassment. With the help of a prosthodontist, there are many options, if we have lost some
or all our teeth. Crowns, bridges, and full or partial dentures are just some of the procedures that
can help us regain our smile and improve our appearance and self-confidence. Another option
is dental implants, a more permanent solution that has improved greatly over the last ten years; it
should be thanks to the pioneering techniques of prosthodontists. Whether we need to replace
one tooth or many, a prosthodontist will work with us through every step of dental implant
treatment, from an initial consultation through follow-up care. Prosthodontists are trained to
manage the most complex dental restorations.
From patients requiring rehabilitation after a traumatic injury to creating new smiles for those
born with genetic facial deficits, prosthodontists have the special skills needed to restore smiles
to the best they can be. A healthy smile has a significant impact on self-esteem. If you are like
many Americans and are unhappy about the "look" of your smile, you may want to consult a
prosthodontist. With their advanced training, prosthodontists can improve your appearance by
fixing broken, discolored or misshapen teeth and associated structures. Some of the procedures
that can improve your smile are:
Placing complete ceramic esthetic crowns or "caps" onto teeth
Placing veneers onto teeth to conceal defects
Using bonding technology on a tooth's surface to change its shape or to close
Bleaching discolored teeth to brighten and whiten a smile.
2 JOB DESCRIPTION
i. Measure and take impressions of patients' jaws and teeth to determine the shape and size of
dental prostheses, using face bows, dental articulators, recording devices, and other materials.
Measure the physical or physiological attributes of patients
ii. Replace missing teeth and associated oral structures with permanent fixtures, such as
implant-supported prostheses, crowns and bridges, or removable fixtures, such as dentures.
Adjust dental devices or appliances to ensure fit.
iii. Design and fabricate dental prostheses, or supervise dental technicians and laboratory bench
workers who construct the devices.
Design medical devices or appliances.
iv. Fit prostheses to patients, making any necessary adjustments and modifications.
Adjust prostheses or other assistive devices.
v. Restore function and aesthetics to traumatic injury victims, or to individuals with diseases or
vi. Collaborate with general dentists, specialists, and other health professionals to develop
solutions to dental and oral health concerns.
Collaborate with healthcare professionals to plan or provide treatment.
vii. Repair, reline, or rebase dentures.
Adjust dental devices or appliances to ensure fit.
viii. Place veneers onto teeth to conceal defects.
Treat dental problems or diseases.
ix. Use bonding technology on the surface of the teeth to change tooth shape or to close gaps.
Treat dental problems or diseases.
x. Treat facial pain and jaw joint problems.
Treat dental problems or diseases.
xi. Bleach discolored teeth to brighten and whiten them.
Treat dental problems or diseases.
3 JOB SPECIFICATION
3.1.1 Step 1: Earn a Bachelor's Degree
While dental schools do not require incoming students to have studied any particular major,
students will stand a better chance of getting admitted if they major in a science, such as biology.
Aspiring dental students must take certain undergraduate science classes that are required by the
dental school they plan on attending. These pre-dental courses include biology, physics,
psychology, and English.
3.1.2 Step 2: Take the Dental Admission Test
Students must complete the Dental Admission Test (DAT) at least one year before applying to
dental school. The Dental Admission Test consists of four multiple-choice tests covering natural
sciences, reading comprehension, perceptual skills, and quantitative reasoning. The American
Dental Association (ADA) oversees this test, which is one of the factors that dental schools look
at when choosing which students to admit.
3.1.3 Step 3: Graduate from Dental School
Dental school is a 4-year program where students train to earn a Doctor of Dental Surgery or
Doctor of Dental Medicine degree. Coursework may include craniofacial biology, dental
anatomy, and epidemiology as well as dental materials, mouth disease diagnosis, and
pharmacology. Students in dental school gain clinical experience by working on patients under
the auspices of experienced dentists.
