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Chapter 3 artificial intelligence

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Chapter 3 artificial intelligence

  1. 1. Artificial intelligence (AI)
  2. 2. Artificial intelligence  Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines.  unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals, which involves consciousness and emotionality.  Artificial intelligence is of two words one is Artificial and second is intelligence , artificial means manmade and intelligence means the capacity of thinking, So we can define the artificial intelligence the branch of computer science by which we can develop intelligent machines who can behave like human, think like human and make decisions as per the logic program in memory.  AI refers to the similarity of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and copy their steps. This term is mainly use to solve the problem like human being. AI is a method in which we program the machine to work like a human example, driving cars etc.  Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a computer or computer- controlled robot to complete the tasks mainly associated with intelligent beings.
  3. 3. Need for Artificial Intelligence  It might be easier to state what part of our modern society artificial intelligence (AI) hasn’t touched to show how important it is to our daily lives, business operations and society. Intelligence machines are influencing nearly every facet of our lives to help improve efficiencies and augment our human capabilities. AI is so intertwined in all that we do; it's hard to imagine living life without it.  AI is a central tenet for the disruptive changes of the 4th Industrial Revolution; a revolution that will likely challenge our ideas about what it means to be a human and just might be more transformative than any other industrial revolution we have seen yet.
  4. 4. Advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence  Advantages: By using Artificial intelligence human works can be reduce, by replacing peoples by machines, people can do others works.  programming , self-writing , self modifying etc by these works man feels burden on humans.  The artificial intelligence is like a cheap labor, and by using this labor our work will be fast and the profit will be increased.  Artificial intelligence can be deployed easily.  Machines not required refreshments and breaks as like human beings.  The machines can be re-programmed for work for long time without getting bored or getting tired.  The science of robotics and artificial intelligence can be deploy into mining and other fuel exploration process by this we can save human life because human can make new robots but we cant make that human.  Artificial intelligence can be deployed at industries and companies.
  5. 5. Advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence  The “human error” this phrase was born because humans are mistaking from time to time. Computers, however, don't make these mistakes if they're programmed properly. With AI , the choices are taken from the previously gathered information applying a particular set of algorithms. So errors are reduced and therefore the chance of reaching accuracy with a greater degree of precision may be a possibility.  In our day-to-day work, we'll be performing many repetitive works like sending a thanking mail, verifying certain documents for errors and lots of more things. Using AI we'll productively automate these mundane tasks and should even remove “boring” tasks for humans and free them up to be increasingly creative.
  6. 6. Advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence  Disadvantages:  Not easy to develop the machines because the equipment are also expensive.  Can cost tons of cash and time to create , rebuild, and repair. Robotic repair can occur to scale back time and humans wanting to fix it, but that'll cost extra money and resources.  Robots, with them replacing jobs, can cause severe unemployment, unless if humans can fix the unemployment  with jobs AI can't do or severely change the govt to communism.  Machines can easily cause destruction, if put within the incorrect hands. That is, a minimum of a fear of the various humans.  AI is making humans lazy with its applications automating the bulk of the work. Humans tend to urge hooked into these inventions which may cause a drag to future generations.  As AI is replacing the majority of the repetitive tasks and other works with robots, human interference is becoming less which may cause a significant problem within the utilization standards. Every organization is looking to exchange the minimum qualified individuals with AI robots which may do similar work with more efficiency.
  7. 7. Advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence  There is little question that machines are far better when it involves working efficiently but they can't replace the human connection that creates the team. Machines cannot develop a bond with humans which is an important attribute when involves Team Management.  Machines can perform only those tasks which they're designed or programmed to try to , anything out of that they have a tendency to crash or give irrelevant outputs which might be a serious backdrop.
