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Theories of Ethics and Morals.pptx

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Sofia Mehta student of
BVJMM 2nd Semester of #JIMSVKII has shared about the Theories of Ethics and Morals in Media.

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Sofia Mehta student of
BVJMM 2nd Semester of #JIMSVKII has shared about the Theories of Ethics and Morals in Media.

For More Query Call us on 09990474829, 011 61199191
Visit us at https://www.jimssouthdelhi.com/
Follow us on:
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/JIMSVASANTKUNJII/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/jimsljptweets
Instagram : : https://www.instagram.com/jims_vk2/?hl=en
YouTube : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZgioa2rpculDY7bHlljD6g
Blog: https://jimssouthdelhi.com/blog/
Linked In: https://www.linkedin.com/in/jims-vasant-kunj-38785a85/

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Theories of Ethics and Morals.pptx

  1. 1. Jagannath Institute of Management Sciences Vasant Kunj-II, New Delhi - 110070 Subject Name: Presentation Department of Journalism and Mass Communication Created By: Sofia Mehta
  2. 2. Subject: Presentation Topic: Theories of Ethics and Morals
  3. 3. Topic to be covered 1.General Approach ▰ Ethics and Morals ▰ Theories of Ethics and Morals 2.Journalistic Approach ▰ Journalists: The Eyes of Mankind ▰ Principles of journalism ▰ Introduction to Ethical Journalism ▰ Ethics of journalism ▰ Conclusion
  4. 4. General Approach
  5. 5. Ethics And Morals ▰ Ethics and morals relate to “right” and “wrong” conduct. While they are sometimes used interchangeably, they are different: ethics refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions. Morals refer to an individual’s own principles regarding right and wrong. ▰ Ethics are external standards that are provided by institutions, groups, or culture to which an individual belongs. For example, lawyers, policemen, and doctors all have to follow an ethical code laid down by their profession, regardless of their own feelings or preferences. Ethics can also be considered a social system or a framework for acceptable behaviour. ▰ Morals are also influenced by culture or society, but they are personal principles created and upheld by individuals themselves.
  6. 6. Title (Meaning of dajdhi) ▰ One professional example of ethics conflicting with morals is the work of a defence attorney. A lawyer’s morals may tell her that murder is reprehensible and that murderers should be punished, but her ethics as a professional lawyer require her to defend her client to the best of her abilities, even if she knows that the client is guilty. ▰ Ethics are very consistent within a certain context, but can vary greatly between contexts. ▰ One professional example to understand the difference is a rapist going to the doctor, even though a doctor might not want to treat the rapist according to his moral but his professional entity and code of conduct says otherwise so he has to treat him despite his personal opinions. . ▰ An individual’s moral code is usually unchanging and consistent across all contexts, but it is also possible for certain events to radically change an individual's personal beliefs and values.
  7. 7. Theories of Ethics 1. Utilitarian Ethics The first ethical system in normative ethics, utilitarianism, is often equated with the concept of “the greatest good for the greatest number”. The application of this theory is based on making a decision based on what will benefit the majority. The cons of the utilitarian theory: Con: decision-makers are forced to guess the outcome of their choice. Con: harming a minority and benefitting majority doesn't build mutually beneficial relationships. Con: it is not always possible to predict the outcome of a decision.
  8. 8. 2. Deontological Ethics The idea is that “human beings should be treated with dignity and respect because they have rights”. Put another way, it could be argued that in deontological ethics “people have a duty to respect other people’s rights and treat them accordingly.” The core concept behind this is that there are objective obligations, or duties, that are required of all people. When faced with an ethical situation, then, the process is simply one of identifying one’s duty and making the appropriate decision. Con: there may be disagreement about the principles involved in the decision. Con: the possibility of making a "right" choice with bad consequence. Con: the possibility of a conflict in duties.
  9. 9. 9 3.Virtue Ethics The consideration in virtue ethics is essentially “what makes a good person”. Virtue ethics require the decision-maker to understand what virtues are good for public relations and then decisions are made in light of those particular virtues. For example, if the virtue of honesty is the of utmost importance to a good public relations professional, then all decisions should be made ethically to ensure honesty is preserved. The cons of the Virtue theory: Con: Misses the importance obligations to client and publics. Con: The possibility of a conflict in virtues.
  10. 10. Journalistic Approach 10
  11. 11. Journalists: The Eyes of MANKIND ▰ A true journalist must identify and explain conflicting viewpoints and present before readers all available views to enable the reader to form his own opinion based on his judgment and understanding. ▰ The presentation of views must be unbiased. This is a difficult task since there is keen competition among newspapers and the pressure from broadcast journalism requires a high development of skills, perception and judgment. New technologies, the opening of the internet and the wide employment of computers, have made the dissemination of news instantaneous. ▰ Since it is not possible for newspapers to catch up with television coverage of important news, it could seek to provide more in-depth reportage of the incident. Processes of production of television programs have become more efficient and sophisticated with the employment of computers, the video display terminal, the photo composition equipment and offset printing. Journalists have become communicators, shaping the views and outlook of society as a whole and wielding the power to mold public opinion.
  12. 12. Principles of Journalism 1.Journalism's first obligation is to the truth Democracy depends on citizens having reliable, accurate facts put in a meaningful context. Journalism does not pursue truth in an absolute or philosophical sense, but it can--and must-- pursue it in a practical sense. This "journalistic truth" is a process that begins with the professional discipline of assembling and verifying facts. Journalists should be as transparent as possible about sources and methods so audiences can make their own assessment of the information. Even in a world of expanding voices, accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built--context, interpretation, comment, criticism, analysis and debate. The truth, over time, emerges from this forum. 2. Its first loyalty is to citizens While news organizations answer too many constituencies, including advertisers and shareholders, the journalists in those organizations must maintain allegiance to citizens and the larger public interest above any other if they are to provide the news without fear or favor.