3.1.4 Step 4: Get Licensed
Each state requires a license for dentists. All dentists must pass both parts of the National Board
Dental Examinations. Licensing requirements depend upon the individual states, but typically
include graduating from an accredited dental program and successfully completing written and
clinical tests. In some states, dentists wanting to specialize in a dentistry sub-field must obtain a
license for the specialty.
3.1.5 Step 5: Complete Residency Training
A 3-year, post-doctoral residency program in prosthodontics gives students hands-on experience
in practices including performing oral restoration and dental implant treatment as well as caring
for surgical patients. Prosthodontics residency programs hone clinical and technical skills while
emphasizing diagnostics, anatomy, biostatistics, pathology, oncology, oral prosthetic devices,
and oral biology. In addition to clinical practice, residency programs may include lectures and
3.1.6 Step 6: Obtain Certification
Certification is not necessary for prosthodontists, but many choose to seek this professional
distinction through the American Board of Prosthodontics. Applicants must pass a four-part
examination, including one written test and three oral tests. Prosthodontists must stay updated on
developments in the field in order to get re-certified every eight years. Voluntary certifications
often impress potential employers and may help aspiring prosthodontists with job prospects and
After earning a bachelor's degree in a science, aspiring prosthodontists must complete dental
school and obtain a professional license followed by completion of a 3-year residency program
4.1 Job center
Since the prosthodontist are not a high popularity kind of job, recall back the economy theory the
supply might more than the demand of the job and eventually it will cause increase of
unemployment relate to the job. In here the management will link to the job center who play an
important role with the government to the job recruitment of prosthodontists getting the job or
training them such as American job center website from America.
In Malaysia, also have the same function with Job Street and Job central. American job center is
a platform that offers the education and job opportunity to the candidate who is seeking the job
free to search, and also giving the agencies service to consult with candidates’ enquiry. The
reason is having the job centre can assists the candidates who are looking for the job in the field
of prosthodontist and giving basic information to them in such as the job description of
prosthodontist, salaries, and working hours., hence they able receive the information whether or
not the those candidates matching with the job.
4.2 Job advertisement
A job advertisement is a paid announcement in a newspaper or other medium about a job
vacancy. Job advertisements are created by human resource professionals or external recruitment
agencies working with the managers of departments who need to recruit staff. It means that job
advertisement where is the second place in method of recruitment. A different country might
have different job exist. For example, prosthodontist might often be hired by the development
countries with high technology existence such as American, England, Japan and so on but in
such as countries like Africa and Nigeria might not have such as job vacancies offers.
Thus the management will like to use job advertisement that can be seeing to hiring the
prosthodontists to attract them in many varies attracting ways like TV, Internet, newspaper with
the fascinating workplace, insurance benefit or even transportation as well. The reason is having
job advertisement because the management can attract more candidates not only within the
country but also the foreign labor market and attracting more candidates to apply with the jobs.
This may include elements such as personality, communication and interpersonal skills and other
aptitudes which are not necessarily addressed by standard academic assessments. This is
important for selection to Prosthodontists programme since, while it is likely that medical
graduates fall into a relatively narrow range in terms of cognitive ability and knowledge base (a
range restriction already present at entry to medical school; McManus, 2005), they are likely to
have greater variance in terms of their wider, non-cognitive skills. As well as aptitude to do a
job, selection may also have a role in identifying those likely to stay in a job.
Application forms, interviews and other methods are used together to form a selection profile for
Prosthodontists. In some cases this involves the review and integration of disparate evidence by a
recruitment panel, while in others quantitative data may be integrated by a set formula leading to
explicit ranking. An approach increasing in popularity is the use if “assessment centres”,
whereby a battery of assessments are completed in one place, at one time. Some approaches to
integrate of disparate evidence use complex weighting algorithms to relate retrospective data to
Selection of Prosthodontists should also be sensitive to issues of diversity and equal opportunity.