  8. 8. History of AI
  9. 9. Levels of AI  Furthermore, based on the level of intelligence exhibited by a machine AI can be categorized into three different levels. As per the theoretical aspects, AI is categorized into the following levels: 1. Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) 2. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) 3. Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
  10. 10. Levels of AI  Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) Artificial Narrow intelligence is also referred to as weak AI. These are the AI-based systems trained for performing a single narrow task. These machines have narrow capabilities restricted to certain specific tasks. These are the exclusive AI-based solutions available today. Most of the machines currently work on Narrow AI. Chatbots and virtual assistants are all based on machine intelligence with natural language processing capabilities (NLP). By recognizing human speech these machines are trained to converse with human beings using a natural and a personalized way. Narrow AI machines are today being used for diagnosing cancer and treating other related illnesses. These machines have precision and cognition similar to that of humans and are able to accord medical professionals an improved accuracy.  Examples  – Machines for Speech Recognition. – Machines that only work on voice commands to perform certain actions, such as Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana.
  11. 11. Levels of AI  Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) machines exhibit generalized cognitive abilities of human beings. This type of AI is competent enough to work like humans. Currently, AGI is still at a nascent stage. Apart from exhibiting human-like capabilities, these machines will be far better when it comes to intensive calculations. Combining human intelligence along with advantages that machines have over humans, AGI will be able to serve the perfect purpose. However, the technology will take time to arrive as these machines would be based on human brain functionality which is yet to be studied comprehensively. Moreover, the capabilities of AGI systems would be boosted to a level beyond human abilities so that they become competent to process data at an incredible speed. Some of the properties of AGI machines include: Recognition, Recall, Hypothesis testing, Imagination, Analogy, Implication.  Examples – AlphaGo, a computer program for playing board game Go. The intelligence of this machine can be extended to be applied to other fields.
  12. 12. Levels of AI  Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) commonly known as super-intelligence is a thing of the future. Currently, it is a hypothetical concept believed to surpass human intelligence. ASI technology is likely to remove the distinction between human intelligence and machines. ASI machines will be able to perform extraordinary things that only humans are capable of. They will be competent in decision making, art, and even emotional relationships. In fact, ASI machines will surpass the level of intelligence shown by human beings. However, some believe that humans have not yet achieved proficiency in emotional relationships and effective decision making. Thus, it can be said that in the next few years artificial super intelligence will excel in areas where humans have become unsuccessful.
  13. 13. Types of AI  Reactive Machines These are the oldest forms of AI systems that have extremely limited capability. They emulate the human mind’s ability to respond to different kinds of stimuli. These machines do not have memory-based functionality. This means such machines cannot use previously gained experiences to inform their present actions, i.e., these machines do not have the ability to “learn.” These machines could only be used for automatically responding to a limited set or combination of inputs. They cannot be used to rely on memory to improve their operations based on the same. A popular example of a reactive AI machine is IBM’s Deep Blue, a machine that beat chess Grandmaster Garry Kasparov in 1997.
  14. 14. Types of AI  Limited Memory Limited memory machines are machines that, in addition to having the capabilities of purely reactive machines, are also capable of learning from historical data to make decisions. Nearly all existing applications that we know of come under this category of AI. All present-day AI systems, such as those using deep learning, are trained by large volumes of training data that they store in their memory to form a reference model for solving future problems. For instance, an image recognition AI is trained using thousands of pictures and their labels to teach it to name objects it scans. When an image is scanned by such an AI, it uses the training images as references to understand the contents of the image presented to it, and based on its “learning experience” it labels new images with increasing accuracy. Almost all present-day AI applications, from chatbots and virtual assistants to self-driving vehicles are all driven by limited memory AI.
  15. 15. Types of AI  Theory of Mind While the previous two types of AI have been and are found in abundance, the next two types of AI exist, for now, either as a concept or a work in progress. Theory of mind AI is the next level of AI systems that researchers are currently engaged in innovating. A theory of mind level AI will be able to better understand the entities it is interacting with by discerning their needs, emotions, beliefs, and thought processes. While artificial emotional intelligence is already a budding industry and an area of interest for leading AI researchers, achieving Theory of mind level of AI will require development in other branches of AI as well. This is because to truly understand human needs, AI machines will have to perceive humans as individuals whose minds can be shaped by multiple factors, essentially “understanding” humans.