  13. 13. 3. Its essence is a discipline of verification Journalists rely on a professional discipline for verifying information. When the concept of objectivity originally evolved, it did not imply that journalists are free of bias. It called, rather, for a consistent method of testing information--a transparent approach to evidence--precisely so that personal and cultural biases would not undermine the accuracy of their work. The method is objective, not the journalist. Seeking out multiple witnesses, disclosing as much as possible about sources, or asking various sides for comment, all signal such standards. This discipline of verification is what separates journalism from other modes of communication, such as propaganda, fiction or entertainment. But the need for professional method is not always fully recognized or refined. 4. Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover Independence is an underlying requirement of journalism, a cornerstone of its reliability. Independence of spirit and mind, rather than neutrality, is the principle journalists must keep in focus. While editorialists and commentators are not neutral, the source of their credibility is still their accuracy, intellectual fairness and ability to inform--not their devotion to a certain group or outcome. In our independence, however, we must avoid any tendency to stray into arrogance, elitism, isolation or nihilism.
  14. 14. 14 5. It must serve as an independent monitor of power Journalism has an unusual capacity to serve as watchdog over those whose power and position most affects citizens. The Founders recognized this to be a rampart against despotism when they ensured an independent press; courts have affirmed it; citizens rely on it. As journalists, we have an obligation to protect this watchdog freedom by not demeaning it in frivolous use or exploiting it for commercial gain 6. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise The news media are the common carriers of public discussion, and this responsibility forms a basis for our special privileges. This discussion serves society best when it is informed by facts rather than prejudice and supposition. It also should strive to fairly represent the varied viewpoints and interests in society, and to place them in context rather than highlight only the conflicting fringes of debate. Accuracy and truthfulness require that as framers of the public discussion we not neglect the points of common ground where problem solving occurs.
  15. 15. Golden Rules of Ethical Journalism Members of the Society of Professional Journalists believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. Ethical journalism strives to ensure the free exchange of information that is accurate, fair and thorough. An ethical journalist acts with integrity. The Society declares these four principles as the foundation of ethical journalism and encourages their use in its practice by all people in all media.
  16. 16. 1. Seek Truth and Report It Ethical journalism should be accurate and fair. Journalists should be honest and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information. Journalists should: ▰ Take responsibility for the accuracy of their work. Verify information before releasing it. Use original sources whenever possible. ▰ Remember that neither speed nor format excuses inaccuracy. ▰ Provide context. Take special care not to misrepresent or oversimplify in promoting, previewing or summarizing a story. ▰ Identify sources clearly. The public is entitled to as much information as possible to judge the reliability and motivations of sources. ▰ Diligently seek subjects of news coverage to allow them to respond to criticism or allegations of wrongdoing. . ▰ Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable. Give voice to the voiceless.
  17. 17. 2. Minimize Harm Ethical journalism treats sources, subjects, colleagues and members of the public as human beings deserving of respect. Journalists should: ▰ Balance the public’s need for information against potential harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance or undue intrusiveness. ▰ Show compassion for those who may be affected by news coverage. Use heightened sensitivity when dealing with juveniles, victims of sex crimes, and sources or subjects who are inexperienced or unable to give consent. Consider cultural differences in approach and treatment. ▰ Recognize that legal access to information differs from an ethical justification to publish or broadcast. ▰ Realize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than public figures and others who seek power, influence or attention. Weigh the consequences of publishing or broadcasting personal information. ▰ Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity, even if others do.
  18. 18. 3. Act Independently The highest and primary obligation of ethical journalism is to serve the public. Journalists should: ▰ Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived. Disclose unavoidable conflicts. ▰ Refuse gifts, favors, fees, free travel and special treatment, and avoid political and other outside activities that may compromise integrity or impartiality, or may damage credibility. ▰ Be wary of sources offering information for favors or money; do not pay for access to news. Identify content provided by outside sources, whether paid or not. ▰ Deny favored treatment to advertisers, donors or any other special interests, and resist internal and external pressure to influence coverage.
  19. 19. 4. Be Accountable and Transparent Ethical journalism means taking responsibility for one’s work and explaining one’s decisions to the public. Journalists should: ▰ Explain ethical choices and processes to audiences. Encourage a civil dialogue with the public about journalistic practices, coverage and news content. ▰ Respond quickly to questions about accuracy, clarity and fairness. ▰ Acknowledge mistakes and correct them promptly and prominently. Explain corrections and clarifications carefully and clearly. ▰ Expose unethical conduct in journalism, including within their organizations. ▰ Abide by the same high standards they expect of others
  20. 20. “The ethic of the journalist is to recognize one's prejudices, biases, and avoid getting them into print” Walter Cronkite
  21. 21. Conclusion ▰ Ethics and morals relate to “right” and “wrong” conduct. While they are sometimes used interchangeably, they are different: ethics refer to rules provided by an external source, e.g., codes of conduct in workplaces or principles in religions. Morals refer to an individual’s own principles regarding right and wrong. ▰ In retrospect to the influence of media on public, the need of ethical journalism is heightened by every passing minute. ▰ The responsibility vested in us as professionals is very high and hence the ideals of a good professional incline highly to unbiased decision making and good morals as a person. 21
  22. 22. Thank You !!

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