While for UK graduates many issues are better addressed at the point of selection to medical
school. The Prosthodontists Programme is also open to applicants from overseas and isolation
need to be done to ensure the selection methods is fair and unbiased, in term of gender, ethnicity
or socioeconomic background. Ethnicity was a factor in outcomes on the Membership exam for
the Royal College of General Practitioners. Statistical treatments of retrospective application data
may allow diversity to be addressed without having to resort to explicit “positive
discrimination”. Other strategies may involve training recruitment or admissions staff on non-
cognitive selection methods
6 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
6.1 Clinical program
Employee must be competent at the prosthodontic specialty level in the comprehensive treatment
of clinical conditions associated with missing or deficient teeth and/or oral and maxillofacial
tissues using biocompatible substitutes by achieving clinical competence in the following areas:
Patient assessment, including medical history, dental history, temporomandibular
assessment, extra oral and intraoral examination, radiologic assessment and occlusal
Systemic, infectious and neoplastic disease screening, including patient education for
Risk assessment and prognosis.
Outcomes assessment, and
The Prosthodontists must demonstrate competency in managing and treating a wide scope of
complex clinical conditions for the edentulous, the partially edentulous and the dentate patient.
These competencies include but are not limited to the following:
In the comprehensive application of principles associated with fixed prosthodontics,
removable prosthodontics and implants, as sole providers and as members of a treatment
In the application of evidence-based health care principles.
Regarding principles of ethical decision-making pertaining to academic, research, and
patient care and practice environments.
In the comprehensive application of principles of esthetic dentistry as sole providers and
as members of a treatment team.
In leading and coordinating oral health care with other members of the health care team.
In selection and application of biomaterials recognizing esthetic, biomechanical and
biocompatibility implications of prosthodontic therapies.
In laboratory procedures used in the treatment of edentulous, partially edentulous and
In the prosthodontic management of patients with temporomandibular disorders and/or
Employee must surgically place dental implants.
Employee must have experience with patients requiring maxillofacial prosthetic care
6.2 Advance Training Programme
The institutions supporting the programs are expected to define their own goals and objectives
for preparing individuals for the practice of prosthodontics and that one of the program goals is
to comprehensively prepare competent individuals to initially practice prosthodontics. The
programs must all include instruction in or learning experiences in evidence-based practice.
Evidence-based dentistry is an approach to oral health care that requires the judicious integration
of systematic assessments of clinically relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral
and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment
needs and preferences.
The curriculum is divided into a clinical and didactic portion where at least 30% of the individual
time needs to be dedicated to didactic instruction and research and at least 60% of the program
time is directed at providing patient services (lab and direct patient care). Individual will need to
demonstrate certain competencies within each portion of their programs. Depending on the
subject matter they will need to demonstrate either:
Competency or proficiency: Having the knowledge, skills and values required of the
graduates to begin independent, unsupervised specialty practice.
In-depth knowledge: Characterized by thorough knowledge of concepts and theories
for the purpose of critical analysis and synthesis. Or,
Understanding of: Knowledge and recognition of the principles and procedures
involved in a particular concept or activity.
7 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
7.1 360-Degrees Evaluation
A manager can Offer a more comprehensive view towards the performance of
With this method I can improve my employee’s credibility of performance appraisal.
Such colleague’s feedback will help strengthen self-development.
This method increases responsibilities of employees to their customers.
The mix of ideas can give a more accurate assessment. So that they can boost up their
Not only manager should make assessments on its staff performance but other colleagues
should do too.
People who undervalue themselves are often motivated by feedback from others. It helps
to cheer up the employees to their responsibilities.
If more staff takes part in the process of performance appraisal, the organizational
culture of the company will become more honest.
7.2 Management by Objective (MBO)
The most prevalent outcome approaches are MBO and naturally occurring outcome
MBO is a goal directed approach in which workers and their supervisors set goals
together for the upcoming evaluation period.
Monitoring on the employee’s performance rewards are allocated on the basis of progress
towards the goal.
MBO emphasizes participative set goals that are tangible, verifiable and measurable.