  16. 16. Types of AI  Self-aware This is the final stage of AI development which currently exists only hypothetically. Self-aware AI, which, self explanatorily, is an AI that has evolved to be so akin to the human brain that it has developed self-awareness. Creating this type of Ai, which is decades, if not centuries away from materializing, is and will always be the ultimate objective of all AI research. This type of AI will not only be able to understand and evoke emotions in those it interacts with, but also have emotions, needs, beliefs, and potentially desires of its own. And this is the type of AI that doomsayers of the technology are wary of. Although the development of self-aware can potentially boost our progress as a civilization by leaps and bounds, it can also potentially lead to catastrophe. This is because once self-aware, the AI would be capable of having ideas like self-preservation which may directly or indirectly spell the end for humanity, as such an entity could easily outmaneuver the intellect of any human being and plot elaborate schemes to take over humanity. The alternate system of classification that is more generally used in tech parlance is the classification of the technology into Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), and Artificial Superintelligence (ASI).
  17. 17. Influences of artificial intelligence  Everyday Influences of Artificial Intelligence  Many everyday influences of artificial intelligence are altering the way our daily lives look. If someone from the 1950s travelled through time and arrived in 2019, they would marvel at the way we use our smartphones to navigate around town, how virtual digital assistants such as Alexa and Cortana respond to our queries and would be baffled by our addiction to social media channels such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. What is now normal to us and powered by AI, would be utterly foreign to our friend from the past. There's no doubt that artificial intelligence is an integral part of our daily lives.  Our financial institutions, legal institutions, media companies and insurance companies are all figuring out ways to use artificial intelligence to their advantage. From fraud detection to writing news storeys with natural language processing and reviewing law briefs, AI’s reach is extensive.
  18. 18. Influences of artificial intelligence  Artificial Intelligence Influences Business  As business leaders and innovators race to reach the promise of artificial intelligence to deliver a competitive advantage as well as cost and time savings, the technology is altering industries from finance to manufacturing with new products, processes and capabilities.  Companies such as 150-year-old Heineken are using AI, the vast amount of data they collect and the Internet of Things to drive marketing decisions and initiatives, improve operations and customer service. From managing global supply chains to optimising delivery routes, artificial intelligence is helping companies of all sizes and in all industries improve productivity and the bottom line at every stage of the business lifecycle from sourcing material to sales and accounting to customer service. It's allowing companies to design, produce and deliver products and service better than ever before.
  19. 19. Applications of AI  AI In Marketing  AI In Banking  AI In Finance  AI In Agriculture  AI In HealthCare  AI In Gaming  AI In Space Exploration  AI In Autonomous Vehicles  AI In Chatbots  AI In Artificial Creativity
  20. 20. AI tools and platforms/frameworks  has facilitated the processing of a large amount of data and its use in the industry. The number of tools and frameworks available to data scientists and developers has increased with the growth of AI and ML. This article on Artificial Intelligence Tools & Frameworks will list out some of these in the following sequence:  https://www.edureka.co/blog/top-12-artificial-intelligence-tools/  Scikit Learn  TensorFlow  Theano  Caffe  MxNet  Keras  PyTorch  CNTK  Auto ML  OpenNN  H20: Open Source AI Platform  Google ML Kit
  21. 21. Sample of AI application  Manufacturing robots  Self-driving cars  Smart assistants  Proactive healthcare management  Disease mapping  Automated financial investing  Virtual travel booking agent  Social media monitoring  Inter-team chat tool  Conversational marketing bot  Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools
  22. 22. References  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence  https://bernardmarr.com/default.asp?contentID=1829  Mr. Sachin Bhbosale1, Mr. Vinayak Pujari2,Mr. Zameer Multani3 “Advantages And Disadvantages Of Artificial Intellegence,” National Seminar on “Trends in Geography, Commerce, IT And Sustainable Development”, Organizer :- I. C. S. College, Khed  https://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/history-artificial-intelligence/  https://newgenapps.com/blog/3-levels-of-artificial-intelligence/  https://www.forbes.com/sites/cognitiveworld/2019/06/19/7-types-of-artificial- intelligence/?sh=270693ff233e  https://www.edureka.co/blog/artificial-intelligence-applications/  https://builtin.com/artificial-intelligence/examples-ai-in-industry

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