MBO focuses attention on what must be accomplished (goals) rather than how it is to be
MBO, by concentrating on key result areas translates the abstract philosophy of
management into concrete phraseology. The technique can be put to general use
(No specialist technique).
8 COMPENSATION AND BENEFIT
Prosthodontists enjoy a mean pay of $168,140 in the United States and C$187,991 ($139,652
USD) in Canada. For those in the United Kingdom, the mean is £99,499 ($127,687 USD).
Australian prosthodontists garner a mean pay of AU$259,062 ($192,743 USD), while the
average rests at NZD$217,790 ($153,591 USD) in New Zealand. Prosthodontists use crowns,
bridges and other oral prosthetics to remedy missing teeth, parts thereof and other dental defects.
With most self-employed, the number of patients and source of payment are significant factors in
the pay of prosthodontists. Experience and location of practice also contribute to prosthodontists’
In the United States, the median for new prosthodontists is $140,000. Those with five years’
experience make a median of $158,000. Ten years of experience yields a dip to $140,000. At the
twenty-year experience level, the median spikes to $194,000. For Canadian prosthodontists, the
entry-level pay amounts to C$138,463. Senior-level prosthodontists achieve salaries of
C$235,999. Prosthodontists in the United Kingdom start as “NHS dental trainees,”
making between £36,000 and £45,750. “Experienced dentists” in the National Health Service
earn from £38,500 to £82,500. As a consultant in the NHS, a prosthodontist can make up to
£102,500. According to Salary Expert, entry-level prosthodontists are paid £73,279 and those
who achieve “senior” status can earn £124,898.
One to three years’ experience affords prosthodontists in Australia a mean pay of AU$191,120.
Earnings ascend to AU$325,749 with at least eight years of practice. Entry-level prosthodontists
in New Zealand make on average NZD$160,544 and those who reach eight years of experience
take in NZD$273,635. With prosthodontists generally running their own practices, the type of
health care system influences much of the pay. In the United States, these specialists can
generally set their own rates and determine the number of patients they treat.
In the United Kingdom, self-employed prosthodontists can maintain contract with the National
Health Service or treat patients outside the system. Prosthodontists in the United Kingdom’s
National Health Service work as specialist dentists and receive pay between £76,761 and
£103,490.District Boards of Health in New Zealand pay dental specialists between
NZD$150,000 and NZD$212,000. Earnings can climb higher for those in private practices.
Prosthodontists in the United States garner bonuses of $16,250. Those in Canada receive on
average C$7,144. Bonuses approach £3,781 in the United Kingdom, AU$9,844 in Australia and
NZD$8,276. Depending on location and employer, bases for bonuses include a willingness to
locate in particular areas, performance and number of patients seen.
Prosthodontics is a unique specialty that offers numerous advantages and disadvantages for
application of principles of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). The advantage of Prosthodontist is
better aesthetics. Prosthodontists are the best dental prosthesis available in the market if
aesthetics is considered. It gives us natural tooth like appearance due to its feature of being
embedded into the alveolar bone like a natural tooth which has roots for the same purpose for
aesthetic reasons Prosthodontists can be used in place of Anterior Central Incisors and also for
strength can be used in the posterior region on Molars because of their property of sustaining
sufficient forces seen in the posterior region of the mouth. Another advantage is better strength
which Prosthodontists are known to have the best strength of all the dental prosthesis available at
the moment. Due to this superior property, Prosthodontists can be used in the Anterior tooth as
well as the posterior tooth.
There is a few of Prosthodontists disadvantage besides the advantage. In which is damage to
tooth and pulp in preparing teeth as bridge attachments, it may be necessary to remove certain
amount of healthy tooth tissue. Whenever a tooth is prepared, there is a danger to the pulp, even
if proper precautions are followed. Other than that is complex clinical procedure. Prosthodontists
placement is a complex procedure compared to either bridges or fixed partial dentures, these are
technique sensitive procedures which require proper skill in diagnosis and deciding the treatment
plan. The treatment requires multiple visits.